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Lecture 11 malaria
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Lecture 11 malaria

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  • 1. Health Education- Malaria Miss Chantelle Chaudoin MPH
  • 2. Malaria
    • A serious and sometimes fatal disease caused by a parasite transmitted by a mosquito
    • Patients with malaria are typically very sick with high fever, shaking chills, and flu-like illness
    • Four kinds of malaria parasites can infect humans
      • Plasmodium Falciparum (deadly)
      • Plasmodium Vivax
      • Plasmodium Ovale
      • Plasmodium Malarie
  • 3. Malaria
    • Malaria is typically found in warmer regions of the world. In tropical and subtropical climates.
    • Malaria parasites which grow and develop inside the mosquito need warmth to complete their growth before they are mature enough to be transmitted to humans.
  • 4. Transmission
    • People get bitten by an infected female anopheles mosquito (only anopheles mosquitoes can transmit malaria)
    • When the mosquito bites, a small amount of blood is taken which contains a small amount of microscopic parasites
    • The parasite grows and matures in the mosquito’s gut for about 7 days and then travels to the mosquito’s salivary glands
    • When the mosquito takes its next blood meal, these parasites are mixed with the saliva and injected into the bite
    • Once in the blood of the human the parasites travel to the liver and multiply
    • After 8 days or more the parasites leave the liver and enter red blood cells where they continue to multiply
    • Malaria can be transmitted through blood transfusions, organ transplants, or the shared use of needles or syringes, and to a mother to her fetus before or during delivery
  • 5. Who is at risk for malaria?
    • Anyone can get malaria
    • Most cases occur in residents of countries with malaria transmission and travelers to those countries
    • In non-endemic countries, cases can occur in non-travelers as congenital malaria, introduced malaria, or transfusional malaria
  • 6. Symptoms of Malaria
    • Fever
    • Flu-like illness including: shaking, chills. Headache, muscle ache, and tiredness
    • Nausea, vomiting and diarrhea may also occur.
    • Anemia and jaundice may occur due to the loss of red blood cells
    • Plasmodium falciparum may cause kidney failure, seizures, mental confusion, coma and death
  • 7. Symptoms (cont.)
    • Symptoms begin 10 days to 4 weeks after infection although a person may feel ill as early as 7 days or as late as 1 year later
    • Plasmodium vivax and plasmodium ovale can relapse
    • In plasmodium vivax and plasmodium ovale infections some parasites can remain dormant in the liver for several months for up to 4 years after a person has been bitten by an infected mosquito
    • If an individual has symptoms after traveling in an malaria risk area they should seek medical help immediately
  • 8. Preventing Malaria
    • Keep mosquitoes from biting you especially at night
    • Take anti-malaria drugs to kill the parasites
    • Eliminate places around your home where mosquitoes breed
    • Spray insecticides on your home’s walls to kill adult mosquitoes that come inside
    • Sleep under mosquito nets – especially effective if they have been treated with insecticides
    • Wear insect repellant and long sleeve clothing when outdoors at night
    • Currently there is no vaccine for malaria
  • 9. Questions
    • Which kind of malaria parasite is most deadly?
      • Plasmodium falciparum
      • Plasmodium vivax
      • Plasmodium ovale
      • Plasmodium malariae
  • 10. Questions
    • Malaria is typically found in which climate?
      • Subtropical
      • Tundra
      • Tropical
      • A and C
  • 11. Questions
    • Which of the following is not a symptom of malaria?
      • Fever
      • Rash
      • Nausea
      • Headache
  • 12. Questions
    • Which two kinds of malaria can relapse?
      • Plasmodium falciparum and plasmodium ovale
      • Plasmodium ovale and plasmodium malariae
      • Plasmodium malariae and plasmodium vivax
      • Plasmodium vivax and plasmodium ovale
  • 13. Questions
    • There is no vaccine for malaria?
      • True
      • False
  • 14. Questions
    • Name 3 ways to prevent malaria: