Lecture 9 dengue fever


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Lecture 9 dengue fever

  1. 1. Health Education- Dengue Fever Miss Chantelle Chaudoin MPH
  2. 2. Definition <ul><li>Dengue is a severe viral disease transmitted by the bite of the mosquito and caused by any of 4 dengue virus serotypes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Den-1, Den-2, Den-3, Den-4 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dengue Fever is a severe flu like illness that affects infants, young children, and adults, but seldom causes death. </li></ul><ul><li>Dengue Heamorrhagic Fever (DHF) is a more severe form in which bleeding and sometimes shock occurs leading to death. It is most serious in children. Symptoms of bleeding usually occur after 3-5 days of fever. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Clinical Manifestation <ul><li>Dengue Fever </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acute febrile disease with headache. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscular and joint pains. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rash </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leukopenia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mild thrombocytopenia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nausea or vomiting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dengue Heamorrhagic Fever (DHF) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Symptoms similar to Dengue Fever plus any of the following: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hepatomegaly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Circulatory failure and splenomegaly is infrequently noticed in infants. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High fever greater than 39 degrees Celsius and remains for 2-7 days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heamorrhagic Manifestation: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bleeding from the nose, mouth and gums </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gastrointestinal bleeding: black stools like coal, tar. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Petechiae </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Treatment <ul><li>Oxygen therapy </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid replacement with fluid and electrolyte solution. </li></ul><ul><li>Plasma should be used for patients with severe cases of shock. </li></ul><ul><li>Blood transfusion for patients who have severe bleeding. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid use of aspirin and ibuprofen because it can increase bleeding and cause stomach pain. </li></ul><ul><li>If one or more signs of DHF are seen, take the patient to the hospital immediately, give fluids to drink while transferring the patient to the hospital. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Disease Transmission <ul><li>Dengue is spread by the bite of an infected mosquito, specifically Aedes Aegypti and Aedes Albopictus. </li></ul><ul><li>The mosquito gets the virus by biting and infected person. </li></ul><ul><li>The first symptoms of the disease occur about 5-7 days after an infected bite. </li></ul><ul><li>The virus enters the midgut, multiplies and spreads to other mosquito organs including the salivary glands. It takes 8-10 days to complete this process. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no way to tell if a mosquito is carrying the virus, therefore, people must protect themselves from all mosquito bites. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Where does the mosquito live? <ul><li>The mosquito rests indoors in closets and other dark places. </li></ul><ul><li>Outside, the rest where it is cool and shaded. </li></ul><ul><li>The female mosquito lays her eggs in water containers in and around homes, schools, and other areas around towns or villages. These eggs become adults in about 10 days. </li></ul><ul><li>The larvae hatch from the mosquito eggs and survive in the water for around a week. Then, they become a pupa stage for one or two days, after which the adult mosquito emerges ready to bite. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Where does the mosquito breed? <ul><li>Dengue mosquitoes breed in stored, exposed water collections. </li></ul><ul><li>Favored breeding places are: barrels, drums, jars, pots, buckets, flower vases, plant saucers, tanks, discarded bottles, tins, tires, water coolers, etc. And any place where rain water collects or is stored. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Prevention of Dengue <ul><li>Eliminate the mosquitoes and their breeding places. </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent mosquito bites </li></ul><ul><li>Dengue mosquitoes bite during the day time, protect yourself from the bite by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>wearing full sleeved clothes and long dresses to cover the limbs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repellent – especially on children and the elderly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mosquito nets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection of people sick with dengue </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Prevention of Multiplication of Mosquitoes <ul><li>Drain water from coolers, tanks, barrels, drums, buckets, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Remove all objects, such as plant saucers, etc. which have water collected in them from house. </li></ul><ul><li>Cover all water containers at all times. </li></ul><ul><li>Discard solid waste and objects where water collects: bottles, tins, tires, etc. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Questions <ul><li>What are the 2 types of mosquitoes that transmit Dengue Fever? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the symptoms of Dengue Fever? </li></ul><ul><li>How long does it take for eggs to become adults? </li></ul><ul><li>Where do mosquitoes breed? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we protect ourselves from bites of mosquitoes? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we prevent mosquitoes from multiplying? </li></ul>