Malaria

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Malaria

  1. 1. NUR ATIQAH BINTI HALIM PH 157/10 HOSPITAL TUANKU FAUZIAH KANGAR PERLIS. 06/12/14 1
  2. 2. AIM • TO STUDY THE CAUSES OF MALARIA,SYMTOMP OF MALARIA AND THE COMMON MODES OF TRANSMISSION . 2 06/12/14 2
  3. 3. OBJECTIVES • To identify the causes of the malaria disease • To identify the symptoms of the malaria disease • To identify the most current prevention strategies. 3 06/12/14 3
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION • Malaria is an infectious disease caused by the parasites called Plasmodia. • It is transmitted by the female anopheles mosquito. • with the observation that malaria occurred more often near the water logged areas. • mal aria= bad air 4 06/12/14 4
  5. 5. MALARIA WORLDWIDE • Malaria is widely distributed throughout tropical regions of the world in Africa, Hispaniola, Central and South America, Asia, the Middle East and Oceania. ( in malaysia,kelantan was the highest rate) • 41% of world’s population lives in malaria- endemic areas. • An estimated 700,000-3 million persons die of malaria every year, 75% of them are African children. • In areas of Africa with high transmission there are about 2700 deaths per day, 2 deaths per minute.06/12/14 5
  6. 6. THE MALARIA PARASITE Phylum: PROTOZOA Class: SPOROZOA Order: COCCIDIIDA Family: PLASMODIIDAE Genus: PLASMODIA Subgenera: PLASMODIUM Species: P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, P. malariae 06/12/14 6
  7. 7. CLASSIFICATION OF MALARIAL PARASITE • Only four species of the protozoan genus Plasmodium usually infect humans: P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae, and P. ovale. • P. falciparum and P. vivax account for the vast majority of cases. • P. falciparum causes the most severe infection. • 706/12/14 7
  8. 8. PATHOGENESIS • Malaria develops via two phases: an exoerythrocytic and an erythrocytic phase. • An infected anopheles mosquito may pierce a person's skin to take a blood meal. • The sporozoites, present in the saliva of the mosquito, enter the bloodstream and migrate to the liver. • The sporozoites, in the liver cells, multiply asexually to yield thousands of merozoites. This process is called exoerythrocytic schizogony. • This exoerythrocytic or liver phase of the disease usually takes between 5 and 21 days, depending on the species of plasmodium. • 8 8
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  11. 11. INFECTED ERYTHROCYTES 06/12/14 11
  12. 12. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS • The general symptoms include fever , headache, sweating, tiredness, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, loss of appetite, jaundice, cough, vomiting etc. • The time after which they develop depends on the type of plasmodium that caused the infection. • Symptoms may appear and disappear in phases and may come and go at various time frames. • Further serious complication involving the kidneys and brain may develop leading to delirium and coma. 12 06/12/14 12
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  14. 14. DIAGNOSIS • Malaria is considered a potential medical emergency. Delay in diagnosis and treatment is a leading cause of death in malaria patients. • Definitive diagnosis of malaria generally requires direct observation of malaria parasites in Giemsa- stained thick and thin blood smears. 14 06/12/14 14
  15. 15. P. vivax P. ovale P. falciparum P. malariae 06/12/14 15
  16. 16. TREATMENT 06/12/14 16
  17. 17. ACTIONS Chloroquine( 250MG) is indicated in the suppressive treatment and treatment of acute attack of malaria caused by Plasmodium Vivax, Plasmodium Malariae, Plasmodium Ovale and Chloroquine-susceptible strains of Plasmodium Falciparum. IV Artesunate 90mg tds for injection for coma patient. 17 06/12/14 17
  18. 18. SIDE EFFECT 1. Headache 2.Various skin eruption 3.Gastroistestinal disturbances such as vomiting and diarrhoea. 18 06/12/14 18
  19. 19. PROPHYLAXIS •Most cases of malaria can be prevented by chemoprophylaxis and by avoiding the mosquito vector. •The female Anopheles mosquito feeds from dusk until dawn. During these hours, individuals should avoid contact with the mosquito by wearing protective clothing, using an insect repellent and by sleeping under insecticide-impregnated bed nets. • 19 06/12/14 19
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  21. 21. CONCLUSION • Each year, there are more than 225 million cases of malaria,killing around 781,000 people which contributes to 2.23% of deaths worldwide. • Its really a high time to overcome that “female” mosquito and accordingly taking measures to prevent its harmful effects on our lives. • 21 06/12/14 21
  22. 22. THANK YOU  22 06/12/14 22

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