• TO STUDY THE CAUSES OF
MALARIA,SYMTOMP OF MALARIA AND THE
COMMON MODES OF TRANSMISSION .
• To identify the causes of the malaria
• To identify the symptoms of the malaria
• To identify the most current prevention
• Malaria is an infectious disease caused by the
parasites called Plasmodia.
• It is transmitted by the female anopheles
• with the observation that malaria occurred
more often near the water logged areas.
• mal aria= bad air
• Malaria is widely distributed throughout tropical
regions of the world in Africa, Hispaniola, Central
and South America, Asia, the Middle East and
Oceania. ( in malaysia,kelantan was the highest
• 41% of world’s population lives in malaria- endemic
• An estimated 700,000-3 million persons die of
malaria every year, 75% of them are African
• In areas of Africa with high transmission there are
about 2700 deaths per day, 2 deaths per minute.06/12/14 5
THE MALARIA PARASITE
Species: P. falciparum, P. vivax,
P. ovale, P. malariae
CLASSIFICATION OF MALARIAL PARASITE
• Only four species of the protozoan genus
Plasmodium usually infect humans: P.
falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae, and P.
• P. falciparum and P. vivax account for the
vast majority of cases.
• P. falciparum causes the most severe
• 706/12/14 7
• Malaria develops via two phases: an exoerythrocytic
and an erythrocytic phase.
• An infected anopheles mosquito may pierce a person's
skin to take a blood meal.
• The sporozoites, present in the saliva of the mosquito,
enter the bloodstream and migrate to the liver.
• The sporozoites, in the liver cells, multiply asexually to
yield thousands of merozoites. This process is called
• This exoerythrocytic or liver phase of the disease
usually takes between 5 and 21 days, depending on the
species of plasmodium.
• 8 8
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
• The general symptoms include fever , headache,
sweating, tiredness, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, loss of
appetite, jaundice, cough, vomiting etc.
• The time after which they develop depends on the type
of plasmodium that caused the infection.
• Symptoms may appear and disappear in phases and
may come and go at various time frames.
• Further serious complication involving the kidneys and
brain may develop leading to delirium and coma.
• Malaria is considered a potential medical emergency.
Delay in diagnosis and treatment is a leading cause of
death in malaria patients.
• Definitive diagnosis of malaria generally requires
direct observation of malaria parasites in Giemsa-
stained thick and thin blood smears.
P. vivax P. ovale
P. falciparum P. malariae
Chloroquine( 250MG) is indicated in the
suppressive treatment and treatment of acute
attack of malaria caused by Plasmodium Vivax,
Plasmodium Malariae, Plasmodium Ovale and
Chloroquine-susceptible strains of Plasmodium
IV Artesunate 90mg tds for injection for coma
2.Various skin eruption
3.Gastroistestinal disturbances such as
vomiting and diarrhoea.
•Most cases of malaria can be prevented by
chemoprophylaxis and by avoiding the mosquito vector.
•The female Anopheles mosquito feeds from dusk until
dawn. During these hours, individuals should avoid
contact with the mosquito by wearing protective
clothing, using an insect repellent and by sleeping under
insecticide-impregnated bed nets.
• Each year, there are more than 225 million cases of
malaria,killing around 781,000 people which
contributes to 2.23% of deaths worldwide.
• Its really a high time to overcome that “female”
mosquito and accordingly taking measures to
prevent its harmful effects on our lives.