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MALARIA DISEASE
Submitted by:
Samriddhi
Bpt 3rd year
ID : 21BPHY009
Submitted to:
Dr. Surabhi Srivastava
Department of Physiotherapy
SHUATS
COMMUNITY MEDICINE
Index
Sr. No. Content
1. Introduction
2. Epidemiology
3. Pathology
4. Symptoms
4. Diagnosis
5. Recommendations
6. Treatment
7. Conclusion
INTRODUCTION
 Malaria is a life-threatening infectious disease caused by the
Plasmodium parasite, transmitted to humans through the bite of
infected female Anopheles mosquitoes.
 It remains a major global health concern, particularly in tropical and
subtropical regions.
 With symptoms ranging from fever, chills, and sweats to severe
complications, malaria imposes a significant burden on affected
communities.
● There are 5 Plasmodium parasite species that cause malaria in
humans and 2 of these species – Plasmodium
falciparum and Plasmodium vivax – pose the greatest threat.
● P.Falciparum is the deadliest malaria parasite and the most prevalent
on the African continent.
● P.Vivax is the dominant malaria parasite in most countries outside of
sub-saharan Africa.
● The other malaria species which can infect humans are P.Malariae,
P.Ovale and P.Knowlesi
AGENT FACTORS
● According to WHO’s latest World malaria report, there
were an estimated 241 million malaria cases and 627000
malaria deaths worldwide in 2023. This represents about
14 million more cases in 2023 compared to 2019, and 69
000 more deaths.
● As of 2023, 39 countries have eliminated malaria, and 8
more are on track to do so by 2025.
● In 2023, the WHO Southeast Asia region reported over 10
million cases, with India contributing significantly to this
figure.India has launched a National Framework for
Malaria Elimination (NFME) 2016-2030, with a vision to
eliminate malaria from the country by 2030.
EPIDEMIOLOGY
02. PATHOLOGY
Plasmodium, a tiny protozoan is responsible for this disease and its pathology involves a complex life cycle within
both humans and mosquitoes.
Mature infective stages (sporozoites)
escape from gut and migrate to the
mosquito salivary glands. Sporozoites
Salivary Glands
Gametocytes
Female
Male
Fertilization and
development take place in the
mosquito’s gut.
Female mosquito takes up
gametocytes with blood meal.
Mosquito Host
Human Host
Parasite reproduce asexually in red
blood cells, bursting the red bloods
cells and causing cycles of fever and
other symptoms. Released parasites
infect new red blood cells.
Parasite (sporozoites) reach the
liver through blood.
When the mosquito bites another human,
sporozoites are injected with bite.
The parasite reproduces asexually in liver
cells, bursting the cell and releasing into
the blood.
Sexual stages (gametocytes) develop in
red blood cells.
Fig: LIFE CYCLE OF PLASMODIUM
SYMPTOMS OF THE DISEASE
LUNGS
In severe cases, especially
with P. falciparum, malaria
can progress to acute
respiratory distress
syndrome (ARDS).
Female Reproductive system
LIVER
Malaria can affect liver
function, leading to
hepatomegaly (enlarged liver)
and jaundice, abdominal pain
and yellowing of the skin and
eyes.
KIDNEY
Malaria-associated acute
kidney injury is a potential
complication, decreased urine
output, electrolyte imbalances,
and in severe cases, kidney
failure.
Pregnant women face increased
risks, including maternal anemia
and low birth weight, miscarriage,
stillbirth, or preterm delivery.
• High fever (38°C or above)
• Feeling hot and shivery
• Headaches
• Vomiting
• Muscle Pain
• Organ failure
• Anaemia
• Low blood sugar
• Diarrhoea
• Sweating & Fatigue
Other symptoms:
• MEDICAL HISTORY= e.g.travel history
• Physical examination=Hepatomegaly and spleenomegaly
• Lab diagnosis
 RDT (RAPID DIAGNOSTIC TEST)
 PCR (POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION)
 CBC (COMPLETE BLOOD COUNT)
DIAGNOSIS
• Living or traveling in a region where malaria is present.
• Traveling to area where malaria is common: -
 Without taking medicine to prevent malaria.
 Being outdoors, especially in rural areas.
 Not taking steps to protect yourself from mosquito bites.
• Pregnant women.
• Children under 5 years of age.
• Patients with HIV/AIDS
RISK FACTORS OF MALARIA
 Avoid Delayed Treatment: Promptly seek
medical attention if malaria symptoms arise, as
delayed treatment can lead to severe
complications.
 Avoid Self-Medication: Do not self-prescribe
antimalarial drugs. Consult a healthcare
professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.
 Avoid Inconsistent Use of Bed Nets: Ensure
consistent use of insecticide-treated bed nets to
prevent mosquito bites, especially in malaria-
endemic areas.
 Avoid Stagnant Water: Eliminate or manage
stagnant water around living areas to reduce
mosquito breeding sites.
RECOMMENDATIONS
What to avoid What to do
 Seek Early Diagnosis: If experiencing symptoms like
fever and chills, seek medical attention promptly for
malaria testing.
 Follow Treatment Guidelines: Adhere to prescribed
antimalarial treatment and complete the full course as
directed by healthcare providers.
 Use Bed Nets Correctly: Properly use and maintain
insecticide-treated bed nets for effective protection
against mosquito bites.
 Participate in Vector Control Programs: Engage in
community-led efforts to control mosquito
populations and breeding sites.
PREVENTION
Insecticide-Treated Bed Nets
Use bed nets treated with
insecticides to create a physical
barrier against mosquito bites while
sleeping. Regularly check and
repair nets to ensure effectiveness.
Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS)
Support and participate in IRS
programs to apply insecticides on
indoor surfaces, reducing the
presence of malaria-carrying
mosquitoes inside homes.
Antimalarial Chemoprophylaxis
If traveling to malaria-endemic
regions, consult healthcare
professionals for appropriate
chemoprophylaxis and follow the
prescribed regimen.
Environmental Management
Sites for mosquitoes. Implement
measures to eliminate or manage
stagnant water around homes and
communities, as stagnant water
serves as breeding
TREATMENT
• Treatment for malaria should start as soon as
possible.
• The type of medication and length of
treatment depend on which parasite is causing
your symptoms.
Antimalarial Drugs Include:
 Artemisinin Drugs (Artemether And
artesunate)
 Chloroquine
 Mefloquine
 Quinine
CONCLUSIONS
Malaria is an infection of liver and RBCs.
• Caused by 5 different species of plasmodium.
• Malaria is one of the most serious problems.
• Symptoms: Fever( which may be periodic),
chills, sweating , hemolytic anemia and
splenomegaly.
• Diagnosis is by seeing plasmodium in a
peripheral blood smear.
• Treatment and prophylaxis depend on the
species and drug sensitivity.
THANK YOU

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Malaria Disease, Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj

  • 1. MALARIA DISEASE Submitted by: Samriddhi Bpt 3rd year ID : 21BPHY009 Submitted to: Dr. Surabhi Srivastava Department of Physiotherapy SHUATS COMMUNITY MEDICINE
  • 2. Index Sr. No. Content 1. Introduction 2. Epidemiology 3. Pathology 4. Symptoms 4. Diagnosis 5. Recommendations 6. Treatment 7. Conclusion
  • 3. INTRODUCTION  Malaria is a life-threatening infectious disease caused by the Plasmodium parasite, transmitted to humans through the bite of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes.  It remains a major global health concern, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions.  With symptoms ranging from fever, chills, and sweats to severe complications, malaria imposes a significant burden on affected communities.
  • 4. ● There are 5 Plasmodium parasite species that cause malaria in humans and 2 of these species – Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax – pose the greatest threat. ● P.Falciparum is the deadliest malaria parasite and the most prevalent on the African continent. ● P.Vivax is the dominant malaria parasite in most countries outside of sub-saharan Africa. ● The other malaria species which can infect humans are P.Malariae, P.Ovale and P.Knowlesi AGENT FACTORS
  • 5. ● According to WHO’s latest World malaria report, there were an estimated 241 million malaria cases and 627000 malaria deaths worldwide in 2023. This represents about 14 million more cases in 2023 compared to 2019, and 69 000 more deaths. ● As of 2023, 39 countries have eliminated malaria, and 8 more are on track to do so by 2025. ● In 2023, the WHO Southeast Asia region reported over 10 million cases, with India contributing significantly to this figure.India has launched a National Framework for Malaria Elimination (NFME) 2016-2030, with a vision to eliminate malaria from the country by 2030. EPIDEMIOLOGY
  • 6. 02. PATHOLOGY Plasmodium, a tiny protozoan is responsible for this disease and its pathology involves a complex life cycle within both humans and mosquitoes. Mature infective stages (sporozoites) escape from gut and migrate to the mosquito salivary glands. Sporozoites Salivary Glands Gametocytes Female Male Fertilization and development take place in the mosquito’s gut. Female mosquito takes up gametocytes with blood meal. Mosquito Host Human Host Parasite reproduce asexually in red blood cells, bursting the red bloods cells and causing cycles of fever and other symptoms. Released parasites infect new red blood cells. Parasite (sporozoites) reach the liver through blood. When the mosquito bites another human, sporozoites are injected with bite. The parasite reproduces asexually in liver cells, bursting the cell and releasing into the blood. Sexual stages (gametocytes) develop in red blood cells. Fig: LIFE CYCLE OF PLASMODIUM
  • 7. SYMPTOMS OF THE DISEASE LUNGS In severe cases, especially with P. falciparum, malaria can progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Female Reproductive system LIVER Malaria can affect liver function, leading to hepatomegaly (enlarged liver) and jaundice, abdominal pain and yellowing of the skin and eyes. KIDNEY Malaria-associated acute kidney injury is a potential complication, decreased urine output, electrolyte imbalances, and in severe cases, kidney failure. Pregnant women face increased risks, including maternal anemia and low birth weight, miscarriage, stillbirth, or preterm delivery. • High fever (38°C or above) • Feeling hot and shivery • Headaches • Vomiting • Muscle Pain • Organ failure • Anaemia • Low blood sugar • Diarrhoea • Sweating & Fatigue Other symptoms:
  • 8. • MEDICAL HISTORY= e.g.travel history • Physical examination=Hepatomegaly and spleenomegaly • Lab diagnosis  RDT (RAPID DIAGNOSTIC TEST)  PCR (POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION)  CBC (COMPLETE BLOOD COUNT) DIAGNOSIS
  • 9. • Living or traveling in a region where malaria is present. • Traveling to area where malaria is common: -  Without taking medicine to prevent malaria.  Being outdoors, especially in rural areas.  Not taking steps to protect yourself from mosquito bites. • Pregnant women. • Children under 5 years of age. • Patients with HIV/AIDS RISK FACTORS OF MALARIA
  • 10.  Avoid Delayed Treatment: Promptly seek medical attention if malaria symptoms arise, as delayed treatment can lead to severe complications.  Avoid Self-Medication: Do not self-prescribe antimalarial drugs. Consult a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.  Avoid Inconsistent Use of Bed Nets: Ensure consistent use of insecticide-treated bed nets to prevent mosquito bites, especially in malaria- endemic areas.  Avoid Stagnant Water: Eliminate or manage stagnant water around living areas to reduce mosquito breeding sites. RECOMMENDATIONS What to avoid What to do  Seek Early Diagnosis: If experiencing symptoms like fever and chills, seek medical attention promptly for malaria testing.  Follow Treatment Guidelines: Adhere to prescribed antimalarial treatment and complete the full course as directed by healthcare providers.  Use Bed Nets Correctly: Properly use and maintain insecticide-treated bed nets for effective protection against mosquito bites.  Participate in Vector Control Programs: Engage in community-led efforts to control mosquito populations and breeding sites.
  • 11. PREVENTION Insecticide-Treated Bed Nets Use bed nets treated with insecticides to create a physical barrier against mosquito bites while sleeping. Regularly check and repair nets to ensure effectiveness. Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) Support and participate in IRS programs to apply insecticides on indoor surfaces, reducing the presence of malaria-carrying mosquitoes inside homes. Antimalarial Chemoprophylaxis If traveling to malaria-endemic regions, consult healthcare professionals for appropriate chemoprophylaxis and follow the prescribed regimen. Environmental Management Sites for mosquitoes. Implement measures to eliminate or manage stagnant water around homes and communities, as stagnant water serves as breeding
  • 12. TREATMENT • Treatment for malaria should start as soon as possible. • The type of medication and length of treatment depend on which parasite is causing your symptoms. Antimalarial Drugs Include:  Artemisinin Drugs (Artemether And artesunate)  Chloroquine  Mefloquine  Quinine
  • 13. CONCLUSIONS Malaria is an infection of liver and RBCs. • Caused by 5 different species of plasmodium. • Malaria is one of the most serious problems. • Symptoms: Fever( which may be periodic), chills, sweating , hemolytic anemia and splenomegaly. • Diagnosis is by seeing plasmodium in a peripheral blood smear. • Treatment and prophylaxis depend on the species and drug sensitivity.