Lecture 11 malaria


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Lecture 11 malaria

  1. 1. Health Education- Malaria Miss Chantelle Chaudoin MPH
  2. 2. Malaria <ul><li>A serious and sometimes fatal disease caused by a parasite transmitted by a mosquito </li></ul><ul><li>Patients with malaria are typically very sick with high fever, shaking chills, and flu-like illness </li></ul><ul><li>Four kinds of malaria parasites can infect humans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plasmodium Falciparum (deadly) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plasmodium Vivax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plasmodium Ovale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plasmodium Malarie </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Malaria <ul><li>Malaria is typically found in warmer regions of the world. In tropical and subtropical climates. </li></ul><ul><li>Malaria parasites which grow and develop inside the mosquito need warmth to complete their growth before they are mature enough to be transmitted to humans. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Transmission <ul><li>People get bitten by an infected female anopheles mosquito (only anopheles mosquitoes can transmit malaria) </li></ul><ul><li>When the mosquito bites, a small amount of blood is taken which contains a small amount of microscopic parasites </li></ul><ul><li>The parasite grows and matures in the mosquito’s gut for about 7 days and then travels to the mosquito’s salivary glands </li></ul><ul><li>When the mosquito takes its next blood meal, these parasites are mixed with the saliva and injected into the bite </li></ul><ul><li>Once in the blood of the human the parasites travel to the liver and multiply </li></ul><ul><li>After 8 days or more the parasites leave the liver and enter red blood cells where they continue to multiply </li></ul><ul><li>Malaria can be transmitted through blood transfusions, organ transplants, or the shared use of needles or syringes, and to a mother to her fetus before or during delivery </li></ul>
  5. 5. Who is at risk for malaria? <ul><li>Anyone can get malaria </li></ul><ul><li>Most cases occur in residents of countries with malaria transmission and travelers to those countries </li></ul><ul><li>In non-endemic countries, cases can occur in non-travelers as congenital malaria, introduced malaria, or transfusional malaria </li></ul>
  6. 6. Symptoms of Malaria <ul><li>Fever </li></ul><ul><li>Flu-like illness including: shaking, chills. Headache, muscle ache, and tiredness </li></ul><ul><li>Nausea, vomiting and diarrhea may also occur. </li></ul><ul><li>Anemia and jaundice may occur due to the loss of red blood cells </li></ul><ul><li>Plasmodium falciparum may cause kidney failure, seizures, mental confusion, coma and death </li></ul>
  7. 7. Symptoms (cont.) <ul><li>Symptoms begin 10 days to 4 weeks after infection although a person may feel ill as early as 7 days or as late as 1 year later </li></ul><ul><li>Plasmodium vivax and plasmodium ovale can relapse </li></ul><ul><li>In plasmodium vivax and plasmodium ovale infections some parasites can remain dormant in the liver for several months for up to 4 years after a person has been bitten by an infected mosquito </li></ul><ul><li>If an individual has symptoms after traveling in an malaria risk area they should seek medical help immediately </li></ul>
  8. 8. Preventing Malaria <ul><li>Keep mosquitoes from biting you especially at night </li></ul><ul><li>Take anti-malaria drugs to kill the parasites </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate places around your home where mosquitoes breed </li></ul><ul><li>Spray insecticides on your home’s walls to kill adult mosquitoes that come inside </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep under mosquito nets – especially effective if they have been treated with insecticides </li></ul><ul><li>Wear insect repellant and long sleeve clothing when outdoors at night </li></ul><ul><li>Currently there is no vaccine for malaria </li></ul>
  9. 9. Questions <ul><li>Which kind of malaria parasite is most deadly? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plasmodium falciparum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plasmodium vivax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plasmodium ovale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plasmodium malariae </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Questions <ul><li>Malaria is typically found in which climate? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subtropical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tundra </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tropical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A and C </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Questions <ul><li>Which of the following is not a symptom of malaria? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fever </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rash </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nausea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Headache </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Questions <ul><li>Which two kinds of malaria can relapse? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plasmodium falciparum and plasmodium ovale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plasmodium ovale and plasmodium malariae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plasmodium malariae and plasmodium vivax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plasmodium vivax and plasmodium ovale </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Questions <ul><li>There is no vaccine for malaria? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>True </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>False </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Questions <ul><li>Name 3 ways to prevent malaria: </li></ul>