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Lecture 6 vitamins, minerals and fiber

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Lecture 6 vitamins, minerals and fiber

  1. 1. HealthEducation-Vitamins andMineralsMiss Chantelle ChaudoinM.P.H
  2. 2. Vitamins and Minerals Vitamins are organic substances (made by plants or animals) minerals are inorganic elements that come from the earth; soil and water and are absorbed by plants. Animals and humans absorb minerals from the plants they eat. Vitamins and minerals are nutrients that your body needs to grow and develop normally.
  3. 3. Vitamin A Essential for normal growth, integrity of the skin, and bone development. Lack of Vitamin A can lead to infection of the cornea, conjunctiva (the red part of the eye), trachea (windpipe), hair follicles, and renal system. Deficiency can also cause night blindness. Vitamin A is found in butter, butterfat in milk, egg yolk, some fruits (prunes, pineapples, oranges, limes, and cantaloupe), green leafy vegetables and carrots.
  4. 4. Vitamin B Complexes Vitamin B1 (thiamine) affects growth, appetite, and carbohydrate metabolism. Alcoholics can be especially deficient. B1 is found in whole grains, nuts, egg yolk, fruits, and most vegetables. Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) affects growth and cellular metabolism (the ability of the cell to take in food, make energy and discard waste). Found in liver, meat, poultry, eggs, milk, and green vegetables. A deficiency in Vitamin B6 (niacin) will cause pellagra, which is associated with the "four Ds": dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, and death. Found in liver, meat, poultry, and green vegetables. Vitamin B12 (biotin, folic acid, and cyanocobalamin) is found in leafy green vegetables, organ meats, lean beef and veal, and wheat cereals. A deficiency will result in pernicious anemia and neurological problems, including numbness and weakness.
  5. 5. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) Necessary for the formation of connective tissue between cells as well as maintenance of the "cement" that secures cells to membranes. A deficiency will lead to scurvy (shallow complexion, loss of energy, pain in legs and joints, bleeding gums, and muscle pain). Vitamin C is found in raw cabbage, carrots, orange juice, lettuce, celery, onions, tomatoes, and all citrus fruits.
  6. 6. Vitamin D Necessary for the development of bones and teeth a deficiency can lead to rickets and tooth decay. It is essential in the metabolism of calcium and phosphorus, two of the most important constituents of bone and teeth. Vitamin D is manufactured in the skin with exposure to sunlight, and is also found in milk, cod liver oil, salmon, egg yolk, and butter fat.
  7. 7. Vitamin E Although the exact function of this vitamin is not clearly understood, it is essential to humans and has been related to the healing of scars. A deficiency is extremely rare Vitamin E is found in many foods including nuts, seeds, vegetable oils, green leafy vegetables and fortified cereals
  8. 8. Vitamin K Essential for blood clotting Vitamin K is found in fats, oats, wheat, rye, and alfalfa.
  9. 9. Chromium Necessary for the maintenance of normal blood sugar levels. Chromium works with insulin in assisting cells to take in glucose and release energy. Some good sources include meats, unrefined foods, fats, and vegetable oils.
  10. 10. Copper: Needed for the production of red blood cells and the formation of connective tissues. Also plays a major role in the defense against free radicals. Some sources include meat, seafood, nuts, and seeds.
  11. 11. Fluorine Maintains the structure of teeth. Taken regularly, Flourine will help protect teeth from acidic decay. Sources include water (in some areas), seafood, kidney, liver, and other meats.
  12. 12. Manganese Activator of many enzymes. Manganese is very closely related to the synthesis of DNA, RNA, and protein. Sources include whole grains and cereals, fruits, and vegetables.
  13. 13. Selenium Important in protecting lipids of cell membranes (cell walls are made up of a lipid (fat) layer), proteins, and nucleic acids against oxidant damage. Sources include broccoli, chicken, cucumbers, egg yolk, garlic, liver, milk, mushrooms, onions, seafood, and tuna.
  14. 14. Zinc Zinc represents only 0.003 percent of the human body, but is essential for synthesis of protein, DNA and RNA. It is required for growth in all stages of life. Sources include meats, oysters and other seafood, milk, and egg yolk.
  15. 15. Fiber Theterm fiber refers to carbohydrates that cannot be digested. Fiber is found in the plants we eat for food — fruits, vegetables, grains, and legumes.  Soluble fiber partially dissolves in water and has been shown to lower cholesterol.  Insoluble fiber does not dissolve in water, but thats why it helps with constipation  Sources include- oranges, berries, bananas, broccoli, beans, popcorn
  16. 16. QuestionsWhat is the only food/drink that infants need until they are 6 months old?How many times a day should children ages 6months-2 years be fed?What is anemia? How does anemia effect your body?Why is iodized salt important?

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