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Not Your Father’s NRM: Understanding NRM in Post-Conflict Countries
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Not Your Father’s NRM: Understanding NRM in Post-Conflict Countries

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Presented at the CAPRi International Workshop on Collective Action, Property Rights, and Conflict in Natural Resources Management. June 28th to July 1st, 2010, Siem Reap, …

Presented at the CAPRi International Workshop on Collective Action, Property Rights, and Conflict in Natural Resources Management. June 28th to July 1st, 2010, Siem Reap, Cambodia.
http://www.capri.cgiar.org/wks_0610.asp


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Transcript

  • 1. Carl Bruch Environmental Law Institute
  • 2.
    • Partners: ELI, UNEP, Univ. of Tokyo
    • 7 volumes, 150 chapters, 3,000 pages, 200 authors
    • > 50 countries
      • High-Value Resources
      • Land
      • Water
      • Livelihoods
      • Remediation & Restoration
      • Governance & Institutions
      • Synthesis
  • 3.
    • Afghanistan
      • 2006 Logging Decree
      • Good Intentions
      • Bad Outcomes
      • What Happened?
      • Context is Key
  • 4.
    • Dem. Rep. Congo
      • NRM & Human Security in North Kivu
      • Bad Situation
      • Made Better
      • How?
    Gorilla Rwanda (Source: R. Ruggiero/USFWS) Rape Survivors, South Kivu, DRC (source: L. Werchick/USAID)
  • 5.
    • NRM and conservation in post-conflict contexts
      • Demands situational awareness …
      • and conflict-sensitive approach
      • Benefits from integration with broader efforts
    • Goals of presentation
      • Introduce distinct realities of post-conflict contexts
      • Suggest ways in which NRM projects should be tailored to those realities
    Community Rebuilding, Indonesia (source: Virginia L. Foley/USAID)
  • 6.
    • Violent conflict
      • Post-conflict countries are at heightened risk for conflict recurrence
    • [10] year window
      • No clear line
      • Different levels
    • Multiple phases, which overlap
    • NRM often can and should begin before conflict ends
    Kabul River (Source: Farid/USAID)
  • 7.
      • Non-NRM priorities, managed by non-NRM institutions
      • Negotiate Peace
      • Keep the Peace
      • Meet urgent humanitarian needs
      • Disarm, Demobilize, Reintegrate
        • Often as part of broader Security Sector Reform
      • Rebuild
        • Economy
        • Infrastructure
        • Government and Governance
        • Society and the Rule of Law
    )
  • 8.
      • Money
        • Dependence on donor support
        • Liquidating natural resources
      • Information
      • Capacity
      • Authority
      • Trust
      • Public Attention
      • Political Will
      • Time
  • 9.
    • Lack of clarity
      • Of status of natural resources
      • Of who is doing what
        • At different levels
      • Regarding the “rules”
      • Of objectives vis-à-vis one another
  • 10.
    • Political/peace dimensions
    • Shifts in population
    • Land tenure
    • Formal vs. informal vs. effective control of resources
    • Diverse range of actors, mandates, and agendas
  • 11.
    • Demand for peace dividends affects:
      • Political will
      • Resources
      • Public attention
    • Can generate pressure for rapid extraction or concession of key resources
    Rain Forest and Settlements, Liberia (source: USAID) New Road, Mozambique (source: USAID)
  • 12.
    • Resource dependence is a recognized indicator of conflict risk
    • NRM is thus a critical component of peacebuilding
    • But rebuilding peace is an equally critical part of post-conflict NRM.
    • Awareness of linkages is key
  • 13. Herder, Nigeria (source: Curt Carnemark/World Bank) Diamond Miner, Sierra Leone (source: USAID)
  • 14.
    • Vital resource during conflict
    Displaced Afghan Boy Drinking Water (source: Abdullah Shaheen/UN)
  • 15.
    • Casualty of Conflict
      • Direct Impacts
        • Illegal Logging
        • Oil spills
        • Landmines
      • Indirect Impacts
        • Population shifts
        • Damage to institutions, management systems, and infrastructure
    ) Soldier Searches for Landmines, Rwanda (Source: USAID) Makeshift Camp, Rwanda (source: UN)
  • 16.
    • Bargaining chip
      • Allocation
      • Revenue or benefit sharing
      • Co-management
      • Buying off potential spoilers
    DDR Talks, DRC (source: Martine Perret/UN )
  • 17.
    • Source of hope after conflict
      • Seen as ready source of revenue for rebuilding
      • But … many challenges, including engaging the private sector to jumpstart economic growth
    • NRM under profound pressure
      • Economic
      • Political
      • Public
    Community Forestry Program, Colombia (source: USAID)
  • 18.
    • Focus on situational awareness & conflict mgt
      • Assessment, evaluation, and monitoring
      • Consult and Engage Stakeholders
        • Transparency
        • Accountability
    • Don’t exacerbate inequities in NR control and access
    Angolan Community Development Group (source: Benjamin Sandel/USAID)
  • 19.
    • Mainstream peace-building into NRM
      • Human Security
      • Conflict Management
      • Livelihoods
      • DDR
      • Governance
      • Transitional Justice
    Demobilized Soldiers in Community Fishing Program, DRC (source: UN) IDP Women, Darfur (source: USAID) srl3_nationbldg_policechief2 USAID
  • 20. Different roads to peace. New Road, Mozambique (source: USAID) Boys on Rough Terrain, Afghanistan (source: USAID)