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Orre Sunya, Director, Technical Services, NDMA and Abdi Umar, UNDP Kenya


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"Guideline for the session on 'community- based strategies and approaches"
Regional Review Conference on the Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development
Nairobi, Kenya | 26-27 November 2014

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Orre Sunya, Director, Technical Services, NDMA and Abdi Umar, UNDP Kenya

  1. 1. Regional conference in Nairobi: guideline for the session on 'community- based strategies and approaches PRESENTED BY: Suny a Or r e , Di r e c to r Te chni c a l Se r v i c e s , NDMA; Abdi Uma r , P ro g r amme Of f i c e r e , UNDP Keny a 26TH NOVEMBER, 2014
  2. 2. Issues of Armed Violence in Kenya Armed Violence prevalence in many parts of Kenya: 1. Communal and ethnic based violence in traditionally pastoralist areas of northern Kenya, where nomadic livestock keepers compete for resources like pasture and water; 2. Criminal violence in arid areas using small arms for robbery, burglary, car jacking hostage taking; Proliferation of small arms, with more than 500,000 illicit small arms in civilian hands; Small arms carried openly in many parts of northern Kenya Many lives lost, injuries, massive displacement, poverty as areas are abandoned due to fear
  3. 3. Key Drivers of small arms proliferations Insecurity (Perceived and Real) leading to groups arming themselves:  Trans-boundary – attacks on Kenyans by external communities who are armed – South Sudan, Somalia and Southern Ethiopia  Intercommunity: many pastoralist clans and tribes fighting each other (Mandera, Wajir, Marsabit, Isiolo, Samburu, Tana River, Turkana, West Pokot, Baringo Competing over Political seats, supremacy wars: (Unhealthy competition over elected seats at Ward, Parliament, Senate levels, which usually divides communities at ethnic lines) Expansionism of clans and tribes: Where better armed or more populous groups try to take over lands of others, sometimes caused by: - boundary disputes - resource conflicts over water and pasture Droughts/ livestock movements in search of pasture and water: - breakdown of agreement on shared grazing - overstaying of groups fleeing drought, conflict in their home pastures; Mineral exploration/extraction: - Oil, gas, titanium, gold, and other resources; - local communities get shares in exploratory and % of revenues
  4. 4. How to minimize small arms race Address the drivers of conflicts  Assure security to the affected communities  Develop and implement deterrent strategies. However, such strategies should be of trans-boundary in nature  Provide civic education  Provide economic empowerment; invest in alternative livelihoods, human capital development Involve key stakeholders in the peace and disarmament programs  In the male dominated societies provide gender segregated focus group discussions
  5. 5. Challenges to Community based approaches: Only community based systems will work in the pastoralist areas – as community resource use is as clans and tribes; Disarmament needs to be carried out over a large region and several countries simultaneously, otherwise disarming one group makes the vulnerable other groups – IGAD? Difficult to have gender parity esp. in former NEP– but Now Peace Committees have 30% women members; and have youth representatives; in West Pokot woman is Chair. Breakdown of traditional systems makes use of customary law difficult in some areas – leading to ‘shopping for the easiest justice system’ Youth rebellion refusal to listen to elders, and the desire to acquire guns; The Realist of Conflict Economy in many areas – eg commercialized cattle rustling, payment of what amounts to ‘protection money’; Difficult to deal with criminal combatants, as communities conceal adverse information that concerns one of their own Difficult to get the required good will from the political leaders – as hard line ethnic champions gain popularity; Requires investment in building trust and confidence between security agencies and communities, which is expensive and time consuming;
  6. 6. Who needs to be involved in peace building? Stakeholder Role Politicians and opinion leaders -Influence society and can either promote peace or fuel conflicts through material support and statements - have legislative powers Businessmen -Finance conflicts, arms and ammunitions acquisition - Supply of arms Elders -Have great influence over the young people -Provide blessings to young people before the raids - have knowledge of the criminals and holders of arms Youth Are the perpetrators of the crimes and hence are the ones holding most of the small arms Women Most affected by conflicts. Have influence over men (their children and spouses) Security agencies Act as deterrents to small arms business Civil society/FBOs Civic education
  7. 7. Armed Violence Reduction Project Kenya Works in 9 Northern Kenya Counties which are Arid and Semi Arid – through the NDMA: Assists the community based Peace Committees, having District Peace Committees, and County Peace Committees  Dialogue, Arbitration, between warring groups;  Use of Peace Memorandum and Declarations (Al Fatah Declarations (Wajir) that led to peace between clans after more than 1,000 died, and army intervened but could not cool tensions. This was further spread to several other counties through the Mudogashe Declaration, where clans are charged camels for homicide, chiefs promoted for peace. Peace Dividend Projects – across northern Kenya to help communities building peace  (water projects for herders, women groups given seed money for business)  Peace Dividend Projects for Reformed Warriors (training in Entrepreneurship, seed money for projects and skills training) Works with KNFP across the country  Encourages voluntary disarmament, and has organized destruction of collected illicit and obsolete arms;  Helps make policy on small arms – SALW Policy, NPR policy Framework.
  8. 8. Key lessons learned The establishment of effective community peace structures that link to the government structures provide an opportunity conflict reduction and management; Involving communities in peace monitoring and conflict early warning has provide opportunities for pre-empting conflicts; The peace dividends projects for reformed worriers provide alternative livelihood for the young people. It is also a motivating factor to abandon conflicts; Investment in community projects such as water, markets and schools among others provide an opportunity for communities to live together peacefully The capacity building of NPR (police reservist) and arms marking minimize misuse of government arms.
  9. 9. Q&A