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Lwf Dws Rwanda Presentation On Peace Regional Consultation Dsm


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LWF WS Rwanda Presentation on Peace & Reconciliation at the Eastern & Central Africa Regional Consultation,
8-12th June 2009

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Lwf Dws Rwanda Presentation On Peace Regional Consultation Dsm

  1. 1. LWF/DWS-Regional Consultation Dar es Salaam, Tanzania 10 June 2009
  2. 3. <ul><li>Close to 1,000,000 dead in 100 days </li></ul><ul><li>Orphans, wounded, disabled, widows, no shelter </li></ul><ul><li>No state machinery </li></ul><ul><li>No water, no electricity, no health infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme ethnic distrust and acts of revenge </li></ul><ul><li>Several hundreds of thousands ordinary people </li></ul><ul><li>suspected have participated in the genocide </li></ul><ul><li>Insecurity </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>How to rebuild the Nation and the State? </li></ul><ul><li>Was Rwanda going to remain a unitary state of </li></ul><ul><li>‘’ hutuland”and “tutsiland”? </li></ul><ul><li>Was the new victorious force going to allow massive </li></ul><ul><li>extermination of suspects or establish a rule of law? </li></ul><ul><li>How to ensure coexistence between hutu a </li></ul><ul><li>and tutsi after such high level of violence? </li></ul><ul><li>Given the magnitude of popular participation in </li></ul><ul><li>genocide would general amnesty be applied? </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Coalition government (Rwanda Patriotic Front and 5 other </li></ul><ul><li>political parties) </li></ul><ul><li>Unity and Reconciliation: important shift from the previous </li></ul><ul><li>“ ethnic identification” </li></ul><ul><li>Rebuilding of the Judiciary </li></ul><ul><li>Repatriation and resettlement of 3,500,000 refugees and IDPs </li></ul><ul><li>Decentralization process and participation </li></ul><ul><li>Rehabilitation of social sector </li></ul><ul><li>Security at the Rwanda/DRC border </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Decentralization </li></ul><ul><li>New Constitution adopted in 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional framework in keeping with the principle of </li></ul><ul><li>separation of powers was established representing three </li></ul><ul><li>branches respectively the legislature and the judiciary </li></ul><ul><li>The President of the Republic is elected by direct, suffrage and </li></ul><ul><li>secrete ballot by a relative majority of the votes cast for a 7 year </li></ul><ul><li>mandate renewable once </li></ul><ul><li>Power sharing culture (Winning party not more than 50% of </li></ul><ul><li>cabinet positions, President, Speaker and President of Senate </li></ul><ul><li>from different parties, women quota at all levels of governance </li></ul><ul><li>etc..) </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>Unity and reconciliation national values </li></ul><ul><li>Reform and reinforcement e of the Judiciary </li></ul><ul><li>Administrative and economic good governance institutions: </li></ul><ul><li>Ombudsman of the Judiciary, Auditor General, National Tender </li></ul><ul><li>Board, National Police, Press Law, National Examination Council </li></ul><ul><li>etc. </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>No real Opposition. Opposition still not allowed to return </li></ul><ul><li>and take part in national elections </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of qualified human resources </li></ul><ul><li>Weak institutions to implement the grand design </li></ul><ul><li>Vision 2020 and EDPRS too ambitious </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>In 1994 of a total 800 judges and lawyers only about 40 </li></ul><ul><li>survived </li></ul><ul><li>At the end of 2007, 818,000 suspects </li></ul><ul><li>Total number of persons judged in 2002: 2580 </li></ul><ul><li>Experts estimated it would take 200 years at least to empty the </li></ul><ul><li>cases from the courts </li></ul><ul><li>Hence the need for a more realistic solution : multi-layered justice </li></ul><ul><li>mechanisms </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Management of genocide suspects </li></ul><ul><li>Genocide Organic Law </li></ul><ul><li>Intensive human resource development (training of lawyers for </li></ul><ul><li>the judiciary) </li></ul><ul><li>Major law reform review </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>INTERNATIONAL </li></ul><ul><li>International - ICTR - UN Arusha-based Tribunal for </li></ul><ul><li>prosecuting genocide ‘master minds’ </li></ul><ul><li>NATIONAL </li></ul><ul><li>Specialized Chambers 1996 Organic Law </li></ul><ul><li>National Unity and Reconciliation Commission (NURC) </li></ul><ul><li>Gacaca (eradicating the culture of impunity, establishing the facts of genocide, individualization of guilt, mending the social fabric, freeing the innocent, speeding up trials for guilty ones, national reconciliation through participation of the population reviving capacity of Rwandans to resolve their conflicts, delegating judicial powers to grass-roots actors, offering an accessible justice). </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Total number of Gacaca courts established: 12,103 </li></ul><ul><li>By December 31 2006, a total of 51,649 cases had been tried </li></ul><ul><li>21,448 convicted </li></ul><ul><li>10,723 acquitted </li></ul><ul><li>12,478 sentenced to community service, commonly known as </li></ul><ul><li>TIG (Travaux d’interêt général) </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>JUSTICE MECHANISMS AND QUESTIONS OF LEGITIMACY </li></ul><ul><li>ICTR: </li></ul><ul><li>Slow, bureaucratic, victor’s justice as no Rwandan Patriotic Front </li></ul><ul><li>(RPF) crimes/excesses were not included; emphasis on </li></ul><ul><li>retribution, lack of contribution to reconciliation, little </li></ul><ul><li>attention to victims </li></ul><ul><li>Rwandan National Courts: </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of contribution to reconciliation </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Gacaca T ribunals: </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced into the Rwanda justice system by Organic Act in 2001 Restructured to make them more effective pursuant to Organic Act in 2004 and in 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Mandatory reconciliation with a risk to lead to further polarization causing frustration among the victims but also intensify retributive sense of justice and a desire for vengeance among the Hutu majority </li></ul><ul><li>The tribunals often viewed as Government project than a local </li></ul><ul><li>initiative </li></ul><ul><li>State imposed “command justice” may be politicizing the identity of the participants in the Gacaca; perpetrators remain hutus and victims and survivors remain tutsis </li></ul>
  14. 15. Victims hesitant, perpetrators fear collective incrimination, Faulty judicial performance mired in procedural errors open to open; Petty criminals construed as having ‘genocidal ideology’ Confessions leading to severely reduced sentences; Previously could hand down maximum of 30 years but now can impose life imprisonment. “ Forced reconciliation, extra judicial killings, arbitrary detention, collective punishment; with little or no space for alternative narratives, individual accountability and feelings of anger and grievance can help perpetuate the very narratives that played such a large role in the genocide.”
  15. 16. <ul><li>Economy based on subsistence agriculture(84% of the </li></ul><ul><li>population in agricultural sector (0.5 to 1 ha per HH) </li></ul><ul><li>Limited natural resources </li></ul><ul><li>60% of Rwandans below poverty line </li></ul><ul><li>Communicable diseases including HIV & AIDS 3% prevalence </li></ul><ul><li>rate), malaria </li></ul><ul><li>Poor access to ports (landlocked country) </li></ul><ul><li>Energy gap </li></ul><ul><li>No infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Empty State coffers </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>2008 GDP 2008 growth rate, a whopping 11.2% </li></ul><ul><li>Investors’ paradise (safest and transparent countries in Africa) </li></ul><ul><li>Largest singled investor Contour Global’s $325 m Kivuwatt </li></ul><ul><li>Project (methane gas extraction off the Kivu Lake ) </li></ul><ul><li>Financial sector also growing in leaps and bounds (investors </li></ul><ul><li>especially from African companies) </li></ul><ul><li>Growing sectors (construction, agriculture, tourism, ICT and </li></ul><ul><li>retail) </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on Regional Economic integration (facilitating </li></ul><ul><li>freedom of movement for goods and persons, harmonizing </li></ul><ul><li>member countries policies etc..) </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>Growing inequality despite 11.2% GDP growth rate </li></ul><ul><li>56% of the population still living below the poverty line – 36% in </li></ul><ul><li>extreme poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Land related abuses </li></ul><ul><li>New land policy than promotes mono cropping, single crop </li></ul><ul><li>designated for the region </li></ul>
  18. 19. Immediate Post crisis Psycho-Social landscape <ul><li>Legions of traumatized people as the legacy of the genocide </li></ul><ul><li>47% (male) to 53% illiteracy rate </li></ul><ul><li>Low skilled population </li></ul><ul><li>Legacy of weak development agenda (education, rural </li></ul><ul><li>development, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Press as an instrument for inciting violence and genocide </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>PSYCHO </li></ul><ul><li>Trauma counseling </li></ul><ul><li>GENDER EQUALITY </li></ul><ul><li>Gender Monitoring Office </li></ul><ul><li>Protection of, and prohibition of discrimination against women </li></ul><ul><li>Civil Code eliminating gender inequalities on marital property regimes, </li></ul><ul><li>gifts and inheritance, the National Women’s Council </li></ul><ul><li>ENVIRONMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Banning of plastic </li></ul><ul><li>Clean urban and rural environments </li></ul><ul><li>High environmental consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>FUNDAMENTAL FREEDOMS </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom of assembly, </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom of association </li></ul><ul><li>Press Council </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>NATIONAL </li></ul><ul><li>Very secure, pacified country </li></ul><ul><li>Disciplined national police and army </li></ul><ul><li>Traffic laws and regulations strictly enforced </li></ul><ul><li>REGIONAL </li></ul><ul><li>Accused of exporting war and insecurity to DRC Congo </li></ul><ul><li>Rwanda’s security tightly tied to regional stability </li></ul>
  21. 24.   Link to LWF/DWS Global Strategy 2.5.4 Peace, Reconciliation and Human Rights <ul><li>LWF/DWS GLOBAL </li></ul><ul><li>LWF/DWS-RWANDA </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies: </li></ul><ul><li>Economic </li></ul><ul><li>Improving rural people’s livelihoods through on and off-farm initiatives; </li></ul><ul><li>Psycho-social </li></ul><ul><li>Training in peace and reconciliation, mediation and trauma counseling, psycho-social response, gender equality, environmental protection, HIV & AIDS prevention; </li></ul><ul><li>Soccer tournaments in primary and high schools promoting peace and reconciliation among youth. </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies: </li></ul><ul><li>Economic and social development </li></ul><ul><li>Sports </li></ul>
  22. 25.   Link to LWF/DWS Global Strategy 2.5.4 Peace, Reconciliation and Human Rights <ul><li>LWF/DWS GLOBAL </li></ul><ul><li>LWF/DWS-RWANDA </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies: </li></ul><ul><li>Handle issues with sensitivity, neutrality and fairness </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness –raising around issues at the root of conflicts (land, genocide) and on the national legal framework for claiming and affirming rights </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies: </li></ul><ul><li>Do no harm </li></ul><ul><li>Rights-based approach </li></ul>
  23. 26.   Link to LWF/DWS Global Strategy 2.5.4 Peace, Reconciliation and Human Rights <ul><li>LWF/DWS GLOBAL </li></ul><ul><li>LWF/DWS-RWANDA </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies: </li></ul><ul><li>Development, translation multiplication and distribution of training manuals for conflict management and trauma counseling; </li></ul><ul><li>Fostering of peace and reconciliation between survivors/family of victims and released prisoners in communities; </li></ul><ul><li>Mobilize churches, inter-faith groups and communities to take a leading role in peace and reconciliation and mediation. </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies: </li></ul><ul><li>Direct peace-building and conflict resolution approach (curriculum etc..) </li></ul><ul><li>Dialogue and reconciliation among actors </li></ul>
  24. 28. <ul><li>Through: </li></ul><ul><li>resettlement (post crisis phase) </li></ul><ul><li>psycho-social response (trauma counseling) </li></ul><ul><li>peace and reconciliation; (training and reintegrating victims and </li></ul><ul><li>perpetrators into the society); </li></ul><ul><li>economic recovery (Poverty alleviation) </li></ul><ul><li>skills training (on an off-farm) </li></ul><ul><li>institutional strengthening and the building of a strong civil </li></ul><ul><li>society; integration of cross-cutting issues (gender equality, HIV </li></ul><ul><li>& AIDS and the environment) </li></ul>
  25. 29. <ul><li>1994-2000 - Emergency relief, rehabilitation phases </li></ul><ul><li>HIGHLIGHTS </li></ul><ul><li>Significant contribution to: </li></ul><ul><li>the resettlement of influx </li></ul><ul><li>of returnees/expellees to </li></ul><ul><li>Rwanda (shelter provision, </li></ul><ul><li>water and sanitation and </li></ul><ul><li>livelihood revitalization) </li></ul><ul><li>Peace and reconciliation through advocacy and awareness- </li></ul><ul><li>raising in the Gacaca and other justice mechanisms and the </li></ul><ul><li>draft Organic Land Law. </li></ul>
  26. 30. <ul><li>HIGHLIGHTS </li></ul><ul><li>the building of emerging community based groups (farmers’ </li></ul><ul><li>cooperatives) for a strengthened civil society through capacity </li></ul><ul><li>building and institutional strengthening; </li></ul><ul><li>the establishment of a successful agricultural farming and </li></ul><ul><li>demonstration centre (RFDTC) and handing over to the local </li></ul><ul><li>community; </li></ul><ul><li>improved livelihoods (increased on and off-farm production for </li></ul><ul><li>increased number of households with access to health insurance </li></ul><ul><li>coverage, with children enrolled in schools, better housing and </li></ul><ul><li>other basic needs met); </li></ul><ul><li>increased awareness in participating communities about in HIV & </li></ul><ul><li>AIDS prevention, gender equality and environmental protection. </li></ul>
  27. 31. <ul><li>peace and reconciliation promoted and fostered among various </li></ul><ul><li>segments of society (genocide survivors, families of victims, </li></ul><ul><li>released prisoners etc.. ) </li></ul><ul><li>the rolling out of trauma counseling services to the grass-roots </li></ul><ul><li>level through the training of community-based counselors. </li></ul><ul><li>Current Country Strategy (CS): Making Hope a Reality , 2007-12 </li></ul><ul><li>Four strategic objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>- contribute to improving rural peoples’ livelihoods and </li></ul><ul><li>reduction of poverty ; </li></ul><ul><li>- respond to psycho-social consequences of conflict and reduce </li></ul><ul><li>conflict related vulnerability; </li></ul><ul><li>- enhance communication for peace and strengthen civic </li></ul><ul><li>empowerment; </li></ul><ul><li>- mainstream gender, HIV & AIDS and environment into all </li></ul><ul><li>program activities as cross-cutting issues. </li></ul>