Forest conflict in Asia & collective action

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Presented at the CAPRi International Workshop on Collective Action, Property Rights, and Conflict in Natural Resources Management. June 28th to July 1st, 2010, Siem Reap, Cambodia.
http://www.capri.cgiar.org/wks_0610.asp

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Forest conflict in Asia & collective action

  1. 1. Forest conflict in Asia & collective action Yurdi Yasmi, Thomas Enters, Lisa Kelley, James Bampton
  2. 2. Content <ul><li>Background & focus </li></ul><ul><li>Causes of conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict management and collective action </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion & recommendations </li></ul>
  3. 3. How serious is the issue? Asia : 3/4 forests affected by violent Cambodia : 236 cases (2009); 60% violent Indonesia : Between 12 – 20 million people affected Thailand : 1.3 million ha (settlement) overlap with protected area
  4. 5. Focus: communities vs. outsiders
  5. 6. Methods <ul><li>Case study approach </li></ul><ul><li>292 in-depth interviews by national partners </li></ul><ul><li>Over a dozen of FGDs </li></ul><ul><li>2 international workshops </li></ul>
  6. 8. Underlying causes <ul><li>Contested tenure/overlapping claims </li></ul><ul><li>A lack of coordination among state agencies </li></ul><ul><li>Conservation and economic development policies that prioritize global and national interest over local interest, needs and aspiration </li></ul>
  7. 9. - an elderly villager in Lao PDR <ul><li>&quot;I fought for my country for more than 30 years. I’ve served as the village chief. Yet when the authorities come here… they walk in through my gate, point and mark it with paint… then they say my land must be used for conservation.” </li></ul>Underlying causes, cont.
  8. 10. Direct causes
  9. 11. Conflict fosters collective action <ul><li>Outsider intervention perceived as a threat to local socio-economic and cultural assets. </li></ul><ul><li>Consolidated efforts to response to such threat, e.g. Kbal Damrei, East Kalimantan: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How to voice concerns in negotiation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who will represent communities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the collective demand, e.g. compensation </li></ul></ul>
  10. 12. Conflict weakens collective action <ul><li>Division among community members: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>leaders vs. members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bribery </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Division among neighboring villages (West Kalimantan case) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Harmonious relationship changes into tension </li></ul></ul>
  11. 13. It all depends on institutions!
  12. 14. Conclusions <ul><li>Forest conflict is widespread and a serious issue </li></ul><ul><li>Causes of conflict varies but common ones are observed </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict can both foster or weaken collective action </li></ul><ul><li>Institution is a key factor that determines how conflict affects collective action </li></ul>
  13. 15. Recommendations <ul><li>Clarify tenure arrangements </li></ul><ul><li>Improve coordination among government agencies </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthen local institutions to foster collective action </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure benefit for local communities </li></ul><ul><li>Improve negotiation and mediation skills </li></ul>
  14. 16. Thank you Yurdi Yasmi, Phd [email_address]

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