Conflict, Cooperation & Collective Action: land use, water rights and water scarcity in Manupali watershed, southern Phili...
Outline<br />Introduction<br />The Manupali watershed: land use and water balance<br />Water conflicts<br />Cooperation an...
1. Introduction<br />WATER – ESSENTIAL FOR HUMAN SURVIVAL<br />Water is indispensable to livelihoods and most forms of eco...
Water conflicts at different geographical scales<br /><ul><li>International level: between countries that share rivers (e....
National level: between different sectors (e.g. farmers, industries, tourism, environmentalists, etc.) on policies affecti...
Local level: between users over access to water, or people affected by projects</li></ul>Political, socio-economic and cul...
Some local-based water conflicts in the Philippines<br />Conflicting water use: fisheries, transport, drinking water and w...
Objectives<br />Describe the water conflicts and cooperative agreements adopted by different water users in the Manupali w...
Survey-interviews and focus group discussions
Stakeholders’ analysis
Literature review
Local ecological knowledge (LEK)
Policy-makers ecological knowledge (PEK)
Modellers ecological knowledge (MEK)</li></li></ul><li>2. The Manupali watershed: land use change & water availability<br ...
 60% agriculture and 40% forest
 maximum annual rainfall 2,522 mm (1987-2005)
 elevation 320 to 2,954 masl
 70% has slopes greater than 18%
51,406 people (2007)</li></ul>The Philippines<br />Manupali River<br />Manupali watershed<br />Bukidnon Province<br />Manu...
Water users in Manupali<br />Farmers<br />Households<br />LGU Water Works<br />Swine and poultry<br />Tugasan<br />Maagnao...
<ul><li>Overall trend: agricultural land expanded while forest lands decreased</li></li></ul><li>Table 1- Perceptions on c...
Table 2- Average water balance of Alanib and Kulasihan sub-watersheds during a  12-year GenRiver simulation (MEK results)<...
RESULTS<br />Kulasihan River during dry months<br />CAUSES<br />Banana plantation in Alanib village<br />Water diversion f...
Fig 3- Simulated net water yield during a 12-year simulation period (1994-2005) versus volume of water rights granted (200...
<ul><li> Sedimentation – damage of reservoir</li></ul>Source: NPC, 2006<br />
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Conflict, Cooperation & Collective Action: land use, water rights and water scarcity in Manupali watershed, southern Philippines

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Presented at the CAPRi International Workshop on Collective Action, Property Rights, and Conflict in Natural Resources Management. June 28th to July 1st, 2010, Siem Reap, Cambodia.
http://www.capri.cgiar.org/wks_0610.asp

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Conflict, Cooperation & Collective Action: land use, water rights and water scarcity in Manupali watershed, southern Philippines

  1. 1. Conflict, Cooperation & Collective Action: land use, water rights and water scarcity in Manupali watershed, southern Philippines<br />Caroline Duque-Piñon, Delia Catacutan, Beria Leimona, Emma Abasolo, Meine van Noordwijk and Lydia Tiongco<br />DENR<br />
  2. 2. Outline<br />Introduction<br />The Manupali watershed: land use and water balance<br />Water conflicts<br />Cooperation and collective actions<br />Conclusion <br />
  3. 3. 1. Introduction<br />WATER – ESSENTIAL FOR HUMAN SURVIVAL<br />Water is indispensable to livelihoods and most forms of economic production<br />However, access to water, its allocation and use, are critical concerns that can drive conflicts<br />
  4. 4. Water conflicts at different geographical scales<br /><ul><li>International level: between countries that share rivers (e.g. upstream and downstream relation over the use of shared rivers)
  5. 5. National level: between different sectors (e.g. farmers, industries, tourism, environmentalists, etc.) on policies affecting water management
  6. 6. Local level: between users over access to water, or people affected by projects</li></ul>Political, socio-economic and cultural factors at each level often determine the complexity of water conflicts<br />
  7. 7. Some local-based water conflicts in the Philippines<br />Conflicting water use: fisheries, transport, drinking water and water sink<br />Compensation issues for changing water allocations<br />The Philippines<br />Misallocation of irrigation water<br />Angat Dam<br />Saltwater intrusion<br /> Laguna Lake<br />San Pablo City<br />Batangas City<br />Privatization of local water facility<br />Tuburan, Cebu <br />Cebu City<br />Bayugan City<br />Local violence on water at the local level are often direct conflicts, and can spill over into wider-scale conflicts<br />
  8. 8. Objectives<br />Describe the water conflicts and cooperative agreements adopted by different water users in the Manupali watershed, Bukidnon province in southern Philippines<br />Method<br /><ul><li>Rapid Hydrological Appraisal (RHA) –scoping issues
  9. 9. Survey-interviews and focus group discussions
  10. 10. Stakeholders’ analysis
  11. 11. Literature review
  12. 12. Local ecological knowledge (LEK)
  13. 13. Policy-makers ecological knowledge (PEK)
  14. 14. Modellers ecological knowledge (MEK)</li></li></ul><li>2. The Manupali watershed: land use change & water availability<br />Municipality of Lantapan<br /><ul><li> Land area: 35,465 has
  15. 15. 60% agriculture and 40% forest
  16. 16. maximum annual rainfall 2,522 mm (1987-2005)
  17. 17. elevation 320 to 2,954 masl
  18. 18. 70% has slopes greater than 18%
  19. 19. 51,406 people (2007)</li></ul>The Philippines<br />Manupali River<br />Manupali watershed<br />Bukidnon Province<br />Manupali River<br />
  20. 20. Water users in Manupali<br />Farmers<br />Households<br />LGU Water Works<br />Swine and poultry<br />Tugasan<br />Maagnao<br />Kulasihan<br />Banana companies<br />Alanib<br />Manupali River<br />NIA - IAs<br />National Power Corporation<br />
  21. 21. <ul><li>Overall trend: agricultural land expanded while forest lands decreased</li></li></ul><li>Table 1- Perceptions on current hydrological situation in Manupali (LEK and PEK results)<br />
  22. 22. Table 2- Average water balance of Alanib and Kulasihan sub-watersheds during a 12-year GenRiver simulation (MEK results)<br />
  23. 23. RESULTS<br />Kulasihan River during dry months<br />CAUSES<br />Banana plantation in Alanib village<br />Water diversion for banana plantations<br />
  24. 24. Fig 3- Simulated net water yield during a 12-year simulation period (1994-2005) versus volume of water rights granted (2007) in three sub-watersheds<br />
  25. 25.
  26. 26. <ul><li> Sedimentation – damage of reservoir</li></ul>Source: NPC, 2006<br />
  27. 27. 3. Water Conflicts<br />Conflict: Stealing/cutting of water pipes from rivers<br />Involved: Farmers VS farmers in the upper communities<br />Conflict: Destroying small impounding reservoirs<br />Involved: Upper farmers VS middle farmers<br />…Issue of ‘who came first’ and ‘benefit-sharing’ between upstream and downstream users<br />
  28. 28. Conflict: Privatization of open-access water<br />Involved: Land owner (poultry) vs community<br />Issue of access to springs within private lands<br />
  29. 29. -’Right’ belong to the user in the order in which they apply for<br /><ul><li>In times of water shortage, those with senior rights can use the full volume allocated to them, while those with junior rights must do with nothing or less</li></ul> Water Code<br />Conflicts: <br /><ul><li> Water rights
  30. 30. Water allocation (upstream and downstream
  31. 31. Institutional weaknesses (e.g. red tape, illegal processing of water rights applications)
  32. 32. Surreptitious water diversion</li></ul>Involved: Banana companies VS NIA, banana companies VS community people<br />DOLE-Skyland<br />MKAVI<br />NIA<br />
  33. 33. Conflicts: <br /><ul><li> Water scarcity despite rotations
  34. 34. Social conflicts (illegal diversion of water, killings)</li></ul>Involved: Among rice irrigators<br />Rice production area<br />Conflicts: <br /><ul><li> Water scarcity
  35. 35. Poor maintenance of canals and dams</li></ul>Involved: AMSFC VS NIA<br />AMSFC<br />Converted to banana and corn<br />NIA - IAs<br />
  36. 36. Overlapping of water management regimes and uncoordinated watershed management efforts<br />2. LGU – Local Government Code<br />1. DENR – NIPAS Act<br />3. NCIP – IPRA Law<br />4. NWRB – Water Code<br />Involved: Indigenous communities, NIA, LGU, DENR, banana companies<br />
  37. 37. Tension between statutory and customary rights (e.g. failure to obtain pre-and-prior informed consent)<br />Banana companies<br />LGU Water Works<br />Involved: Indigenous communities vs. banana companies, DENR, LGU-Lantapan and NIA<br />DENR<br />
  38. 38. 4. Cooperation and Collective Action<br />Community conservation & livelihood projects<br />2938<br />IP communities<br />Resource<br />share<br />HIVAC<br />Green River Gold Ranch<br />Income share<br />Cawayan Village Gov’t<br />Hilltop Coop<br />1500<br />meters above sea level<br />Financial assistance<br />1100<br />DOLE<br />LGU<br />NPC<br />MKAVI<br />600<br />Reforestation & livelihood projects<br />Irrigation service fee<br />Irrigation service fee<br />320<br />AMSFC<br />ManRIS<br />Water users<br />
  39. 39. (1)Collective action through cooperative agreements can mitigate hostile confrontations between multiple resource users<br />!!! These agreements are only short-term solutions and do not address the root cause of water scarcity<br />Key messages<br />(2)Evolution of cooperation and collective actions between water users because of mutual recognition of value and scarcity of water, and existence of social capital and legal basis for voluntary agreements<br />!!! However, cooperation does not emerge easily with self-interest<br />
  40. 40. (3) ‘Fair-sharing’ from voluntary agreements was challenging due to power imbalance<br /><ul><li>Mutual interest over water resource prompted cooperating stakeholders to secure individual rights by sharing it with others</li></ul>!!!These forms of cooperation can break down if cooperators cease to interact and adapt to changes<br />(4) Question: Has collective action in this case addressed the core problem of water scarcity?<br /><ul><li>Sustainable land use that helps improve water yield and reduce stream flow variability is essential to improve water balance and reduce current water deficits</li></ul>!!!Exclusion of communities in the benefit-sharing of voluntary agreements, who bear the costs of maintaining water<br />
  41. 41. 5. Conclusion<br />(1) Shared understanding on the link between water balance and land use patterns is important in unpacking complex issues on water<br />(2)Voluntary agreements are important short-term solutions to resolve immediate water rights conflicts<br />(3) Land use policies and incentives for sustainable land use are inevitable for the long-term solution of water scarcity<br />(4) Despite relative vagueness of policies, they provide legal bases for the emergence of voluntary agreements<br />(5)Therefore, coordinated cooperation among all users is important to foster watershed-level collective action<br />
  42. 42. Acknowledgement<br />RHA team members Dennis Ferrera, Johnny Mancawan, CelsoPillerin and Carlos Sioquim for generating the data used in this study, and CecilleEgnar for coordinating the Bukidnon-TULSEA project. <br />

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