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Regional Review and Planning Workshop
SRI-LMB, 2-3 June 2015, Siem Reap, Cambodia
Mobilizing Greater Crop and Land Potenti...
Outline
• Why agro-ecological approaches (instead of
industrial)
• Lead examples: Conservation Agriculture and System
of R...
Modern agriculture? – now an intrusive paradigm
First half of the 20th century aimed to industrialise agriculture:
• Stand...
21st century realities
• Arable land per capita will decline
• Water available for agriculture will decline
• Energy and p...
All agricultural soils show signs of degradation
World map of severity of land degradation – GLASOD (FAO 2000)
Also, the M...
Focus on soil and ecosystem functions:
Healthy soil is the base for sustainable crop production
Dirt – The Erosion of Civi...
Projected percentage gains and losses in rainfed cereal
production potential by 2080 due climate change
7
BUT Conventional land preparation
regular tillage, clean seedbed, exposed
Effects:
• Loss of organic matter
• Loss of pore...
With rice ……
9
Iguassu Falls, Brazil
This is millions of
tonnes of topsoil
going over the edge.
10
11Google image, 16 February 2014
TILLAGE AGRICULTURE -- Erosion
12
Consequences of tillage-based agriculture
at any level of development
• loss of OM, porosity, aeration, biota (=decline in...
‘Modern’ and post-’modern’ agriculture in development
1. Modern agriculture paradigm is based on intrusive
approaches (tha...
Call -- What is sustainable intensification?
• Term has become popular in recent years
• Ecological definitions – increase...
Technical objectives of SI
• Agricultural land productivity
• Natural capital and flow of ecosystems services
Simultaneous...
Reminder -- A healthy soil is a living biological system
17
her
● Fotos
grandes. Solo
arrastra una
nueva imagen
y pásala para
átras
Path to waterfall on private property brings incom...
Reminder--Ecosystem services
Water cycling Carbon cycling Atmospheric circulation
19
Source: The Millennium Ecosystem Asse...
Soil productive capacity (vs. fertility) is derived from several components which
interact dynamically in space and time:
...
An effective solution to degradation, and for
rehabilitation and sustainable intensification
• Minimizing soil disturbance...
Worldwide adoption of
Conservation Agriculture
FAO Definition: www.fao.org/ag/ca
Conservation Agriculture (CA)
is an appro...
Minimum mechanical
soil disturbance
(the minimum soil
disturbance necessary to
sow the seed)
1
Conservation Agriculture (C...
Ecological foundation for sustainable
agriculture production is provided by
application of Conservation Agriculture
princi...
CA does not solve ALL problems
(NO panacea) but complemented with
other good practices CA base allows
for high production ...
Minimum soil
disturbance
Soil Cover Crop Diversity
Integrated
Pest
Management
Integrated
Plant
Nutrient
Management
Integra...
Sustainable Land Preparation - smallholders
Planting holes, ripping or mulching, direct drill
27
28
No-till seeding of wheat into rice stubble/residue - China
History and Adoption of CA
No-till rice
In North Korea
29
CHINA: innovation with raised-bed, zero-till SRI field;
measured yield 13.4 t/ha; Liu’s 2001 yield (16 t/ha) set
provincia...
All crops can be seeded in no-till systems
Potatoes under no-till after rice in North Korea
(Friedrich, 2006)
31
32
FAO, 2012
Farmer Field School participants harvesting no-till IPM potatoes
in lowland rice production systems, Thai Bin...
Challenges/issues/Considerations
of transformation and transition
• Weeds/herbicides
• Labour
• Larger farms
• Livestock
•...
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
Global CA Area in Mill. ha
Worldwide adoption of
Conservation Agriculture
5Connference o...
Worldwide adoption of
Conservation Agriculture
***
Connference on Conservation Agriculture for Smallholders in Asia and Af...
CA-Adoption by World Region [mill. ha and %*]
North America
54 (24%)
South America
64 (60%)
Europe
2.1 (2.8 %)
Ukraine/Rus...
Conservation Agriculture
• Increase yields, production, profit
(depending on level and degradation)
• Less seeds (-50%+ wi...
Conservation Agriculture
Small scale -- Paraguay, Tanzania, India, China, Lesotho,
Zimbabwe ……
Large scale – Canada, USA, ...
Evidence of some of the major benefits
39
-Soil health quality
-Soil carbon and organic matter
-Crop establishment
-Water ...
Example 1-- Canada: Carbon offset scheme in Alberta
Sequestering soil Carbon with CA and trading offsets with regulated co...
Itaipu reservoir dam today (source: Itaipu Binacional)
Water resources are threatened by
conventional tillage agricultural...
Itaipu Dam - Parana basin III, Brazil, August 2011 –
Cultivating good water programme 42
Broad conclusions -- 1
• Meeting 2050 food demand is agronomically
doable, and land resources are available
• But business...
Broad conclusions -- 2
• CA with SRI is potentially applicable in most
land-based agro-ecosystems.
• CA is increasingly se...
Broad conclusions -- 3
• CA+SRI can improve yields, profit,
sustainability and efficiency for small and
large farmers.
• C...
And, the messages, once understood, even
make people dance!
More information: amirkassam786@googlemail.com
http://www.fao....
COMPARISON
A FARMER’S TRIAL – CLODS OF TOPSOIL FROM ADJACENT PLOTS, PARANÁ,
BRAZIL (Shaxson 2007)
PRO-BIOTIC ▲ ANTI-BIOTIC...
SOIL CARBON – Mr. Reynolds’ farm in Lincolnshire
48
Evolution of SOC under different soil management
systems and its effect on agronomic productivity – Brazil
Sá et al. 2013 ...
Residue retention distinguishes
Conservation Agriculture from
conventional farming systems, which
are characterized by lea...
Situation in Malawi – Tilled & CA
Tilled CA
51
(THOMAS, 2004)
Water infiltration, just after a thunderstorm
52
Gains in Rainfall Infiltration Rate with CA
Less flooding – improved water cycle
Landers 2007
tillage + cover, measured
no...
Plough No-tillage
54
Earthworm population
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
plough no-tillage natural
meadow
biomassg/m2
other species
Lumbricus
Good news: Dad’s Army with ‘rattle’ worms
is ready to help!
56
Biodiversity
oil food
webs…..
Above
round
ood webs
&habitates
or natural
nemies of
ests
Ground-
esting
irds,
nimals
nd ins...
Wheat yield response to nitrogen fertilization
(Conventional Tillage Poduction)
Carvalho et al., 2012
Zero N
58
Wheat yield response to nitrogen fertilization
(after 11 years of CA)
Carvalho et al., 2012
Zero N
59
Wheat yield response to nitrogen fertilization
(according the model)
Carvalho et al., 2012
60
Source: Dijkstra, 1998
Empirical evidence: The Frank Dijkstra farm in
Ponta Grossa, Brazil
61
Source: FEBRAPDP & CONAB, 2012, FAO 2013
Empirical evidence: Brazil – adoption of CA and
evolution of yields
62
Source: Peiretti, 2002
Empirical evidence: Argentina – adoption of CA and
evolution of grain yields
63
Regional perspective – Southern Africa
Conventional tillage yield (kg ha-1
)
0 2000 4000 6000 8000
Conservationagriculture...
Longer term maize grain yields on farmers
fields in Malawi - Zidyana
65
Zidyana
Year
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 20...
Economic viability-Malawi
Lemu Zidyana
CP CA CAL CP CA CAL
Gross Receipts 528.6 881.5 979.7 1047.2 1309.5 1293.7
Variable ...
Longer term maize grain yields on farmers fields
in Malawi - Lemu
Harvest year
2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Maizebiomassy...
Effect of CA on soil and water:
• CA stops erosion, reverses degradation, aquifer recharge
(bio-pores)
• improved water qu...
Instituto de Agricultura Sostenible CSIC , Cordoba, Setiembre 2005
Farm power – 4 tractors with 384 HP under tillage & 2 t...
PARTING SHOT FROM TONY REYNOLDS
So ladies & gentlemen, apart from:
Increasing soil fertility
Reducing diesel by 50%
Reduci...
• provisioning: food and clean water
• regulating: climate and pests/diseases
• supporting: nutrient cycles, pollination
•...
Examples of CA adoption
world-wide
72
Mucuna after cotton fb by
maize in Burkina Faso
73
Pigeon peas with
maize residues -
Kenya
Lablab grown as
a cover crop -
Tanzania
The use of lablab
74
Access to equipment and inputs:
• for manual work -- Zambia
What is needed?
Access to equipment and inputs:
• for animal draft
What is needed?
Tanzania
History and Adoption of CA
77
Brazil
Harvest
Planting
knife rolling
History and Adoption of CA
78
79
No-till seeding of wheat into rice stubble/residue - China
History and Adoption of CA
No-till rice
In North Korea
80
CHINA: innovation with raised-bed, zero-till SRI field;
measured yield 13.4 t/ha; Liu’s 2001 yield (16 t/ha) set
provincia...
All crops can be seeded in no-till systems
Potatoes under no-till after rice in North Korea
(Friedrich, 2006)
82
83
FAO, 2012
Farmer Field School participants harvesting no-till IPM potatoes
in lowland rice production systems, Thai Bin...
84
No-till cassava in orange grove -- Paraguay
85
Onions under CA management on broad beds
86
Oil Palm under CA management with
mucuna ground cover in Malaysia
87
Olive grove under CA management -- Lebanon
88
Grapevines under CA management
with vetch ground cover - Lebanon
No-tillage in Europe
(W. Sturny) 89
No-Tillage in Switzerland
(W. Sturny)
90
No-till maize Plough
No-till SB No-till SBPlough
91
Switzerland
No-Tillage in France with Cover Crops
(Alfred Gässler)
92
SPRING DRILLING ‘11’ LINCOLNSHIRE, UK
93
Thank you
for your attention
94
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Agro-ecological approach conservation agriculture and SRI - Prof. Amir Kassam

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Agro-ecological approach conservation agriculture and SRI - Prof. Amir Kassam

  1. 1. Regional Review and Planning Workshop SRI-LMB, 2-3 June 2015, Siem Reap, Cambodia Mobilizing Greater Crop and Land Potentials with Agro-ecological Approaches: Conservation Agriculture and System of Rice Intensification Amir Kassam University of Reading (UK) and FAO 1
  2. 2. Outline • Why agro-ecological approaches (instead of industrial) • Lead examples: Conservation Agriculture and System of Rice Intensification • Some broad conclusions 2
  3. 3. Modern agriculture? – now an intrusive paradigm First half of the 20th century aimed to industrialise agriculture: • Standardization • Mechanization • Labour-saving technologies • Use of chemical inputs Second half of the 20th century increasingly shaped as ‘scientific formulations’ of agriculture: • Genetic potentials • Input utilization • Standard agronomy • Intensive tillage • Energy-intensity • Capital intensity • Little attention paid to soil health and ecosystem services 3
  4. 4. 21st century realities • Arable land per capita will decline • Water available for agriculture will decline • Energy and production input cost are rising • Diminishing returns to inputs are setting in • Stagnation of yield improvements, at high and low levels • The production approach fundamentally inefficient • Millions of households being bypassed • Environmental and degradation concerns • Food security concerns • Climate change 4
  5. 5. All agricultural soils show signs of degradation World map of severity of land degradation – GLASOD (FAO 2000) Also, the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005 – 89% our ecosystems Degraded or severly degraded, only 11% in reasonable shape. background 5 Degradation of soil, water and biodiversity resources
  6. 6. Focus on soil and ecosystem functions: Healthy soil is the base for sustainable crop production Dirt – The Erosion of Civilizations degradation/ erosion > natural soil formation = NOT sustainable Soil tillage “Dirt – the erosion of civilizations” by David R. Montgomery (Prof. of Earth and Space Sciences at the University of Washington in Seattle, leads the Geomorphological Research Group, member of the Quaternary Research Center): • Soil is a fragile thin skin around the world • Soil formation is very slow, degradation very fast: even with conservation tillage soil erosion is by orders of magnitude higher than soil formation • The decline of important human civilizations can be related to erosion events and soil degradation (Greek, Romans etc.) 6
  7. 7. Projected percentage gains and losses in rainfed cereal production potential by 2080 due climate change 7
  8. 8. BUT Conventional land preparation regular tillage, clean seedbed, exposed Effects: • Loss of organic matter • Loss of pores, structure soil compaction • Destruction of biological life & processes 8
  9. 9. With rice …… 9
  10. 10. Iguassu Falls, Brazil This is millions of tonnes of topsoil going over the edge. 10
  11. 11. 11Google image, 16 February 2014
  12. 12. TILLAGE AGRICULTURE -- Erosion 12
  13. 13. Consequences of tillage-based agriculture at any level of development • loss of OM, porosity, aeration, biota (=decline in soil health -> collapse of soil structure -> compaction & surface sealing -> decrease in infiltration) • water loss as runoff & soil loss as sediment • loss of time, seeds, fertilizer, pesticide (erosion, leaching) • less capacity to capture and slow release water & nutrients • less efficiency of mineral fertilizer: “The crops have become ‘addicted’ to fertilizers” • loss of biodiversity in the ecosystem, below & above soil surface, monocropping • more pest problems (breakdown of food-webs for micro-organisms and natural pest control) • falling input efficiency & factor productivities, declining yields • reduced resilience, reduced sustainability • Poor adaptability to climate change & mitigation • Higher production costs, lower farm productivity and profit, degraded ecosystem services • Dysfunctional ecosystems, water cycle, suboptimal water provisioning & regulatory water services, loss of biodiversity 13
  14. 14. ‘Modern’ and post-’modern’ agriculture in development 1. Modern agriculture paradigm is based on intrusive approaches (that disrupt ecosystem functions) with unacceptable negative externalities and loss in productivity, efficiency and resilience. 2. More of the same is no longer appropriate to meet the 21st Century realities and multi-functional role of future agriculture. 3. Alternative paradigm based on agro-ecological or ecosystem approaches (that works in greater harmony with ecosystem functions) are now available for sustainable agricultural intensification (combining productivity with ecosystem services). 14
  15. 15. Call -- What is sustainable intensification? • Term has become popular in recent years • Ecological definitions – increase in yields with minimum environmental damage, and building resilience and flow of ecosystem services. • Broader definitions at the food and agriculture system levels – minimizing wastage, institutional development, capacity building, economic growth, social equity etc. • Sustainable intensification conditions being met with the spread of Conservation Agriculture (CA) based systems. 15
  16. 16. Technical objectives of SI • Agricultural land productivity • Natural capital and flow of ecosystems services Simultaneously • Enhanced input-use efficiency • Use of biodiversity – natural and managed (and carbon) to build farming system resilience (biotic and abiotic), including being climate-smart • Contribute to multiple-outcome objectives at farm, community & landscape, and national scales e.g. climate change mitigation And • Capable of rehabilitating land productivity and ecosystem services in degraded and abandoned lands But how? 16
  17. 17. Reminder -- A healthy soil is a living biological system 17
  18. 18. her ● Fotos grandes. Solo arrastra una nueva imagen y pásala para átras Path to waterfall on private property brings income to locals in the form of ecotourismMonteverde Cloudforest Reserve provides important source of water in landscape and downstream Windbreaks provide habitat and corridors for wildlife, control erosion and protect livestock from wind Shaded coffee extends wildlife habitat from reserve and reduces erosion All fences are live rows of trees Coffee, corn, sugar cane and other products are sold at a local cooperative Ecoagriculture landscapes: harmonizing multiple objectives at farm, community, landscape scales 18
  19. 19. Reminder--Ecosystem services Water cycling Carbon cycling Atmospheric circulation 19 Source: The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005)
  20. 20. Soil productive capacity (vs. fertility) is derived from several components which interact dynamically in space and time: • Physical: architecture - pore structure, space & aeration • Hydrological: moisture storage - infiltration • Chemical: nutrients, CEC, dynamics • Biological: soil life and non living fractions • Thermal: rates of biochemical processes • Cropping system: rotation/association/sequence A productive soil is a living system and its health & productivity depends on managing it as a ‘complex’ biological system, not as a geological entity. We need to go backTo soil and landscape health. Soil as a ‘complex’ biological system, not just as a geological entity 20
  21. 21. An effective solution to degradation, and for rehabilitation and sustainable intensification • Minimizing soil disturbance by mechanical tillage and whenever possible, seeding or planting directly into untilled soil, in order to maintain soil organic matter, soil structure and overall soil health. • Enhancing and maintaining organic matter cover on the soil surface, using crops, cover crops or crop residues. This protects the soil surface, conserves water and nutrients, promotes soil biological activity and contributes to integrated weed and pest management. • Diversification of species – both annuals and perennials - in associations, sequences and rotations that can include trees, shrubs, pastures and crops, all contributing to enhanced crop nutrition and improved system resilience. These are the principles of Conservation Agriculture which along with other good practices of crop, soil, nutrient, water, pest, energy management provide an ecological foundation for sustainable production and intensification for all systems. CA is a lead example of the agro- ecological paradigm for sustainable production intensification adopted by FAO and many other organizations 21
  22. 22. Worldwide adoption of Conservation Agriculture FAO Definition: www.fao.org/ag/ca Conservation Agriculture (CA) is an approach to managing agro- ecosystems for improved and sustained productivity, increased profits and food security while preserving and enhancing the resource base and the environment. CA is characterized by three linked principles, namely: 1. Continuous minimum mechanical soil disturbance. 2. Permanent organic soil cover. 3. Diversification of crop species grown in sequences or associations or rotations. Conservation Agriculture 22
  23. 23. Minimum mechanical soil disturbance (the minimum soil disturbance necessary to sow the seed) 1 Conservation Agriculture (CA) is based on three principles (FAO, 2009): Permanent organic soil cover (retention of adequate levels of crop residues on the soil surface) 2 Diversified crop rotations including cover crops (to help moderate possible weed, disease and pest problems) 3 Conservationagriculturesystems 23
  24. 24. Ecological foundation for sustainable agriculture production is provided by application of Conservation Agriculture principles through locally formulated practices No/Minimum soil disturbance Soil Cover Crop Diversity 24 Biologically dynamic foundation that provides the ecological underpinnings
  25. 25. CA does not solve ALL problems (NO panacea) but complemented with other good practices CA base allows for high production intensity and sustainable agriculture in all land-based production systems (rainfed & irrigated, annual, perennial, plantation, orchards, agroforestry, crop-livestock, rice systems Ecological Foundation of CA Systems No/Minimum soil disturbance Soil Cover Crop Diversity Integrated Pest Management Integrated Plant Nutrient Management Integrated Weed Management Integrated Water management Sustainable mechanization Compaction management, CTF Permanent Bed and Furrow Systems System of Rice Intensification Good seed Genetic potential Genetic resources mgmt Pollinator/ Biodiversity management Sustainable agriculture 25
  26. 26. Minimum soil disturbance Soil Cover Crop Diversity Integrated Pest Management Integrated Plant Nutrient Management Integrated Weed Management Integrated Water management Sustainable mechanization Compaction management, CTF Permanent Bed and Furrow Systems System of Rice Intensification Good seed Genetic potential Genetic resources mgmt. Pollinator/ Biodiversity management Sustainable agriculture 26 Ecological Foundation of CA Systems
  27. 27. Sustainable Land Preparation - smallholders Planting holes, ripping or mulching, direct drill 27
  28. 28. 28 No-till seeding of wheat into rice stubble/residue - China
  29. 29. History and Adoption of CA No-till rice In North Korea 29
  30. 30. CHINA: innovation with raised-bed, zero-till SRI field; measured yield 13.4 t/ha; Liu’s 2001 yield (16 t/ha) set provincial yield record and persuaded Prof. Yuan Longping 30 CA rice-based system at Saguna Baug, Maharastra – Chandrashekhar Badsavale
  31. 31. All crops can be seeded in no-till systems Potatoes under no-till after rice in North Korea (Friedrich, 2006) 31
  32. 32. 32 FAO, 2012 Farmer Field School participants harvesting no-till IPM potatoes in lowland rice production systems, Thai Binh, Vietnam, 2011
  33. 33. Challenges/issues/Considerations of transformation and transition • Weeds/herbicides • Labour • Larger farms • Livestock • Community engagement • Temperate areas • Farmers working together • Equipment and machinery • Knowledge and technical capacity • Risk involved in transforming to no-till systems • Approaches to adoption and scaling • Policy and institutional support – private, public, civil society 33
  34. 34. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 Global CA Area in Mill. ha Worldwide adoption of Conservation Agriculture 5Connference on Conservation Agriculture for Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December, Mymensigh University, Bangldesh 155 mill. ha Mill.ha Year Global CA Area in Mill. ha 34
  35. 35. Worldwide adoption of Conservation Agriculture *** Connference on Conservation Agriculture for Smallholders in Asia and Africa. 7-11 December, Mymensigh University, Bangldesh Area of arable cropland under CA by continent in 2013 (source: FAO AquaStat: www.fao/ag/ca/6c.html) Continent Area (Mill. ha) Per cent of global total Per cent of arable land of reporting countries South America (49.6)*64.0 (33.9%) 41.3 60.0 North America (40.0)*54.0 (40.0%) 34.8 24.0 Australia & NZ (12.1)*17.9 (47.9%) 11.5 35.9 Asia Russia & Ukraine Europe Africa (2.6)*10.3(291.2%) (0.1)*5.2(5,100%) (1.6)*2.0(30.1%) (0.5)*1.2 (154.6%) 6.6 3.4 1.4 0.8 3.0 3.3 2.8 0.9 Global total (107)*155 (47.4%) 100 10.9 (7.5)* % global arable * in 2008/09 35
  36. 36. CA-Adoption by World Region [mill. ha and %*] North America 54 (24%) South America 64 (60%) Europe 2.1 (2.8 %) Ukraine/Russia 5.2 (3.3 %) Africa 1.2 (0.9 %) Asia 10.3 (3 %) *Average adoption level in each region based on arable land area of reporting countries Worldwide adoption of Conservation Agriculture 6th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Winnipeg, 22-25 June 2014 slide 2/x Total CA: 155 Mill. ha, about 11% of global arable cropland Australia/New Zealand 17.9 (35.9%) 36
  37. 37. Conservation Agriculture • Increase yields, production, profit (depending on level and degradation) • Less seeds (-50%+ with SRI) • Less fertilizer use (-50%) less pesticides (-20-50%+) • Less machinery, energy & labour cost (-70%) • water needs (-30-40% +) • More stable yields – lower impact of climate (drought, floods, heat, cold) & cc mitigation • Lower environmental cost (water, infrastructure) • Rehabilitation of degraded lands and eco-services Wheat yield and nitrogen amount for different duration of no-tillage in Canada 2002 (Lafond 2003) 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 0 30 60 90 120 nitrogen (kg/ha Grainyield(t/ha) 20-year no-tillage 2-year no-tillage AG department brainstorming, April 12, 2012 37 Impact pattern with CA + SRI
  38. 38. Conservation Agriculture Small scale -- Paraguay, Tanzania, India, China, Lesotho, Zimbabwe …… Large scale – Canada, USA, Brazil, Australia, Argentina, Kazakhstan ..... Cross Slot Conference and Tour 2012 – Germany/France publications Documented benefits of CA for food security, environment, sustainability, rehabilitation 38
  39. 39. Evidence of some of the major benefits 39 -Soil health quality -Soil carbon and organic matter -Crop establishment -Water related functions – more effective and efficient -Biodiversity/agrobiodiversity -Nutrient response – greater nutrient productivity -Increased yields and farm and national output -Lower farm power requirement -Greater stability – climate change adaptability -Climate change mitigation – C seq., lower GHG emi. & fuel use -In-situ, landscape and territorial ecosystem services -Nutritional and health benefits The list goes on! CA & SRI are not only climate-smart, they are smart in many other ways
  40. 40. Example 1-- Canada: Carbon offset scheme in Alberta Sequestering soil Carbon with CA and trading offsets with regulated companies to offset their emissions by purchasing verified tonnes (from ag and non-ag sectors) Source: Tome Goddard et al. 40
  41. 41. Itaipu reservoir dam today (source: Itaipu Binacional) Water resources are threatened by conventional tillage agricultural practices. Conservation Agriculture is an alternative to reduce impacts on river’s quality and to maintain a higher level of productivity and sustainability. Cultivating Good Water Programme 41 Example 2 -- Watershed services in Parana Basin, Brazil
  42. 42. Itaipu Dam - Parana basin III, Brazil, August 2011 – Cultivating good water programme 42
  43. 43. Broad conclusions -- 1 • Meeting 2050 food demand is agronomically doable, and land resources are available • But business as usual not an option to meet future needs sustainably • Production systems based on ecosystem approach must contribute to meeting future needs • CA systems (including for SRI-based cropping systems) do this most effectively. 43
  44. 44. Broad conclusions -- 2 • CA with SRI is potentially applicable in most land-based agro-ecosystems. • CA is increasingly seen as a real alternative and constraints to adoption are being addressed. Now increasing at the annual rate of 10 M ha, and covers more than 155 M ha. • SRI water management makes it possible for SRI and CA to become integrated. 44
  45. 45. Broad conclusions -- 3 • CA+SRI can improve yields, profit, sustainability and efficiency for small and large farmers. • CA is capable of rehabilitating degraded lands and ES world-wide. • Policy and institutional (including education) support, farmer organizations and champions are needed to mainstream the adoption of CA.45
  46. 46. And, the messages, once understood, even make people dance! More information: amirkassam786@googlemail.com http://www.fao.org/ag/ca; http://sri.ciifad.cornell.edu Join CA-CoP & SRI-Rice 46
  47. 47. COMPARISON A FARMER’S TRIAL – CLODS OF TOPSOIL FROM ADJACENT PLOTS, PARANÁ, BRAZIL (Shaxson 2007) PRO-BIOTIC ▲ ANTI-BIOTIC ▲ Topsoil after 5 years with retention Topsoil after regularly-repeated disk of crop residues and no-till seeding. tillage, without retention of residues Soil health and adverse effect of tillage agriculture 47
  48. 48. SOIL CARBON – Mr. Reynolds’ farm in Lincolnshire 48
  49. 49. Evolution of SOC under different soil management systems and its effect on agronomic productivity – Brazil Sá et al. 2013 49 NF - native forest; PE - prior the establishment of the experiment in 1989 CT - conventional tillage; MT - minimum tillage; NTch - no-till chisel; CNT - Continuous no-till
  50. 50. Residue retention distinguishes Conservation Agriculture from conventional farming systems, which are characterized by leaving the soil bare and unprotected, exposed to climatic agents. 50
  51. 51. Situation in Malawi – Tilled & CA Tilled CA 51
  52. 52. (THOMAS, 2004) Water infiltration, just after a thunderstorm 52
  53. 53. Gains in Rainfall Infiltration Rate with CA Less flooding – improved water cycle Landers 2007 tillage + cover, measured no-till + cover, measured tillage, no cover, measured tillage + cover, calculated no-till + cover, calculated tillage, no cover, calculated Time (min.) AccumulatedInfiltrationrate[mm.h-1] Benefits of CA 53
  54. 54. Plough No-tillage 54
  55. 55. Earthworm population 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 plough no-tillage natural meadow biomassg/m2 other species Lumbricus
  56. 56. Good news: Dad’s Army with ‘rattle’ worms is ready to help! 56
  57. 57. Biodiversity oil food webs….. Above round ood webs &habitates or natural nemies of ests Ground- esting irds, nimals nd insects 57
  58. 58. Wheat yield response to nitrogen fertilization (Conventional Tillage Poduction) Carvalho et al., 2012 Zero N 58
  59. 59. Wheat yield response to nitrogen fertilization (after 11 years of CA) Carvalho et al., 2012 Zero N 59
  60. 60. Wheat yield response to nitrogen fertilization (according the model) Carvalho et al., 2012 60
  61. 61. Source: Dijkstra, 1998 Empirical evidence: The Frank Dijkstra farm in Ponta Grossa, Brazil 61
  62. 62. Source: FEBRAPDP & CONAB, 2012, FAO 2013 Empirical evidence: Brazil – adoption of CA and evolution of yields 62
  63. 63. Source: Peiretti, 2002 Empirical evidence: Argentina – adoption of CA and evolution of grain yields 63
  64. 64. Regional perspective – Southern Africa Conventional tillage yield (kg ha-1 ) 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 Conservationagriculturetreatmentyield(kgha-1 ) 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 Planting basins, Mozambique Jab planter, Mozambique Direct seeding, Zimbabwe Ripper, Zimbabwe Direct seeding, Zambia Ripper, Zambia Direct seeding, Malawi Intercropping, Malawi 64CIMMYT-Thierfelder et al.
  65. 65. Longer term maize grain yields on farmers fields in Malawi - Zidyana 65 Zidyana Year 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 YielddifferencebetweenCAandCP(kgha -1 ) -4000 -2000 0 2000 4000 6000 CAML CAM C CIMMYT– Thierfelder et al.
  66. 66. Economic viability-Malawi Lemu Zidyana CP CA CAL CP CA CAL Gross Receipts 528.6 881.5 979.7 1047.2 1309.5 1293.7 Variable costs Inputs 238.5 341.0 353.6 221.7 323.7 346.1 Labour days (6 hr days) 61.7 39.9 49.4 61.7 39.9 49.4 Labour costs 159.5 103.2 127.9 155.6 100.7 124.7 Sprayer costs 1.7 1.2 1.7 1.2 Total variable costs 398.1 445.9 482.8 377.3 426.1 472.1 Net returns (US$/ha) 130.5 435.5 497.1 669.9 883.3 821.9 Returns to labour (US$/day) 1.8 5.2 4.9 5.4 9.8 7.6 Source: Ngwira et al., 2012
  67. 67. Longer term maize grain yields on farmers fields in Malawi - Lemu Harvest year 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Maizebiomassyield(kgha -1 ) 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 Conventional control, maize (CPM) CA, maize (CAM) CA, maize/legume intercropping (CAML) a a a a b b aa b b a a b a a b a a 67 CIMMYT – Thierfelder et al.
  68. 68. Effect of CA on soil and water: • CA stops erosion, reverses degradation, aquifer recharge (bio-pores) • improved water quality CA and climate change: • adaptation: less runoff and flooding, better drought/ temperature tolerance • mitigation: reduced emission • 60% lower fuel use • 20% lower fertilizer/pesticides • 50% reduction in machinery • C-sequestration 0.05-0.2 t.ha-1.y-1 • no burning, no CO2 release Benefits of CA 68
  69. 69. Instituto de Agricultura Sostenible CSIC , Cordoba, Setiembre 2005 Farm power – 4 tractors with 384 HP under tillage & 2 tractors with 143 HP under no-till Farm near Evora, South Portugal 69
  70. 70. PARTING SHOT FROM TONY REYNOLDS So ladies & gentlemen, apart from: Increasing soil fertility Reducing diesel by 50% Reducing fertiliser by 80% Reducing nitrogen by 50% Sequestering soil carbon Reducing carbon footprint “Increasing yields” Increasing environmental benefits Saving the planet What else do you want! 70
  71. 71. • provisioning: food and clean water • regulating: climate and pests/diseases • supporting: nutrient cycles, pollination • cultural: recreation • conserving: biodiversity, erosion control Benefits of CA Better ecosystem services: 71
  72. 72. Examples of CA adoption world-wide 72
  73. 73. Mucuna after cotton fb by maize in Burkina Faso 73
  74. 74. Pigeon peas with maize residues - Kenya Lablab grown as a cover crop - Tanzania The use of lablab 74
  75. 75. Access to equipment and inputs: • for manual work -- Zambia What is needed?
  76. 76. Access to equipment and inputs: • for animal draft What is needed?
  77. 77. Tanzania History and Adoption of CA 77
  78. 78. Brazil Harvest Planting knife rolling History and Adoption of CA 78
  79. 79. 79 No-till seeding of wheat into rice stubble/residue - China
  80. 80. History and Adoption of CA No-till rice In North Korea 80
  81. 81. CHINA: innovation with raised-bed, zero-till SRI field; measured yield 13.4 t/ha; Liu’s 2001 yield (16 t/ha) set provincial yield record and persuaded Prof. Yuan Longping 81
  82. 82. All crops can be seeded in no-till systems Potatoes under no-till after rice in North Korea (Friedrich, 2006) 82
  83. 83. 83 FAO, 2012 Farmer Field School participants harvesting no-till IPM potatoes in lowland rice production systems, Thai Binh, Vietnam, 2011
  84. 84. 84 No-till cassava in orange grove -- Paraguay
  85. 85. 85 Onions under CA management on broad beds
  86. 86. 86 Oil Palm under CA management with mucuna ground cover in Malaysia
  87. 87. 87 Olive grove under CA management -- Lebanon
  88. 88. 88 Grapevines under CA management with vetch ground cover - Lebanon
  89. 89. No-tillage in Europe (W. Sturny) 89
  90. 90. No-Tillage in Switzerland (W. Sturny) 90
  91. 91. No-till maize Plough No-till SB No-till SBPlough 91 Switzerland
  92. 92. No-Tillage in France with Cover Crops (Alfred Gässler) 92
  93. 93. SPRING DRILLING ‘11’ LINCOLNSHIRE, UK 93
  94. 94. Thank you for your attention 94

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