Not Your Father’s NRM: Understanding NRM in Post-Conflict Countries

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Presented at the CAPRi International Workshop on Collective Action, Property Rights, and Conflict in Natural Resources Management. June 28th to July 1st, 2010, Siem Reap, Cambodia.
http://www.capri.cgiar.org/wks_0610.asp

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Not Your Father’s NRM: Understanding NRM in Post-Conflict Countries

  1. 1. Carl Bruch Environmental Law Institute
  2. 2. <ul><li>Partners: ELI, UNEP, Univ. of Tokyo </li></ul><ul><li>7 volumes, 150 chapters, 3,000 pages, 200 authors </li></ul><ul><li>> 50 countries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High-Value Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Livelihoods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remediation & Restoration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Governance & Institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synthesis </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Afghanistan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2006 Logging Decree </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good Intentions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bad Outcomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What Happened? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Context is Key </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Dem. Rep. Congo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NRM & Human Security in North Kivu </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bad Situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Made Better </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How? </li></ul></ul>Gorilla Rwanda (Source: R. Ruggiero/USFWS) Rape Survivors, South Kivu, DRC (source: L. Werchick/USAID)
  5. 5. <ul><li>NRM and conservation in post-conflict contexts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demands situational awareness … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and conflict-sensitive approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benefits from integration with broader efforts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Goals of presentation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduce distinct realities of post-conflict contexts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggest ways in which NRM projects should be tailored to those realities </li></ul></ul>Community Rebuilding, Indonesia (source: Virginia L. Foley/USAID)
  6. 6. <ul><li>Violent conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Post-conflict countries are at heightened risk for conflict recurrence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>[10] year window </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No clear line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different levels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multiple phases, which overlap </li></ul><ul><li>NRM often can and should begin before conflict ends </li></ul>Kabul River (Source: Farid/USAID)
  7. 7. <ul><ul><li>Non-NRM priorities, managed by non-NRM institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negotiate Peace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep the Peace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meet urgent humanitarian needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disarm, Demobilize, Reintegrate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Often as part of broader Security Sector Reform </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rebuild </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Economy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Infrastructure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Government and Governance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Society and the Rule of Law </li></ul></ul></ul>)
  8. 8. <ul><ul><li>Money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dependence on donor support </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Liquidating natural resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public Attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political Will </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Lack of clarity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Of status of natural resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Of who is doing what </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>At different levels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regarding the “rules” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Of objectives vis-à-vis one another </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Political/peace dimensions </li></ul><ul><li>Shifts in population </li></ul><ul><li>Land tenure </li></ul><ul><li>Formal vs. informal vs. effective control of resources </li></ul><ul><li>Diverse range of actors, mandates, and agendas </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Demand for peace dividends affects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Political will </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public attention </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can generate pressure for rapid extraction or concession of key resources </li></ul>Rain Forest and Settlements, Liberia (source: USAID) New Road, Mozambique (source: USAID)
  12. 12. <ul><li>Resource dependence is a recognized indicator of conflict risk </li></ul><ul><li>NRM is thus a critical component of peacebuilding </li></ul><ul><li>But rebuilding peace is an equally critical part of post-conflict NRM. </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness of linkages is key </li></ul>
  13. 13. Herder, Nigeria (source: Curt Carnemark/World Bank) Diamond Miner, Sierra Leone (source: USAID)
  14. 14. <ul><li>Vital resource during conflict </li></ul>Displaced Afghan Boy Drinking Water (source: Abdullah Shaheen/UN)
  15. 15. <ul><li>Casualty of Conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct Impacts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Illegal Logging </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oil spills </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Landmines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indirect Impacts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Population shifts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Damage to institutions, management systems, and infrastructure </li></ul></ul></ul>) Soldier Searches for Landmines, Rwanda (Source: USAID) Makeshift Camp, Rwanda (source: UN)
  16. 16. <ul><li>Bargaining chip </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allocation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revenue or benefit sharing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Co-management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buying off potential spoilers </li></ul></ul>DDR Talks, DRC (source: Martine Perret/UN )
  17. 17. <ul><li>Source of hope after conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seen as ready source of revenue for rebuilding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But … many challenges, including engaging the private sector to jumpstart economic growth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NRM under profound pressure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public </li></ul></ul>Community Forestry Program, Colombia (source: USAID)
  18. 18. <ul><li>Focus on situational awareness & conflict mgt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment, evaluation, and monitoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consult and Engage Stakeholders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transparency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accountability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Don’t exacerbate inequities in NR control and access </li></ul>Angolan Community Development Group (source: Benjamin Sandel/USAID)
  19. 19. <ul><li>Mainstream peace-building into NRM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human Security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Livelihoods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DDR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Governance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transitional Justice </li></ul></ul>Demobilized Soldiers in Community Fishing Program, DRC (source: UN) IDP Women, Darfur (source: USAID) srl3_nationbldg_policechief2 USAID
  20. 20. Different roads to peace. New Road, Mozambique (source: USAID) Boys on Rough Terrain, Afghanistan (source: USAID)

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