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  1. 1. Leadership Styles By: Bob Baes
  3. 3. Or You can be!
  4. 4. The word leadership can refer to: • The process of leading. • Those entities that perform one or more acts of leading. • The ability to affect human behavior so as to accomplish a mission designated by the leader Wikipidea
  5. 5. LEADERSHIP • It is the process of encouraging & helping others to work enthusiastically towards objectives. • It is the relationship in which one person (the leader) influences others to work together willingly on related tasks to attain goals desired by the leader & or group.
  6. 6. • The leader has responsibility for the followers. • Leaders have a responsibility towards society and those who are disadvantaged. • People who want to help others best do this by leading them.
  7. 7. Leadership Styles
  8. 8. Autocratic Leadership Style • The classical approach • Manager retains as much power and decision making authority as possible • Does not consult staff, nor allowed to give any input • Staff expected to obey orders without receiving any explanations • Structured set of rewards and punishments
  9. 9. • Greatly criticized during the past 30 years • • Gen X staff highly resistant • • Autocratic leaders: • • Rely on threats and punishment to influence staff • • Do not trust staff • • Do not allow for employee input
  10. 10. Not all bad • Sometimes the most effective style to use • When: • New, untrained staff do not know which tasks to perform or which procedures to follow • Effective supervision provided only through detailed orders and instructions • Staff do not respond to any other leadership style • Limited time in which to make a decision • A manager’s power challenged by staff • Work needs to be coordinated with another department or organization
  11. 11. Should not be used • • When: • Staff become tense, fearful, or resentful • Staff expect their opinions heard • Staff depend on their manager to make all their decisions • Low staff morale, high turnover and absenteeism and work stoppage
  12. 12. Bureaucratic • Manages “by the book¨ • Everything done according to procedure or policy • If not covered by the book, referred to the next level above • A police officer not a leader • Enforces the rules
  13. 13. Most effective • When: • Staff performing routine tasks over and over • Staff need to understand certain standards or procedures. • Safety or security training conducted • Staff performing tasks that require handling cash
  14. 14. Ineffective • When: • Work habits form that are hard to break, especially if they are no longer useful • Staff lose their interest in their jobs and in their co-workers • Staff do only what is expected of them and no more
  15. 15. Democratic Leadership Style • • Also known as participative style • • Encourages staff to be a part of the decision making • • Keeps staff informed about everything that affects their work and shares decision making and problem solving responsibilities
  16. 16. Democratic: • Encourages decision making from different perspectives – leadership may be emphasised throughout the organization – Consultative: process of consultation before decisions are taken – Persuasive: Leader takes decision and seeks to persuade others that the decision is correct
  17. 17. The Leader • A coach who has the final say, but gathers information from staff before making a decision • Produce high quality and high quantity work for long periods of time • Staff like the trust they receive and respond with cooperation, team spirit, and high morale
  18. 18. The Democratic Leader • Develops plans to help staff evaluate their own performance • Allows staff to establish goals • Encourages staff to grow on the job and be promoted • Recognizes and encourages achievement
  19. 19. Most Effective • When: • Wants to keep staff informed about matters that affect them. • Wants staff to share in decision-making and problem-solving duties. • Wants to provide opportunities for staff to develop a high sense of personal growth and job satisfaction. • A large or complex problem that requires lots of input to solve • Changes must be made or problems solved that affect staff • Want to encourage team building and participation
  20. 20. Democratic leadership should not be used when … • Not enough time to get everyone‟s input • Easier and more cost-effective for the manager to make the decision • Can‟t afford mistakes • Manager feels threatened by this type of leadership • Staff safety is a critical concern
  21. 21. Laissez-Faire • Also known as the “hands- off¨ style • The manager provides little or no direction and gives staff as much freedom as possible • All authority or power given to the staff and they determine goals, make decisions, and resolve problems on their own
  22. 22. An effective style to use … • Staff highly skilled, experienced, and educated • Staff have pride in their work and the drive to do it successfully on their own • Outside experts, such as staff specialists or consultants used • Staff trustworthy and experienced
  23. 23. Should not be used • Staff feel insecure at the unavailability of a manager • The manager cannot provide regular feedback to staff on how well they are doing • Managers unable to thank staff for their good work • The manager doesn‟t understand his or her responsibilities and hoping the staff cover for him or her
  24. 24. Varying Leadership Style • While the proper leadership style depends on the situation, there are three other factors that also influence which leadership style to use. • 1. The manager‟s personal background. What personality, knowledge, values, ethics, and experiences does the manager have. What does he or she think will work? • 2. The employees being supervised. Employees are individuals with different personalities and backgrounds. The leadership style managers use will vary depending upon the individual employee and what he or she will respond best to. • 3. The company. The traditions, values, philosophy, and concerns of the company will influence how a manager
  25. 25. EXAMPLE (A good leader uses all styles, depending on what forces are involved between the followers, the leader, and the situation)
  26. 26. • Using an authoritarian style on a new employee who is just learning the job. The leader is competent and a good coach. The employee is motivated to learn a new skill. The situation is a new environment for the employee. • Using a participative (DEMOCRATIC) style with a team of workers who know their job. The leader knows the problem well, but he wants to create a team where the employees take ownership of the project. The employees know their jobs and want to become part of the team. The situation allows time.
  27. 27. • Using a delegative style with a worker who knows more about the job than you. You cannot do everything! The employee needs to take ownership of her job. Also, the situation might call for you to be at other places doing other things. • Using ALL: Telling your employees that a procedure is not working correctly and a new one must be established (authoritarian). Asking for their ideas and input on creating a new procedure (participative). Delegating tasks in order to implement the new procedure (delegative).
  28. 28. JOURNALING ACTIVITY • “Case Analysis of a Nurse Leader or Manager” • Identify a nurse you consider as a Leader or Manager and describe briefly the person‟s role/job/position/ and why you selected him/her.
  29. 29. Journal I • What leadership style is used by the nurse? • What Filipino style of leadership is evident in the person? • What power is used by the person as a Leader or Manager?
  30. 30. SERVANT LEADERSHIP • Life and leadership in the service of the Lord. • Nurse leaders should use their gifts from God according to the grace given to them. • They should talk of God‟s message if they are gifted with the talent to speak in proportion to their faith: if to serve, they should serve; if to teach, they should teach; if to encourage other people, they should do so.
  31. 31. • They should share with others generously; if they have the authority, they should work hard, and they should show acts of mercy with cheerfulness. • In nursing, is selfless commitment and devotion to duty. • It recognizes the necessity of providing holistic care to patient – physically and spiritually. • Nurse leaders are duty-bound in the promotion of spiritual environment for their patients.
  32. 32. Servant Leadership • A practical philosophy focusing on people who choose to serve first and then lead as a way of expanding service • Servant leaders are servants first with the object of making sure that other people's highest priority needs are being served • Leaders put the needs of their followers first; these leaders rare in business
  33. 33. CASAGRA TRANSFORMATIVE LEADERSHIP THEORY • The term “CASAGRA Transformative Leadership” is a psycho-spiritual model and coined after the name of the investigator. This consists of the three S‟s namely: Servant-leader spirituality, Self- mastery, and Special expertise in nursing.
  34. 34. The Transformational Leadership • Make change happen in: • Self, • Others, • Groups, and • Organizations • Charisma a special leadership style commonly associated with transformational leadership; extremely powerful, extremely hard to teach
  35. 35. Filipino Styles of Leadership
  36. 36. Types of Leadership Style Paternalistic style • Leader acts as a „father figure‟ • Paternalistic leader makes decision but may consult • Believes in the need to support staff
  37. 37. Leadership styles Authoritative Style • Clear about what he is doing and why he is doing it • Instills the same clarity in his followers • Determines the end and leaves the choice of means to his people.
  38. 38. Leadership style… Benevolent style • Keeps employees happy in harmony • Ensures better communication • Relationship builder
  39. 39. Leadership style… Coaching style • Helps employees to identify their strengths weakness • Aligning employees • Encourages long term development • Issues challenging assignments
  40. 40. Leadership style… Pacesetting style • Sets high standards and adheres on it • Passionate about increase in quality and productivity • You perform or leave organization is the attitude
  41. 41. Powers and Authority
  42. 42. Power • Ability to impose the will of one person or group to bring about certain behaviors in other persons or groups.
  43. 43. Types of Power • Legitimate - power through official authority from the organization. • Referrent - power through charisma and personal characteristics. • Reward - power through providing rewards or promise of reward to others.
  44. 44. • Expert - power through possession of special knowledge, skill or ability • Coercive - power though fear, threat or coercion • Connection - power from coalition of individuals working together
  45. 45. Authority • Legitimate right to give commands, to act in the interest of an organization. • Conferred power to perform a service. • Authority is given and can be taken away • Authority is conferred as part of an exchange
  46. 46. Formal and Informal Authority • Formal Authority: comes with various powers of the office and it is granted because the office holder promises to meet a set of explicit expectations (job descriptions, legislated mandates, etc.).
  47. 47. Importance and relevance of the position • SOURCES OF POSITIONAL POWER • Formal authority • Relevance • Centrality • Autonomy • Visibility
  48. 48. • Informal Authority: rests on trust and comes with “the power to influence attitude or behavior beyond compliance.” • Trust: Predictability on values and skills.
  49. 49. Credibility, Trust, Respect, Admiration • SOURCES OF PERSONAL POWER • Expertise • Track record • Attractiveness • Effort
  50. 50. As for the best leaders, People do not notice Their existence The next best, the people honor And praise The next, the people fear And the next, the people hate When the best leader’s work is done The people say, “we did it ourselves”
  51. 51. The six most important words: I admit I made a mistake
  52. 52. The five most important words: You did a good job
  53. 53. The four most important words: What is your opinion
  54. 54. The three most important words: If you, please.
  55. 55. The two most important words: Thank you
  56. 56. The one most important word: We
  57. 57. The least most important word: I
  58. 58. To lead you must first be able to follow: for without followers, there can be no leaders.