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  3. 3. INTRODUCTION• Success of a business concern is dependent upon the ability of its leadership. Leadership exists in any types of organization. Whenever and in whatever situation if someone tries to influence the behavior of another individual or a group, there is Leadership. BY: MANISHA VAGHELA 3
  4. 4.  In an organization, wherever an individual has subordinates. He may act as a Leader. The efforts of subordinates are to be channelised in the right direction. As leaders, they are not only the responsible for directing their followers but also responsible for the attainment of goals of the organization. It is believed that leaders are born and not made. At the same time, a few people also believe that leaders are not born but made. But generally, leaders are born and also made. BY: MANISHA VAGHELA 4
  5. 5. MEANING OF LEADERSHIP• Human beings have to be effectively guided towards a desired set of actions so that they contribute towards the organizational goals with zeal and confidence. “Zeal is ardor, earnestness and intensity in the execution of work; confidence reflects experience and technical ability of individuals to influence the behaviour of others is referred to as leadership. The leaders exploit the human potential and transform it into output. Leadership is beneficial not only for the organization but also fir the individuals concerned. BY: MANISHA VAGHELA 5
  6. 6. DEFINITION OF LEADERSHIP1) Koontz and ODonnell said, “Leadership is generally defined as influence, the art of process of influencing people so that they will strive willingly towards the achievement of group goals.”2) Allen, “Leadership is one who guides and directs other people. He must give effective direction and purpose.”3) According to the Encyclopedia of social sciences, “Leadership refers to the relation between an individual and a group around some common interest and behaving in a manner directed or determined by the leader.” BY: MANISHA VAGHELA 6
  7. 7. 4) In the words of peter F.Drucker, “Leadership is the lifting of man’s visions to higher rights, the raising of man’s performance to higher standards, the building of man’s personality beyond its normal limitation.”5) Ordway Tead asserts, “Leadership is that combination of qualities by the possession of which one is able to get something done by others, chiefly because through his influence, they become willing to do so.”6) Robert C. Appleby defines, “Leadership is a means of direction, is the ability of the management to induce subordinate to work towards group ideals with confidence and keenness.” BY: MANISHA VAGHELA 7
  8. 8. 7) Alford and Beatty Opines, “Leadership is the ability to secure desirable actions from a group or followers voluntarily without the use of coercion.”8) R. T. Livingston believes, “Leadership is the ability to awaken in others the desire to follow a common objective.”9) George R. Terry says, “Leadership is the activity of influencing people to strive willingly for mutual objectives.” BY: MANISHA VAGHELA 8
  9. 9. IMPORTANCE OF LEADERSHIP1.) Perfect organization structure : An organization structure can not provide for all kinds of relationships. That is why, informal relationships are made to exist within the framework or formal organization structure. But the organization structure is complete or perfect with the help of effective leadership.2) Directing group activities : The personal conduct and behaviour of a leader can direct others to achieve organizational goals. The main responsibility of a leader is to get the work BY: MANISHA VAGHELA 9
  10. 10. • done effectively by the followers. The followers can not work hard and effectively without leadership. A leader alone can consolidate the efforts and direct them towards the goal.3) Technological, economic and social changes : There is frequent change in technology, economic and social structure in the present computer world. So, the organization should change its operation and style. This is possible only with the help of effective leadership. BY: MANISHA VAGHELA 10
  11. 11. Conti…• If the changes do not take place, the organization can not survive.4) Better utilization of manpower : A leader treats with equal importance, plans, policies and programmes of an organization. The plans, policies and programmes do not work themselves. There is a need for a leader. The leader implements the plans, policies and programmes to utilise the available manpower effectively and get highest production with minimum human cost. BY: MANISHA VAGHELA 11
  12. 12. Conti…5) Avoiding imbalances : An organization grows in size and complexity with the imbalances. Complexity arises due to the introduction of new functions. The reason is that the introduction of new functions resulted in increased levels of management. So, there is a problem of command, co-ordination and control. A leader can tackle these problems and maintain balances.6) Source of motivation : Simply, the existence of leadership does not motivate the workers. The leadership style should be utilised to motivate the workers according to the situations prevailing. The achievement of goals is doubtful in the absence of leadership. BY: MANISHA VAGHELA 12
  13. 13. Conti…7) Developing good human relations : Human relations represent the relations between the leader and the followers. An efficient leader can develop the skill of the followers and promote self- confidence apart from motivation. Next, the leader creates opportunity to show their abilities and induces the followers to work towards the accomplishment of goals. In this way, the leader promotes the co-operative attitude of workers and maintains better relations with them. BY: MANISHA VAGHELA 13
  14. 14. Conti…8) Reconciliation of goals : An organization has its own goals. The employees of the organization have their own goals. They are working mainly for achieving their goals instead of achieving organizational goals. An effective leadership can reconcile the goals of organizations and employees. It is necessary for the success of an organization. BY: MANISHA VAGHELA 14
  15. 15. Conti…9) Promoting the spirit of co-ordination : A dynamic leader can co- ordinate the activities of the subordinate. In an organization, workers are working in groups, so there is a need for co- ordination among the group members. A leader promotes the spirit of co-ordination among the workers. BY: MANISHA VAGHELA 15
  16. 16. Conti…10) Fulfilling Social responsibilities : Social responsibilities refer to the high standard of living to workers, higher productivity and income to the organization, more revenue to the government, reasonable price to consumers and fair return on investment to the investors. These could be achieved with the help of effective leadership. Only an efficient leader can get work done to fulfill social responsibilities. BY: MANISHA VAGHELA 16
  17. 17. Qualities of Leadership• A leader should have some leadership qualities in order to provide effective leadership. According to Henry Fayol, a leader should have the qualities of : 1.)health and physical fitness, 2) mental vigour and energy, 3) steady, persistent thoughtful determination, 4) sound general education, and 5) management ability embracing foresight and the art of handling men. BY: MANISHA VAGHELA 17
  18. 18. Conti…• The important qualities of a leader are discussed :1) Physical appearance and strength : The leader has to put in hard work physically. He should have a capacity to work for long hours than others. It proves the diligence of the leader to his followers easily. BY: MANISHA VAGHELA 18
  19. 19. Conti… 2) Mental vigour : The leader is also strong mentally. It means that the leader is expected to withstand strain in finishing the work properly. 3) Emotional stability : The leader should not be moved by emotion or sentiment. He should analyses the problem rationally and take a decision without bias. The leader should not have short temper. Besides, he should show firmness in his decision and not show despair or indecision on his face. BY: MANISHA VAGHELA 19
  20. 20. Conti… 4) Sense of judgement : A leader should know the human psychology. He should understand the behaviour, needs, thoughts, movies etc. of his followers. This will help him to take a strategic decision and get it recognized by his followers. Besides, he can set right his actions. 5) Goodwill : A leader should be able to understand the feelings of others. He takes decision on the basis of expectation of his followers. If he does not do so, he will not win the goodwill of his followers. BY: MANISHA VAGHELA 20
  21. 21. Conti… 6) Motivation : A leader should know the motivation techniques and how to use them. If a person is forced to do his job under the threat of getting punishment , he will not perform his work properly. At the same time, if she same person is motivated, he will perform his job more than the expectations of his leader. 7) Communication skill : Whatever the information needed to workers, it should be passed through the leader. So, the leader should communicate the information to the workers. Now, the leader is acting as an effective speaker BY: MANISHA VAGHELA 21
  22. 22. Conti…• and writer. If the leader has communication skills, he will direct his followers effectively.8) Guiding ability : The leader acts as a teacher to new workers. So the leader helps his followers to learn their work. He should train the workers by work and deed to complete the job effectively. BY: MANISHA VAGHELA 22
  23. 23. Conti…9) Sociability : An able leader can easily mingle with the workers. The workers should be encouraged to discuss their problems and difficulties with their boss. The workers frequently. The leader should show his keen interest to develop the ability of workers.10) Technical knowledge : A leader should possess a through knowledge of the theory and practice of his job. Besides, he should know the BY: MANISHA VAGHELA 23
  24. 24. Conti…• Current developments in his job along with technical knowledge. For example, a computer department manager should know all the latest developments in computers.• These are some qualities of a leader. Besides, he should be honest, sincere and fair. Sincere, fair and honest people are mostly liked by others and their leadership is accepted by one and all. BY: MANISHA VAGHELA 24
  25. 25. Summary• Leadership may be defined as the ability to influence and direct the task-related activities of the members of group. A leader is a goal-setter, planner, executive, expert, group representative, administrator of rewards and punishments and a symbol of the group.• Three approaches to the study of leadership are: The traits approach, behavioural approach and contingency approach.• The traits approach has not proved useful since no major traits have been identified that BY: MANISHA VAGHELA 25
  26. 26. Conti…• constantly distinguish leaders from non-leaders. The behavioural approach has focused on leadership styles. Studies of leadership styles have distinguished between a task-oriented, authoritarian or initiating structure and an employee-centered, democratic or participative style. These studies seem to suggest that there is one best leadership style-one which combines democracy with high production. But this is refuted by the contingency approach which says that leadership is situational. This means that there are a number of factors peculiar to a situation which determine the effectiveness or otherwise of a leadership style.• According to Douglas McGregor, an effective leader is the one who creates conditions in which his subordinates feel secure and independent. BY: MANISHA VAGHELA 26
  28. 28. Bibliography1) Essentials of management , P. N. Reddy, P. C. Tripathi, H. R. Appannaiah, Himalaya publishing House.2) Principle Of management, T. Ramasamy, Himalaya publishing House.3) Students’ Guide to management , Dr. Neeru Vasishth, Taxmann Allied services pvt. Ltd. 4.) Principles of management , P. C. Tripathi, P. N. Reddy, TATA McGraw – HILL Publishing company Limited, New Delhi. BY: MANISHA VAGHELA 28
  29. 29. Thank you vaghela_manisha13 BY: MANISHA VAGHELA 29