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Leadership
Learning Objectives
       Identify the main obstacles to effective leadership in the
       organization

       Understand the nature of leadership – both formal and
       lateral

       Understand a range of leadership skills

       Use the skills and processes presented techniques to
       improve the quality of leadership

       Explain the benefits of having effective leadership in the
       organization
What is Leadership?
What is Leadership?

• Leadership is not something you do to people
  it is something you do with people



         Blanchard, Zagarmi and Zagarmi 1994
Leadership Defined

 Creating &                Meaning


 Genuine Caring About People


 External Focus


 Awareness of the Big Picture


 Clear Honest Communication
Leadership and the Organization



 The organization needs to have leadership because leaders provide:
    •   Direction
    •   Motivation
    •   Inspiration


       These allow ordinary people within the organization to produce
   extraordinary results over the long term.
Understanding Leadership


 Leadership is the essential ingredient that turns visions and plans into reality
 Effective leaders harness the energies and gain the commitment of their people
  towards great achievements
 Leadership is the ability to get others to do willingly the things you want them to
  do for you
 Key elements are therefore
     • Vision
                Clarity in knowing where you need to get to
     • Motivation
             Spurring the people to work with you to achieve the vision
What Makes an Effective Leader?


   Traits


   Behavioral


   Situational
What Makes an Effective Leader?
The factors that make an effective leader can be classified under three headings:




                                    Traits
                                   Approach




                      Behavioral
                      Approach


                                          Situational
                                           Approach
What Makes An Effective Leader?



 Current thinking is that an effective leader possesses
     • key characteristics from the Traits approach
     • Skills and behaviors from the Behavioral Approach
     • Use these in conjunction with appropriate responses from the Situational
       Approach
Leadership & Management
Leadership v/s Management

 Activity           Management         Leadership

  Creating an         Planning and       Establishing
    agenda             budgeting          direction

  Developing a
 human network        Organizing and
                                        Aligning people
for achieving the        staffing
     agenda

                     Controlling and    Motivating and
Executing plans
                     problem solving      inspiring
Leadership v/s Management
• There has to be a balance

   – Managers need to have some leadership skills
   – Leaders need to have some management skills

   – A mix of both is what makes a leader successful in today’s world.
Leadership Style
Leadership Style



 Can be defined as
   • The way in which you carry out your functions as a leader
   • A consistent pattern of behavior
   • A behavior that has been developed by you consciously or sub-
      consciously over time
Leadership Styles
Autocratic Leadership Style

Bureaucratic Leadership Style

Democratic Leadership Style


Laissez-Faire Leadership Style
Autocratic Leadership Style
•   Manager retains as much power and decision-making authority
•   Manager does not consult employees, nor are they allowed to give any input

Should be used when:
• New, untrained employees join
• There is limited time in which to make a decision

Should be avoided when:
• Employees expect to have their opinions heard
• Employees become tense, fearful, or resentful
Bureaucratic Leadership Style
•   The leader ensures that everything must be done according to procedure or policy
•   If things are not done according to the book, the manager refers to the next level
    above him or her

Should be used when:
• Employees are performing routine tasks over and over
• Safety or security training is being conducted

Should be avoided when:
• Employees do only what is expected of them and nothing more
• Employees lose their interest in their jobs and in their fellow workers.
Democratic Leadership Style

•   Also called the participative style as it encourages employees to be a part of the
    decision making
•   Manager shares decision making and problem solving responsibilities
•   Can produce high quality and high quantity work for long periods of time

Should be used when:
• Highly skilled or experienced employees
• When implementing operational changes

Should be avoided when:
• New, untrained employees join
• When time is limited
Laissez-Faire Leadership Style
•   Also known as the "hands-off¨ style. The manager provides little or no direction and
    gives employees as much freedom as possible
•   All authority or power is given to the employees and they must determine goals,
    make decisions, and resolve problems on their own.

Should be used when:
• Employees are highly skilled, experienced, and educated
• Outside experts, such as staff specialists or consultants are being used

Should be avoided when:
• If It makes employees feel insecure at the unavailability of a manager.
• The manager cannot provide regular feedback to let employees know how well they
   are doing or when the Manager doesn't understand his or her responsibilities and is
   hoping the employees can cover for him or her
Leading A Team
Leadership & Teams
 In today’s organization teams are
                                           Forces and Leadership Style
   involved in every function
 For teams to achieve maximum              There are three forces that need to be
                                             considered
   effectiveness it is important that          • Forces within you
   appropriate leadership be shown so as         ― Influenced by
                                                     background, knowledge, value
   to provide:                                       s and experience
    •    Direction                             • Forces in the team
                                                  ― Influenced by the leaders
    •    Motivation                                  personality, their relationship
    •    Cohesion                                    with the leader and their
                                                     expectations of the leader
                                               • Forces in the situation
                                                 ― Influenced by the nature of the
                                                     task, time available, customer
                                                     demands, resource availability
Motivational Skills
The leader’s job often includes having to change the attitudes and behaviors
of the followers This can be achieved by:

     Giving praise and honest appreciation when it is due
     Calling people’s attention to mistakes - but indirectly
     Talk about your own mistakes before criticizing another person
     Ask questions instead of giving direct orders
     Let the other person save face
     Praise very improvement
     Give the person a fine reputation to live up to
     Use encouragement to make any fault seem easy to fix
     Make the other person happy about doing as you suggest
Lateral Leadership
Lateral Leadership



 Definition: Getting things done when you are not the boss
 This may be required or appropriate when
    • Cross Functional Teams are involved
    • Project Team Management is required
                                              Lateral Leadership by Fisher & Sharp 1998
Lateral Leadership Process
 There is a 5 step process for lateral leadership

      • Defining the purpose by clarifying the results to be
1.      achieved

      • Think about the process and the outcomes
2.

      • Integrate thinking and doing to learn
3.

      • Offer everyone a challenging role so as to engage
4.      hearts, minds and bodies

      • Give clear feedback in a constructive way
5.
Keeping Leadership On-Course
• The key components for this are what defined leadership at the
  beginning of this module



   Creating &                                  External Focus
 Communicating          Genuine Caring
    Meaning              About People




            Awareness of the        Clear Honest
              Big Picture          Communication
Final Comment

An army of deer led by a lion is
 more to feared than an army
    of lions lead by a deer

                 Phillip II of Macedonia
Thank you 

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Leadership

  • 2. Learning Objectives Identify the main obstacles to effective leadership in the organization Understand the nature of leadership – both formal and lateral Understand a range of leadership skills Use the skills and processes presented techniques to improve the quality of leadership Explain the benefits of having effective leadership in the organization
  • 4. What is Leadership? • Leadership is not something you do to people it is something you do with people Blanchard, Zagarmi and Zagarmi 1994
  • 5. Leadership Defined  Creating & Meaning  Genuine Caring About People  External Focus  Awareness of the Big Picture  Clear Honest Communication
  • 6. Leadership and the Organization  The organization needs to have leadership because leaders provide: • Direction • Motivation • Inspiration These allow ordinary people within the organization to produce extraordinary results over the long term.
  • 7. Understanding Leadership  Leadership is the essential ingredient that turns visions and plans into reality  Effective leaders harness the energies and gain the commitment of their people towards great achievements  Leadership is the ability to get others to do willingly the things you want them to do for you  Key elements are therefore • Vision Clarity in knowing where you need to get to • Motivation Spurring the people to work with you to achieve the vision
  • 8. What Makes an Effective Leader?  Traits  Behavioral  Situational
  • 9. What Makes an Effective Leader? The factors that make an effective leader can be classified under three headings: Traits Approach Behavioral Approach Situational Approach
  • 10. What Makes An Effective Leader?  Current thinking is that an effective leader possesses • key characteristics from the Traits approach • Skills and behaviors from the Behavioral Approach • Use these in conjunction with appropriate responses from the Situational Approach
  • 12. Leadership v/s Management Activity Management Leadership Creating an Planning and Establishing agenda budgeting direction Developing a human network Organizing and Aligning people for achieving the staffing agenda Controlling and Motivating and Executing plans problem solving inspiring
  • 13. Leadership v/s Management • There has to be a balance – Managers need to have some leadership skills – Leaders need to have some management skills – A mix of both is what makes a leader successful in today’s world.
  • 15. Leadership Style  Can be defined as • The way in which you carry out your functions as a leader • A consistent pattern of behavior • A behavior that has been developed by you consciously or sub- consciously over time
  • 16. Leadership Styles Autocratic Leadership Style Bureaucratic Leadership Style Democratic Leadership Style Laissez-Faire Leadership Style
  • 17. Autocratic Leadership Style • Manager retains as much power and decision-making authority • Manager does not consult employees, nor are they allowed to give any input Should be used when: • New, untrained employees join • There is limited time in which to make a decision Should be avoided when: • Employees expect to have their opinions heard • Employees become tense, fearful, or resentful
  • 18. Bureaucratic Leadership Style • The leader ensures that everything must be done according to procedure or policy • If things are not done according to the book, the manager refers to the next level above him or her Should be used when: • Employees are performing routine tasks over and over • Safety or security training is being conducted Should be avoided when: • Employees do only what is expected of them and nothing more • Employees lose their interest in their jobs and in their fellow workers.
  • 19. Democratic Leadership Style • Also called the participative style as it encourages employees to be a part of the decision making • Manager shares decision making and problem solving responsibilities • Can produce high quality and high quantity work for long periods of time Should be used when: • Highly skilled or experienced employees • When implementing operational changes Should be avoided when: • New, untrained employees join • When time is limited
  • 20. Laissez-Faire Leadership Style • Also known as the "hands-off¨ style. The manager provides little or no direction and gives employees as much freedom as possible • All authority or power is given to the employees and they must determine goals, make decisions, and resolve problems on their own. Should be used when: • Employees are highly skilled, experienced, and educated • Outside experts, such as staff specialists or consultants are being used Should be avoided when: • If It makes employees feel insecure at the unavailability of a manager. • The manager cannot provide regular feedback to let employees know how well they are doing or when the Manager doesn't understand his or her responsibilities and is hoping the employees can cover for him or her
  • 22. Leadership & Teams  In today’s organization teams are Forces and Leadership Style involved in every function  For teams to achieve maximum  There are three forces that need to be considered effectiveness it is important that • Forces within you appropriate leadership be shown so as ― Influenced by background, knowledge, value to provide: s and experience • Direction • Forces in the team ― Influenced by the leaders • Motivation personality, their relationship • Cohesion with the leader and their expectations of the leader • Forces in the situation ― Influenced by the nature of the task, time available, customer demands, resource availability
  • 23. Motivational Skills The leader’s job often includes having to change the attitudes and behaviors of the followers This can be achieved by:  Giving praise and honest appreciation when it is due  Calling people’s attention to mistakes - but indirectly  Talk about your own mistakes before criticizing another person  Ask questions instead of giving direct orders  Let the other person save face  Praise very improvement  Give the person a fine reputation to live up to  Use encouragement to make any fault seem easy to fix  Make the other person happy about doing as you suggest
  • 25. Lateral Leadership  Definition: Getting things done when you are not the boss  This may be required or appropriate when • Cross Functional Teams are involved • Project Team Management is required Lateral Leadership by Fisher & Sharp 1998
  • 26. Lateral Leadership Process  There is a 5 step process for lateral leadership • Defining the purpose by clarifying the results to be 1. achieved • Think about the process and the outcomes 2. • Integrate thinking and doing to learn 3. • Offer everyone a challenging role so as to engage 4. hearts, minds and bodies • Give clear feedback in a constructive way 5.
  • 27. Keeping Leadership On-Course • The key components for this are what defined leadership at the beginning of this module Creating & External Focus Communicating Genuine Caring Meaning About People Awareness of the Clear Honest Big Picture Communication
  • 28. Final Comment An army of deer led by a lion is more to feared than an army of lions lead by a deer Phillip II of Macedonia