Learning Objectives Identify the main obstacles to effective leadership in the organization Understand the nature of leadership – both formal and lateral Understand a range of leadership skills Use the skills and processes presented techniques to improve the quality of leadership Explain the benefits of having effective leadership in the organization
What is Leadership?• Leadership is not something you do to people it is something you do with people Blanchard, Zagarmi and Zagarmi 1994
Leadership Defined Creating & Meaning Genuine Caring About People External Focus Awareness of the Big Picture Clear Honest Communication
Leadership and the Organization The organization needs to have leadership because leaders provide: • Direction • Motivation • Inspiration These allow ordinary people within the organization to produce extraordinary results over the long term.
Understanding Leadership Leadership is the essential ingredient that turns visions and plans into reality Effective leaders harness the energies and gain the commitment of their people towards great achievements Leadership is the ability to get others to do willingly the things you want them to do for you Key elements are therefore • Vision Clarity in knowing where you need to get to • Motivation Spurring the people to work with you to achieve the vision
What Makes an Effective Leader? Traits Behavioral Situational
What Makes an Effective Leader?The factors that make an effective leader can be classified under three headings: Traits Approach Behavioral Approach Situational Approach
What Makes An Effective Leader? Current thinking is that an effective leader possesses • key characteristics from the Traits approach • Skills and behaviors from the Behavioral Approach • Use these in conjunction with appropriate responses from the Situational Approach
Leadership v/s Management Activity Management Leadership Creating an Planning and Establishing agenda budgeting direction Developing a human network Organizing and Aligning peoplefor achieving the staffing agenda Controlling and Motivating andExecuting plans problem solving inspiring
Leadership v/s Management• There has to be a balance – Managers need to have some leadership skills – Leaders need to have some management skills – A mix of both is what makes a leader successful in today’s world.
Leadership Style Can be defined as • The way in which you carry out your functions as a leader • A consistent pattern of behavior • A behavior that has been developed by you consciously or sub- consciously over time
Autocratic Leadership Style• Manager retains as much power and decision-making authority• Manager does not consult employees, nor are they allowed to give any inputShould be used when:• New, untrained employees join• There is limited time in which to make a decisionShould be avoided when:• Employees expect to have their opinions heard• Employees become tense, fearful, or resentful
Bureaucratic Leadership Style• The leader ensures that everything must be done according to procedure or policy• If things are not done according to the book, the manager refers to the next level above him or herShould be used when:• Employees are performing routine tasks over and over• Safety or security training is being conductedShould be avoided when:• Employees do only what is expected of them and nothing more• Employees lose their interest in their jobs and in their fellow workers.
Democratic Leadership Style• Also called the participative style as it encourages employees to be a part of the decision making• Manager shares decision making and problem solving responsibilities• Can produce high quality and high quantity work for long periods of timeShould be used when:• Highly skilled or experienced employees• When implementing operational changesShould be avoided when:• New, untrained employees join• When time is limited
Laissez-Faire Leadership Style• Also known as the "hands-off¨ style. The manager provides little or no direction and gives employees as much freedom as possible• All authority or power is given to the employees and they must determine goals, make decisions, and resolve problems on their own.Should be used when:• Employees are highly skilled, experienced, and educated• Outside experts, such as staff specialists or consultants are being usedShould be avoided when:• If It makes employees feel insecure at the unavailability of a manager.• The manager cannot provide regular feedback to let employees know how well they are doing or when the Manager doesnt understand his or her responsibilities and is hoping the employees can cover for him or her
Leadership & Teams In today’s organization teams are Forces and Leadership Style involved in every function For teams to achieve maximum There are three forces that need to be considered effectiveness it is important that • Forces within you appropriate leadership be shown so as ― Influenced by background, knowledge, value to provide: s and experience • Direction • Forces in the team ― Influenced by the leaders • Motivation personality, their relationship • Cohesion with the leader and their expectations of the leader • Forces in the situation ― Influenced by the nature of the task, time available, customer demands, resource availability
Motivational SkillsThe leader’s job often includes having to change the attitudes and behaviorsof the followers This can be achieved by: Giving praise and honest appreciation when it is due Calling people’s attention to mistakes - but indirectly Talk about your own mistakes before criticizing another person Ask questions instead of giving direct orders Let the other person save face Praise very improvement Give the person a fine reputation to live up to Use encouragement to make any fault seem easy to fix Make the other person happy about doing as you suggest
Lateral Leadership Definition: Getting things done when you are not the boss This may be required or appropriate when • Cross Functional Teams are involved • Project Team Management is required Lateral Leadership by Fisher & Sharp 1998
Lateral Leadership Process There is a 5 step process for lateral leadership • Defining the purpose by clarifying the results to be1. achieved • Think about the process and the outcomes2. • Integrate thinking and doing to learn3. • Offer everyone a challenging role so as to engage4. hearts, minds and bodies • Give clear feedback in a constructive way5.
Keeping Leadership On-Course• The key components for this are what defined leadership at the beginning of this module Creating & External Focus Communicating Genuine Caring Meaning About People Awareness of the Clear Honest Big Picture Communication
Final CommentAn army of deer led by a lion is more to feared than an army of lions lead by a deer Phillip II of Macedonia