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    • PROJECT MEMBERS  HARSHIL DEVANI (100410106012)  AKSHAY PATEL (100410106016)  HARDIK BABARIYA (100410106021)  SHASHANT PANCHAL (100410106026)  ASHISH PATEL (100410106040)  EXTERNAL GUIDE  INTERNAL GUIDE :Pramod Dhavan :Dhruti J Dhyani
    • CONSTRUCTION AND DESIGN OF BRIDGE  Study of construction of components of bridge on the MAHI river near VASAD.
    • CONTENT SITE LOCATION SITE DETAIL BASIC TERMS OF BRIDGE BORE LOG DETAIL STANDARD PENETRARION TEST(SPT) PLATE LOAD TEST FOUNDATION GROUP ACTION OF PILES SUB-STRUCTURE
    • SITE LOCATION :  This is the site of work at chainage of 93+263 to 93+827 which is part of NH-8, 6 lane project from ahemdabad to vadodara.
    • SITE DETAIL :  We are doing study of construction and design of discontinuous T-type and major bridge on the MAHI river at chainage of 93+263 to 93+827 as a part of 6 lane project of NH-8 from ahemdabad to vadodara.  This project is taken by IRB infrastructure devlopmer LTD and constructed by VMC (Vijay mistry company).  It’s a DBFOT (design build finance operate transfer) type project.It is the busiest national high-way of INDIA.  Width of the bridge is 17 m and total length of the bridge is 564.00 m which consist 17 piers and 16 spans, Length of each span is 33.5 m, Proposed road level is 32.600 m it’s measured from sea level. HFL (high flood level) and LFL(low flood level) of bridge is simultaneously 27.990m to 7.800m.
    •  An important first step in understanding the principles and processes of bridge construction is learning basic bridge terminology.  Although bridges vary widely in material and design, there are many components those are common to all bridges.  In general, these components may be classified either as parts of a bridge superstructure or as parts of a bridge substructure.
    • BASIC TERMS OF BRIDGE  Foundation : 1.Piles  Sub-structure : 1.Pile cap 2.Pier 3.Pier cap  Super-structure : 1.RCC girder 2.Deck 3.Crash barrier
    • BORE LOG DETAIL  Information on subsurface condition obtained from the boring operation is usually presented in the form of a boring record , commonly known as bore log .  A continuous record of the various strata identify at various depths of the boring is presented .  Description or classification of the various type of soil and rocks encountered , and data regarding ground water level are presented in a pictorial manner on the log .  Our bore log detail is shown in figure
    • STANDARD PENETRATION TEST (SPT)
    •  The standard penetration test (SPT) is an in-situ dynamic penetration test designed to provide information on the geotechnical engineering properties of soil.  The main purpose of the test is to provide an indication of the relative density of granular deposits, such as sands and gravels from which it is virtually impossible to obtain undisturbed samples.  The great merit of the test, and the main reason for its widespread use is that it is simple and inexpensive.  If the samples are found to be unacceptably disturbed, it may be necessary to use a different method for measuring strength like the plate test.  The test is useful for determining :  Relative density of soil  The angle of shearing resistance of cohesion less soil  Unconfined compressive strength of cohesive soil
    • PLATE LOAD TEST
    •  Plate load test is a field test to determine the ultimate bearing capacity of soil , and the probable settlement under a given loading.  The test essentially consists in loading a rigid plate at the foundation level , and determining the settlement corresponding to each load increment.  The loading to the test plate may be applied with the help of hydraulic jack. The reaction of the hydraulic jack may be borne by either of the following two method:  Gravity loading plateform method  Reaction trust method
    •  Gravity loading plateform method : • In case of gravity loading plateform method ,a plateform is constructed over a vertical column resting on the test plate , and the loading is done with the help of sand bags , stones or concrete blocks . • In our case for loading , concrete blocks are used.
    • FOUNDATION :  Pile foundation is carried out in this bridge.  For the design of piles , there are two test piles on the site , one is near p3 and second is near p16.  On the basis of tests , bore log detail and loading condition friction pile are used in foundation of bridge.  Friction pile : when loose soil extends to a great depth, piles are driven up to such a depth that frictional resistance at the sides of the piles equals the load coming on the piles.
    •  These friction piles are used when hard stratum is not available at shallow depth.  Total friction resistance can be increased in following ways :  By increasing the length of pile.  By increasing the diameter of pile.  By making the surface of the pile rough.  By placing the pile closely.  Diameter of each pile is 12oo-mm and depth of pile is approx 31.00m.  There are 17 piers and 2 abutments , and foundation of all these piers and abutments are done.
    • GROUP ACTION OF PILES
    •  A pile is not used singularly beneath a column or a wall , because it is extremely difficult to drive the pile absolutely vertical and to place the foundation exactly over its centre line.  If eccentric loading results , the pile may fail structurally because of bending stresses.  In actual practice structural loads are supported by several piles acting as a group.  A minimum no of three pile is used under a column in a triangular pattern , even if the load does not warrant the use of three piles.
    •  When a no of piles required are more than three , the piles are so arranged that they are symmetrical with respect to the load .pile under a wall are arranged on either side of centre line of the wall in a staggered formation .  There are groups of 6, 8 & 9 piles which are used in different piers as per requirement and highest group of piles of 12 and 20 which are used in A1 and A2 abutments simultaneously.
    • SUB-STRUCTURE  PILE CAP :  The pile tops are connected together to the pile cap which help the pile group act as an integral unit .  The loads are usually transferred to the pile group through a reinforced concrete slab or beam called the pile cap .  The pile cap may either stand clearly above the ground level or may rest on the soil , partially or fully buried below ground level .  In our case pile cap is above the ground level .
    •  PIER : • A pier is a raised structure for bridge , typically supported by widely spread piles . • In this bridge solid type of pier are used .  Solid pier • In case of solid pier the piers consist of masonry or cement concrete of solid section throghout the entire length of pier . • The length of pier is kept parallel to direction of flow .
    • • This type of construction is popular because of the following reasons :o It can be used for any type of super structure of the bridge . o It provides excellent resistance to the action floating bodies . • The end of solid pier may be rectangular , but they may be given any suitable shape to make the entry and passage of water easy and smooth . • There are two ends of solid pier I. II. Cut water Ease water
    •  CUT WATER • The end of pier on upstream side is known as cut water . The cut waters are usually in triangular in shape .  EASE WATER • The end of pier on downstream side is known as ease water . The ease water are usually semi circualr or they may consist of two parabolic arcs . • The function of cut water and ease water is to minimise the eddying effect of current and to reduce the horizontal pressure due to current of water.
    • THANK YOU