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ASCOPE
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ASCOPE

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Put this together for my Army Basic Instructors Course

Put this together for my Army Basic Instructors Course

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  • 1. Mr. Andrew R. Major162nd IN BDE - Security Force Assistance BN 1
  • 2. 2/1/2013 How did we prefer to fight wars prior to Sept 11, 2001? Unclassified 2
  • 3. 2/1/2013 Traditional Warfare Irregular Warfare • Warfare between nation-states • Among state and non-state actors • Indirect approach/elements of • Direct military confrontation national power importantPlaying into their hands. A military force, culturally programmed torespond conventionally (and predictably) to insurgent attacks, is akin to Seeks to defeat adversary’s military • Seeks to erode power, influence,the• bull that repeatedly charges a matador’s cape – only to tire and and willeventually be defeated by a much weaker opponent. This is predictable –the bull does what comes naturally. While a conventional approach is • Influence adversary’s is self defeating.instinctive, that behavior government • Gain legitimacy and influence COMISAF Gen McChrystal a relevant population over • Operations focusedGuidance 2010 • Operations focused on relevant COIN on terrain population • Offensive and defensive operations • Complex mix of offense, defense, predominate and stability operations Unclassified 3
  • 4. 2/1/2013 “There is no substitute for a "close reading" of the environment. But it is a reading that resides in no book, but around you; in the terrain, the people, their social and cultural institutions, the way they act and think. You have to be a participant observer. And the key is to see beyond the surface differences between our societies and these environments to the deeper social and cultural drivers of conflict, drivers that locals wouldWhy ASCOPE? understand on their own terms David Kilcullen Small Wars Journal 2007 ISAFs CDR’s COIN Guidance: Protecting the people is the mission The conflict will be won by persuading the population, not by destroying the enemy Secure and Serve the Population: The decisive terrain is the human terrain. The people are the center of gravity Unclassified 4
  • 5. 2/1/2013 Action: Define the Operational Environment Using the ASCOPE Methodology Terminal Conditions: Given a class of approximately Learning 20 students, course handouts, PowerPoint slides, and a regular classroom setting Objective Standards: Demonstrate understanding the Operating Environment using the ASCOPE method IAW FM 3-24.2 (Tactics in COIN) I. Given a printed exam, correctly answering 5 out of 7 questions to receive a GO for this course. Unclassified 5
  • 6. 2/1/2013 • Class Conduct • Speak up if uncertain, mutual learning environment • Look out for the person to your left and right • Maintain professionalism, keep conduct appropriate, don’t distract from soldiers seeking improvement • Safety Requirements • If building evac is necessary, conduct link up in the front parking lotAdministrative • • Stay alert, stay safe Risk Assessment: LowNotes • Environmental Considerations: • It is mandatory for all DA civilians and service members to protect the environment from waste and damage. Army values and general courtesy apply • Evaluation: • There are multiple checks on learning throughout the class • ELO B concludes with a peer graded PE • A printed exam will be completed following ELO B. Students will be graded based on a GO/NO-GO basis. Students must correctly answer 5 out of 7 questions to receive a GO. • Formal Introduction: Mr. Major facilitating the learning discussion on Defining the Operational Environment Using ASCOPE. Unclassified 6
  • 7. 2/1/2013 Action: Recognize the purpose of ASCOPE and it’s function Enabling Learning Conditions: Given a class of approximately 20 students, course handouts, PowerPointObjective: A slides and a regular classroom setting Standards: I. Describe the components of ASCOPE II.Identify significant elements within the OE to produce ASCOPE IAW FM 3-24.2 (Tactics in COIN) Unclassified 7
  • 8. 2/1/2013 OE: Operating Environment A composite of the conditions, circumstances, and influences that affect the employment of capabilities and bear on the decisions of the commander.” In other words, the operational environment is everything, everybody and every event around you. COIN: Counterinsurgency Counterinsurgency is those military, paramilitary, economic, psychological and civil actions taken by a government to Terms and defeat an insurgency (JP 1-02) Definitions IPB: Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield It is the systematic, continuous process of analyzing the threat, terrain, and environment. It is conducted throughout planning and the execution of the operation. IW: Irregular Warfare A violent struggle among state and non-state actors for legitimacy and influence over the relevant populations. Irregular warfare favors indirect and asymmetric approaches, though it may employ the full range of military and other capabilities. Unclassified 8
  • 9. 2/1/2013 OAKOC: Terrain Analysis Observation/fields of fire, Avenues of approach, Key terrain, Obstacles, Cover & concealment, Civilian considerations METT-TC: Mission Variables Mission, Enemy, Terrain/Weather, Troop/Support – Time, Civil Considerations Terms and Definitions PMES-II: Operational Variables Political, Military, Economic, Social – Infrastructure, Information ASCOPE: Civil Considerations Areas, Structures, Capabilities, Organizations, People, Events Unclassified 9
  • 10. 2/1/2013 • In a COIN environment ASCOPE is used to analyze the cultural and human environment or what is sometimes referred to as “human terrain” • Understanding ASCOPE is essential to identifying the Root Causes of an insurgency ASCOPE • It provides the who, what, when, where, why, and how of the environment. ASCOPE helps us approach the problem from the perspective of the nature of the population and nature of the insurgency • It is essentially a tool that anyone can use at any level to see the environment through the eyes of the populace Unclassified 10
  • 11. 2/1/2013What ASCOPECan Look Like Unclassified 11
  • 12. 2/1/2013 Address Terrain Analysis From A Civilian Perspective. • Religious boundaries • Political boundaries Areas • Social enclaves • Criminal enclaves • Agricultural, mining, labor regions • Trade routes • Government centers • Police centers • Military Centers • Temporary settlements for IDPs Unclassified 12
  • 13. 2/1/2013 How does a structure’s location, function, and capabilities support or hinder operations? Traditional high payoff targets: bridges, Structures communications towers, power plants, and dams. International and locally significant sites: churches, mosques, national libraries, and hospitals, cemeteries, historical ruins, religious sites, cultural areas, and other protected sites Practical sites: jails, warehouses, toxic industrial storage sites, print plants, television and radio stations; may influence operations. Unclassified 13
  • 14. 2/1/2013 Capabilities: the ability of local authorities to provide key functions and services. Those areas whereuseful tool to look at “SWEAT-MS” is the populace needs Capabilities help after combat operations:Capabilities Public health Sewer – Local government (Mayor and council) Water – Security Tribal leader (historical - for hundreds of years, tribal leader controlled and protected wells. Public works and utilities Electricity – Town engineer Economics Academic – Government and religious leaders Trash – Private business (local entrepreneurs) Commerce Medical – Tribal doctors Security – Police, tribal militia Unclassified 14
  • 15. 2/1/2013 Consider all nonmilitary groups or institutions in the AO (Political, Cultural, Social, Religious)Organizations • • Tribes Political Wings of Insurgent Groups • PRT • Non-government organizations (NGO) • Private Sector (Companies, Contractors) • International Red Cross • Other Government Agencies (OGA) • Media (TV, Radio, Newspapers, periodicals) • Criminal organizations Unclassified 15
  • 16. 2/1/2013 All nonmilitary personnel that military forces encounter in the AO… whose actions, opinions, or political influence can affect the mission People • City council leaders • Imams/clerics • Professionals • Displaced persons or “squatters” • Sources • Mullahs, Tribal Leaders • Identify the key communicators and the formal and informal processes used to influence people. • In addition, consider how historical, cultural, and social factors that shape public perceptions beliefs, goals, and expectations. Unclassified 16
  • 17. 2/1/2013 Events are routine, cyclical, planned, or spontaneous activities that significantly affect organizations, people, or military operations. Events • National Elections • Anniversaries (independence, etc.) • Carnival/Ramadan (religious) • Funerals • Political Rallies • SIGACTS (Significant Activities) • Weather and Climate Patterns Unclassified 17
  • 18. 2/1/2013 A - Area: • Where do people live, work, play, meet, worship? S - Structures: • Why are structures in the area important? ASCOPE C - Capabilities: • Who in the community is capable of providingSimplified for the people? O - Organizations: • What are the different groups of people in the area? P - People: • How do the people communicate/interact? E - Events: • When are things occurring? Unclassified 18
  • 19. 2/1/2013 A - Area: S - Structures:Capabilities: P - People: C- O - Organizations: E - Events: • Where doWhy are live, work, What are thedo the people • people•structures in communitydifferent things occurring? Who in • the the • How• isWhen are play, meet, worship? area important? groups of people in the capable of providing for the communicate/interact? people? area? Mosque NGO Gov. Tribe B NGO Council M Poor Member Merchants G IED RPG Graffiti Tea IED IED IED Shops Poor IED IED Overlay IED RPG IED RPG G M N IED RPG Mosque T RPG RPG N Example IED RPG RPG IED IED IED Gov. RPG IED RPG RPG Graffiti G Council Tribe A IED IED Member Poor RPG G IED Merchants Mosque M IED Tribe D Rich Tribe C Gov. Ex Regime G Legend Council $ Merchants G IED IED Attack Member SAF Gov. Poor Council IED Looting IED Member Tea T IED Assassination M $ Extortion Shops Mosque Unclassified 20
  • 20. 2/1/2013 ExampleSpreadsheet Unclassified 21
  • 21. 2/1/2013 ExampleCombined Unclassified 22
  • 22. 2/1/2013 ELO A Action: Identify the purpose of ASCOPE and it’s functions ELOSummary Questions, Comments? Unclassified 23
  • 23. 2/1/2013 • What does the acronym ASCOPE represent? Area, Structure, Capabilities, Organizations, People, Events Check on • Which type of warfare is the U.S. currently employing in Afghanistan? Learning IW or Irregular Warfare • Which acronym is useful for defining the Capabilities of an AO? SWEAT-MS Unclassified 24
  • 24. 2/1/2013 Unclassified 25
  • 25. 2/1/2013 Action: Produce an ASCOPE chart that accurately defines the immediate operational environment Enabling Conditions: Given a classroom setting, PPT Learning presentation, student packet containing a partially filled ASCOPE sheet, a brief fictional narrative andObjective: B memory aids Standards: Students will demonstrate an understanding of the assigned OE by completing an ASCOPE chart within 5 minutes, IAW FM 3-24.2 (Tactics in COIN) Unclassified 26
  • 26. 2/1/2013 • Understanding the nature of IW and change of mindset • “Killing a fly with a brick” • “Patching bullet wounds with Band-Aids” • “Experiencing Afghanistan for the first time 12 years in a row” • What resources are out there to help jump-start Where to ASCOPE development? • RIP/TOA Unit Start? • Partnered or Host Nation Security Forces • HN Populace (Elders, leaders, prominent individuals, random…) • NGO • Inter/Intra-agencies (DEA, CIA, DoS, CF Equivalents…) • CF Intel Networks (S-2, CA, CMO, COist, etc…) • Personal research • It has been said that Afghanistan is the graveyard not of empires, but of databases. There is so much information out there that has been gathered and then lost in the morass of isolated (unlinked) proprietary databases. Unclassified 27
  • 27. 2/1/2013 Think outside the box, but write Bottom your answer in the box… where Line you can find it when you need it. Unclassified 28
  • 28. 2/1/2013 ASCOPE Practical Exercise Narrative After six months of arriving in country, you’ve noticed an increase in hostility towards the CF and Host Nation Government. IEDs have substantially increased in your area and local officials are being kidnapped or assassinated almost weekly. From the time of your initial arrival until now, things were relatively quiet in the area. Projects were being developed, resources were distributed amongst the locals, and the local officials were making progress gaining back the trust of the populace, more so within the urbanized regions where most of the wealthier and educated citizens resided. However, the Capabilities Organizations # Areas Structures People Events outlying rural swamplands, primarily occupied byThe Standard AORs Security Primary Local undereducated and poorer citizens, are still seeing small pockets within OE HN tribe Official Arrival of insurgents, criminals and sporadic violence. Decreasing s 1 The two sub-tribes of the dominant Leesvillan tribePE Normal Speed (Beaudreauxs and Thibideauxs) have both contributed members to the local government and security forces. Bernard Beaudreaux, the Beaudreaux’s tribal elder has made significant Rural progress towards settling ancient blood feuds with the swamps • Once you’re comfortable with what you do 2 Thibideauxs by using the customary and accepted form of community council, the Shira, locally referred to as a “Crawfish Boil”. The “Boil” takes place monthly at the district center know, start looking for what you don’t. located near the Government HQ building in downtown Leesville. Official members from the Leesvillans along with both 3 sub-tribes attend the council to include the two sub-tribe leaders Bernard Beaudreaux and Hebert Thibideaux, their deputies Bobby Beaudreaux and Henry Thibideaux, varied other tribal officials and seniors, and of course concerned citizens. USAID • Try to identify sources to fill those reps have also been seen in attendance but they usually just return to their HQ located a few miles south of the local market without providing any input or feedback. 4 information gaps. You can add ?s to the Things appeared to be stabilizing until recently and the CF/HN intelligence analysts cannot identify the source of the recent escalation in violence. Maybe ASCOPE can help reduce ASCOPE as well some of this instability or at least identify the cause before your remaining six months are up. 5 Unclassified 29
  • 29. 2/1/2013 After six months of arriving in country, you’ve noticed an increase in hostility towards the CF and Host Nation Government. IEDs have substantially increased in your area and local officials are being kidnapped or assassinated almostThe Product weekly.PE Talk Through Process # Areas Structures Capabilities Organizations People Events Security: OP areas: Arrival to HNSF, CF CF, HNSF, the OE 1 HN Govt Trending down IEDs Assassinations 2 Kidnapping Weekly 3 Unclassified 30
  • 30. 2/1/2013 From the time of your initial arrival until now, things were relatively quiet in the area. Projects were being developed, resources were distributed amongst theThe Product locals, and the local officials were making progress gaining back the trust of the populace….PE Walk Through Process # Areas Structures Capabilities Organizations People Events Security: Local official OP areas: Projects legitimacy Arrival to HNSF, CF CF, HNSF, the OE 1 HN Govt Trending down Areas of HN IEDs Influence Assassinations 2 Kidnapping Weekly Project development, 3 Resources distribution Unclassified 31
  • 31. 2/1/2013 • Do not overthink the scenario. Just focus on placing identified elements in proper categories • ASCOPE can be subjective in certain cases. If it makes sense to you, make sure you can explain why Practice • Only add what you see in the scenario. Don’t add implied or unspecified elements. When defining the OE, what you DON’T know is just as important as what you do. Blanks or “Gaps” in the data equal questions and focus points for your next patrol Unclassified 32
  • 32. 2/1/2013 • Minimize talking until after the PE • You have 5 minutes to complete Practical this task Exercise Unclassified 33
  • 33. # 2/1/2013 Areas Structures Capabilities Organizations People Events Social classes: District Center Governance: USAID Tribe B. Elder: Violence: Wealthy T. Elders Bernard IED,1 Poor HN Govt Beaudreaux Assassinations, Trending down Deputy: Bobby Kidnappings, Sporadic Education levels: Govt HQ Academics: Tribe: Leesvillan Tribe T. Elder: Crawfish Boil Higher, Lower HN Sub: Thib. And Hebert2 Neutral Beaux Thibideaux Deputy: Henry Tribes: USAID HQ Economic: Criminal Monthly council Projects, Beaudreaux HN, USAID “Crawfish Boil” resource dist.3 Thibideaux Neutral Speeches/anno PE Review uncements Govt trust: Market Security: Insurgent Other senior Downturn of4 Urban HNSF, CF officials stability Rural Trending down Word of mouth Violence: Schools Intel: “Boil” attendees Marketplace Arrival in5 High levels, low HNSF, CF Word of mouth country, halfway levels Trending down mark Govt legitimacy: Merchants USAID reps Blood feud6 HN vs Tribal ??? Historical and current Social classes: District Center Governance: USAID Tribe B. Elder: Violence: Wealthy T. Elders Bernard IED,7 Poor HN Govt Beaudreaux Assassinations, Trending down Deputy: Bobby Kidnappings, Sporadic Education levels: Govt HQ Academics: Tribe: Leesvillan Tribe T. Elder: Crawfish Boil Higher, Lower HN Sub: Thib. And Hebert8 Neutral Beaux Thibideaux Unclassified Deputy: Henry 34
  • 34. 2/1/2013 ELO B: Action Produce an ASCOPE chart that accurately defines the immediate operational environment ELOSummary Questions, Comments? Unclassified 35
  • 35. 2/1/2013 • What is the tool ASCOPE used for? Defining the Operational Enviroment, attacking the root sources of insurgency, seeing issues through the populace Check on • Who uses ASCOPE and when? Learning Anyone, anytime they need information on their surroundings • Name 2 resources available in theater for obtaining ASCOPE information? RIP/TOA Unit, Partnered or Host Nation Security Forces,HN Populace (Elders, leaders, prominent individuals, random…), NGO, etc… Unclassified 36
  • 36. 2/1/2013 Unclassified 37
  • 37. 2/1/2013 Action: Define the Operational Environment Using the ASCOPE Methodology Terminal Conditions: Given a class of approximately 20 Learning students, course handouts, PowerPoint slides, and a regular classroom setting Objective Standards: Demonstrate understanding the Operating Environment using the ASCOPE method IAW FM 3-24.2 (Tactics in COIN) I. Given a printed exam, correctly answering 5 out of 7 questions to receive a GO for this course. Unclassified 38
  • 38. 2/1/2013 Student Evaluation: • Given 3 minutes to complete the printed test, students must identify which ASCOPE category correctly corresponds with the adjacent statements.Evaluation • Students must properly identify 5 out of 7Statement statements to receive a GO • Any students receiving a NO GO will conduct retesting shortly after ABIC class concludes in this classroom (140) Unclassified 39
  • 39. 2/1/2013 Start 1 Minute 2 Minutes Stop Timer Unclassified 40
  • 40. 2/1/2013 Defining the Operational Environment Using ASCOPE Circle the letter that corresponds with the appropriate categoryThe town’s IED maker is arrested A S C O P EThe DEA is operating nearby A S C O P ELocal law enforcement’s jurisdiction A S C O P EThe nearest detention facility A S C O P EThe Mayor’s alias is “Al-Shabuti” A S C O P EThe insurgents operate at will, local security is A S C O P EineffectiveThe Mayor calls local law enforcement and has the A S C O P EIED maker released due to unfair treatment Student Grader ScoreName: Name: _____ Of 7Date: Date: GO / NO-GO Unclassified 41
  • 41. 2/1/2013 TLO Action: Define the Operational Environment Using the ASCOPE Methodology TLO ELO A: Action: Recognize the purpose ofSummary ASCOPE and it’s function in today’s environment ELO B: Action Produce an ASCOPE chart that accurately defines the immediate operational environment Questions, Comments? Unclassified 42
  • 42. 2/1/2013 • What does the A in ASCOPE represent? Areas • True or False: Only Intel, Special Check on Operations or TOC personnel should use ASCOPE? Learning False, anyone who’s operations affect or are affected by the population should use ASCOPE • The two primary types of warfare are ________ and ______? (IW) Irregular Warfare, Traditional (Conventional) Unclassified 43

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