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  • Start with Megan
  • Depression

    2. 2. DIAGNOSING MOOD DISORDERS  Defined in terms of episodes discrete periods of time in which the person’s behavior is dominated by either a depressed or manic mood
    3. 3.  biological factors (heritability approx. 40% for women)  psychological factors stressful life events, hopelessness, negative cognitive styles - overgeneralization  social and cultural factors marital dissatisfaction 70% of people suffering with major depressive disorder or dysthymia are women CAUSES OF MOOD DISORDERS
    4. 4. DEPRESSION  Can refer to either:  A mood: a pervasive and sustained emotional response  A clinical syndrome: a combination of emotional, cognitive and behavioral symptoms  Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can have a negative effect on a person's thoughts, behavior, feelings, world view and physical well-being.  is a mental disorder characterized by episodes of all- encompassing low mood accompanied by low self-esteem and loss of interest or pleasure in normally enjoyable activities
    5. 5. Subtypes of Depression •Melancholic(a failure of reactivity to pleasurable stimuli, , psychomotor retardation .excessive weight loss, guilt) •Psychotic (the term for a major depressive episode, in particular of melancholic nature, wherein the patient experiences psychotic symptoms such as delusions or, less commonly, hallucinations) •Catatonic (lack of movement or extreme agitation, . Here, the person is mute and almost stuporose, and either is immobile or exhibits purposeless or even bizarre movements.)b •Atypical (is characterized by mood reactivity (paradoxical anhedonia) and positivity, significant weight gain or increased appetite (comfort eating), excessive sleep or sleepiness (hypersomnia), a sensation of heaviness in limbs known as leaden paralysis, and significant social impairment as a consequence of hypersensitivity to perceived interpersonal rejection.positive emotional experiencing)
    6. 6. •Postpartum (it refers to the intense, sustained and sometimes disabling depression, It is quite common for women to experience a short-term feeling of tiredness and sadness in the first few weeks after giving birth; however, postpartum depression is different because it can cause significant hardship and impaired functioning at home, work, or school as well as, possibly, difficulty in relationships with family members, spouses, or friends, or even problems bonding with the newborn ) •Seasonal (winter depression" or "winter blues",). Some people have a seasonal pattern, with depressive episodes coming on in the autumn or winter, and resolving in spring.
    7. 7. PREVALENCE AND PROGNOSIS  Among adults, 15-to-24-year olds are most likely to have had a major depressive episode in the past month.  Major depressive episodes often resolve over time whether or not they are treated.  Recurrence is more likely if symptoms have not fully resolved with treatment
    8. 8. ETIOLOGY OF DEPRESSION:-  Genetic factors :10-20% Life time risk of depression - depression results when a preexisting vulnerability, is activated by stressful life events  personality factors(- Psychothymic personality)  Early environment  social factors  Neurobiological factors(monoamine hypothesis: monoamine hypothesis postulates that a deficiency of certain neurotransmitters is responsible for the corresponding features of depression)  HPA(Hypo pituitary axis) problem 2 models : psychodynamic psychotherapy(Sigmund Freud),Cognitive model (beck)
    9. 9. FOUR TYPES OF SYMPTOMS ASSOCIATED WITH MOOD DISORDERS Emotional Cognitive Somatic Behavioral
    10. 10. EMOTIONAL SYMPTOMS  People who are depressed describe themselves as feeling utterly gloomy, dejected and despondent  Manic patients experience euphoric like symptoms(emotional condition in which a person experiences intense feelings of well-being, elation, happiness, excitement, and joy)  anhedonia (loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities), irritability, withdrawal from social situations and activities, reduced sex drive.
    11. 11. COGNITIVE SYMPTOMS Involve changes in the way people think about themselves and their surroundings  Manic patients report sped up thoughts and ideas  Poor concentration, indecisiveness, poor self-esteem, suicidal thoughts, delusions, preoccupied with, or ruminate over, thoughts and feelings of worthlessness, inappropriate guilt or regret, helplessness, hopelessness, and self-hatred, forgetfulness,
    12. 12. SOMATIC SYMPTOMS  Related to basic physiological or bodily functions  Include fatigue, aches and pains, and serious changes in appetite or sleeping patterns  Sleep or appetite disturbances, oversleeping, can also happen, catatonia, fatigue, loss of memory ,, agitate or lethargic,
    13. 13. BEHAVIORAL SYMPTOMS  Changes in the things that people do and the rate at which they do them  Psychomotor retardation often accompanies the onset of depression  Manic patients show energetic, provocative and flirtatious behavior
    14. 14. DYSTHYMIC DISORDER  it is a serious state of chronic depression, which persists for at least 2 years; it is less acute and severe than major depressive disorder  Never without at least two of the following symptoms for more than two months Poor appetite or overeating, insomnia or hypersomnia, low energy, low self esteem, poor concentration, feelings of hopelessness Life time Risk for 3 years.
    15. 15. PREVALENCE OF MOOD DISORDERS  Ratio of unipolar to bipolar is at least 5:1  Lifetime prevalence of all mood disorders is 8%, ranked third behind substance abuse disorders and anxiety disorders
    16. 16. GENDER DIFFERENCES  Women are two or three times more vulnerable to depression than men  Sex hormones, stressful life events, childhood adversity, etc  May be more likely to seek treatment  May be more likely to be labeled as depressed  No differences seen in bipolar disorders
    17. 17. MANAGEMENT:- The three most common treatments for depression are psychotherapy, medication, and electroconvulsive therapy. Psychotherapy is the treatment of choice for people under 18 while electroconvulsive therapy is used only as a last resort.  Mild depression:- no pharmacotherapy- only psychotherapy, Physical exercise is recommended for management of mild depression  Moderate depression:- Mainly we focus on psychotherapy n drugs.  Severe depression:- Intense psychotherapy n drugs.
    18. 18. PSYCHOTHERAPY(MDISC)  Marital/couple therapy  Dialectical behavior therapy  Interpersonal psychotherapy  Supportive therapy  CBT COUNCELLING Psychotherapy is a general term referring to therapeutic interaction or treatment contracted between a trained professional and a client
    19. 19. COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THERAPY  CBT combines both cognitive therapy and behavioral therapy  Cognitive Therapy teaches a person how certain thinking patterns are causing their symptoms-by giving them a distorted picture of what's going on in their life, and making them feel anxious, depressed or angry for no good reason, or provoking them into ill-chosen actions.
    20. 20. COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THERAPY  Behavioral Therapy helps patients weaken the connections between troublesome situations and their habitual reactions to them. It also teaches them how to calm their mind and body, so they can feel better, think more clearly, and make better decisions  teaches a person how certain thinking patterns are causing their symptoms by giving them a distorted picture of what’s going on in their life & making themselves feel anxious, depressed or angry 4 o good reason  _BEHAVIORAL THERAPY It teaches them how to calm their mind & body , so they can feel better , think more easily & make better decisions
    21. 21. DRUG MANAGEMENT  Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the primary medications prescribed  Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs)
    22. 22. SUMMARY • Mood disorders are very common mental disorders, yet they often go undetected and untreated • There are gender differences in rates of diagnosed depression