Functional Articulation Disorders
When structure, hearing and all
observable physical systems appear to
be normal ,the articulatory problem is
termed as FUNCTIONAL in nature,and
its origin attributed to faulty learning.
Most articulation disorders are
considered to be of this type.
Organic Articulatory Disorders
If the cause of defective utterance is
related to a structural deformity or
physical defect ,the articulatory problem
is classified as ORGANIC in nature.
Organic articulation disorders arise due
to damage to the speech
mechanism….damage may be
A..to the CNS
B..to the peripheral nervous system
C..to the structure of oral mechanism
Some Organic Disorders
1.Apraxia of speech
5.Degenerative Neurological Disease
APRAXIA OF SPEECH
Definition; defined as,
“A sensory motor speech disorder”
“An articulatory programming
Problem at the level of articulatory pla-
Etiology / Cause
Some insult to brain like;
Site of lesion ;Broca’s area.
1. Inability to coordinate
phonation,rate,& or stress.
2 .Articulatory struggle
3. Pt shows awareness of his
difficulty,some pts will get disgusted &
give up with a gesture of “ forget it”.
4. Errors increases as the length of
5.The articulatory errors are
inconsistent & vary among
6. Some times the errered word is
articulated after the correct word
7.Errors in articulation of consonants &
changes in normal patterns of prosody
8.Innitial consonants are more difficult
than final consonant.
9. Articulatory errors increases as the
length & complexity of utterence
10. Most difficulty is on the utterence
11. Of single consonants fricative and
affricate phonemes evoke the most
12. At times perfect articulation
present particularly when these are
highly practiced utterences (Hi! How are
you?, Fine.What’s going on? Where
have you been?”
13. Patients articulate more easily
when they can watch a highly visible
word being pronounced by the clinician.
“Apraxia of speech in children is
called DEVELOPMENTAL Apraxia of
SPEECH & OTHER CHARECTERISTICS
1.Apraxia of speech +high incidence of
an accompanying oral apraxia
2.Efforts at immitation marked by
struggle & groping responses from the
3. Unusual substitutions &
distortions(two or more feature errors …
m/s , t/f.
4.Other than speech features,
Difficulty in fine motor skills
Oral sensory deficits
Language problems( expressive
“Disorder of phonation,
articulation,resonation & prosody which occur
either single or in combination as a result of
weakness,incoordination, & or abnormalities
in the tone of the muscles of the speech
mechanism & are due to impairmentof the
central nervous system,peripheral nervous
system or both”.
Generally the speech charecteristics of
dysarthria fall into the areas of
a.Muscle function for speech & other
motor movements slow & limited in
range & mobility.
b. Speech is monotone, monoloudn-
-ess,reduced stress &imprecise ar-
-ticulation,rapid short bursts of spe-
a.Quick Form; movements are qui-
-ck,random & include involuntary
b.Speech pattern is imprecise cons-
stoppages,limited pitch variations,
a.Slow form;movements are slow & sus-
b. Speech characteristics include harsh
monoloudness,unplanned variation in
presents picture of all types of
“It is a developmental non progressive
disability characterized by disorders of
movements &/or posture,usually
accompanied by sensory,cognitive &
Cerebral palsy is a spectrum of
disabilities including abnormal
motor and sensory functions,
cognitive deficits & difficulties in
hearing,speech,language , adjustment
,learning & vision.
Impaired chewing,sucking & swal-
b. Developmental dysarthria & Apraxia
of speech present.
Cleft palate is a structural anomaly that can affect the
tissues,muscles and bony processes of lips,alveolar
process,hard palate,soft palate and uvula.
variations of a type of clefting congenital deformity caused
by abnormal facial development during gestation
Cleft palate is a condition in which the two plates of the skull
that form the hard palate (roof of the mouth) are not
completely joined. The soft palate is in these cases cleft as
well. In most cases, cleft lip is also present.
ETIOLOGY / CAUSE
infections & genetic cause.
fall into the areas of Resonation,Pho-
-nation & articulation.
Hypernasality esp of plosives,affricates
ARTICULATION (decreased intraoral
Their production is weak or distort-