Prepared by: ANAM KHAN


Brain and spinal cord:

Receives and processes incoming

sensory information and responds by
sending out signals that i...
 Includes

all the neurons and ganglia found
outside the CNS-any nerve that enters
or leaves the CNS


The main function of the PNS is to connect the
CNS to the limbs and organs, essentially

serving as a communication
rel...


Efferent Division – the neurons of which carry
signals away from the brain and spinal cord to
peripheral tissues.


= Afferent division – the neurons of which bring
info from the periphery to the CNS.They provide
sensory input to modul...
 Efferent

Somatic

Autonomic
 Somatic

efferent neurons are Involved in the

voluntary control of functions
Autonomic Efferent Regulates everyday

requirement of vital bodily functions without the
conscious participation of the mi...


Preganglionic neurons






Cell body is located
within the CNS

Postganglionic neurons

Cell body originating
in th...
preganglionic





Either
unmyelinated or
myelinated

Emerge from
brainstem or spinal
cord and make
synaptic connection
...


These fibers
arise from the
cranium (from
cranial
nerves
III,VII,IX and
X) and from the
sacral
region(S2-4) of
spinal c...
Efferent nerve fibers
originate from nerve
cells in the lateral
gray column of the
spinal cord between

first thoracic and...


Two types of acetylcholine receptors exists
 Acetylcholine

has the ability to bind
with both of these receptors.


In preganglionic neurons, both
parasympathetic and sympathetic, the
release of acetylcholine binds
predominantly with n...
Sympathetic system:
•At the synapses within the ganglia, preganglionic
neurons release acetylcholine.
•In response to this...
The activation of
target tissue
receptors causes
the effects
associated with
the sympathetic
system.
The two exceptions mentioned above are:

•

postganglionic neurons of
sweat glands and
• chromaffin cells of the
adrenal m...
Parasympathetic system
 The parasympathetic nervous system uses
chiefly acetylcholine (ACh) as its
neurotransmitter.

 ...
•When stimulated, the preganglionic nerve releases
ACh at the ganglion.

•which acts on nicotinic receptors of
postganglio...


Both always present in the blood.



Nor epinephrine varies



Epinephrine is a constant


3rd division of ANS



Works independently of CNS
 Brain

of Gut ( as it

is the collection of
nerve fibers that
innervate the
gastrointestinal tract ,
pancreas and gall
b...


Modulated by both the parasympathetic and
sympathetic nervous system
 Exocrine/endocrine

secretions
 and microcirculation of
gastrointestinal tract


Continually active to some degree



Diffused distribution of postganglionic
Fibers.


The changes experienced by the body during
emergencies have been referred to as the “fight
or flight” response.
 Maintains



essential bodily functions

Generally dominant over sympathetic system in
“Rest

and Digest”

situations.


It usually acts to oppose or balance the
actions of sympathetic division.


Eye

P-constricts pupils ( III occulomotor)

S-dilates pupils


Heart muscles
P-decreases rate; slows and steadies
heart(bradycardia)
S-Increases rate and force of heartbeat


Blood vessels
P-vasoconstriction
S- vasodilation


Glands (nasal, lacrimal, salivary, gastric,
pancreas)

P-stimulates secretary activity
S-inhibits secretary activity


Lungs

P-constricts bronchioles
S-Dilates bronchioles and mildly constricts
blood vessels


Digestive Tract Organs:

P-increases motility and amount of
secretions by digestive organs' relaxes
sphincters and allo...
Sweat Glands
S-stimulates sweating




Arrector pili muscles attached to hair follicle
S-stimulates to contract—Goosebum...
Liver
S-Epinephrine stimulates liver to release glucose
to blood

Adrenal Medulla
S-Stimulates
medulla cells to
secrete
epinephrine and
noreponephrine
into bloodstream




Kidney
S- causes vasoconstriction; decreases urine
output


Gallbladder

P-stimulates activity; gallbladder contracts to expel bile
S-gallbladder relaxed



Bladder, Urethra

P-c...
Summary

51
Autonomic Nervous System
Autonomic Nervous System
Autonomic Nervous System
Autonomic Nervous System
Autonomic Nervous System
Autonomic Nervous System
Autonomic Nervous System
Autonomic Nervous System
Autonomic Nervous System
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Autonomic Nervous System

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  • Myelinatedwith the conscious participation of minddirect action ,no participation of pro or postganglionic neurons.
  • Come from thoracic and lumbar regions of the spinal cord, and they synapse in two cord like chains of ganglia that run in parallel on each side of spinal cord.
  • acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that activates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on postganglionic neurons. Has widespread action on body as the result of preganglionic fibers synapsing many postganglionic neurons.
  • preganglionic fibers tend to be shorter because sympathetic ganglia are often closer to the spinal cord
  • Postganglionic neurons of sweat glands release acetylcholine for the activation of muscarinic receptors
  • :,
  • Nor epinephrine varies according to the amount of stress present and will cause transient changes in heart rate and systemic arteries and veins.
    Epinephrine is a constant in regulating heart rate, vasoconstriction in systemic arteries and veins and vasodilation of muscles and liver.
  • Motility also.
  • Continually active ( in maintaining tone of vascular beds)
    This system with its diffused distribution of postganglionic fibers is involved in a wide array of physiologic activities but it is not essential for life.
  • These reactions are triggered by both direct sympathetic activation of the effectors organs and by stimulation of adrenal medulla to release epinephrine and lesser amounts of nor epinephrine
  • Maintains essential bodily functions, such as digestive process and elimination of wastes and is required for life.
  • Increase blood flow to the skeletal muscles and the heart while diverting flow from the skin and internal organs
  • S-inhibits secretary activity; causes vasoconstriction of blood vessels supplying glands
  • P-contraction smooth muscle of bladder wall; relaxes urethral sphincter; promotes voiding
    S-relaxation of smooth muscle of bladder wall; constricts urethral sphincter; inhibits voiding
  • Autonomic Nervous System

    1. 1. Prepared by: ANAM KHAN
    2. 2.  Brain and spinal cord: Receives and processes incoming sensory information and responds by sending out signals that initiate or modify a process.
    3. 3.  Includes all the neurons and ganglia found outside the CNS-any nerve that enters or leaves the CNS
    4. 4.  The main function of the PNS is to connect the CNS to the limbs and organs, essentially serving as a communication relay going back and forth between the brain and the extremities.  It is subdivided into:
    5. 5.  Efferent Division – the neurons of which carry signals away from the brain and spinal cord to peripheral tissues.
    6. 6.  = Afferent division – the neurons of which bring info from the periphery to the CNS.They provide sensory input to modulate the function of efferent division.
    7. 7.  Efferent Somatic Autonomic
    8. 8.  Somatic efferent neurons are Involved in the voluntary control of functions
    9. 9. Autonomic Efferent Regulates everyday requirement of vital bodily functions without the conscious participation of the mind.
    10. 10.  Preganglionic neurons    Cell body is located within the CNS Postganglionic neurons Cell body originating in the ganglion
    11. 11. preganglionic   Either unmyelinated or myelinated Emerge from brainstem or spinal cord and make synaptic connection in ganglia postganglionic  Generally Nonmyelinated  Terminates on effector organs
    12. 12.  These fibers arise from the cranium (from cranial nerves III,VII,IX and X) and from the sacral region(S2-4) of spinal cord.
    13. 13. Efferent nerve fibers originate from nerve cells in the lateral gray column of the spinal cord between first thoracic and second lumbar segments( thoracic outflow)
    14. 14.  Two types of acetylcholine receptors exists
    15. 15.  Acetylcholine has the ability to bind with both of these receptors.
    16. 16.  In preganglionic neurons, both parasympathetic and sympathetic, the release of acetylcholine binds predominantly with nicotinic receptors neurons on the postganglionic
    17. 17. Sympathetic system: •At the synapses within the ganglia, preganglionic neurons release acetylcholine. •In response to this stimulus postganglionic neurons with two important exceptions - release nor epinephrine. •Activates adrenergic receptors on the peripheral target tissues.
    18. 18. The activation of target tissue receptors causes the effects associated with the sympathetic system.
    19. 19. The two exceptions mentioned above are: • postganglionic neurons of sweat glands and • chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla.
    20. 20. Parasympathetic system  The parasympathetic nervous system uses chiefly acetylcholine (ACh) as its neurotransmitter.  Most transmissions occur in two stages:
    21. 21. •When stimulated, the preganglionic nerve releases ACh at the ganglion. •which acts on nicotinic receptors of postganglionic neurons. •The postganglionic nerve then releases ACh to stimulate the muscarinic receptors of the target organ.
    22. 22.  Both always present in the blood.  Nor epinephrine varies  Epinephrine is a constant
    23. 23.  3rd division of ANS  Works independently of CNS
    24. 24.  Brain of Gut ( as it is the collection of nerve fibers that innervate the gastrointestinal tract , pancreas and gall bladder)
    25. 25.  Modulated by both the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system
    26. 26.  Exocrine/endocrine secretions  and microcirculation of gastrointestinal tract
    27. 27.  Continually active to some degree  Diffused distribution of postganglionic Fibers.
    28. 28.  The changes experienced by the body during emergencies have been referred to as the “fight or flight” response.
    29. 29.  Maintains  essential bodily functions Generally dominant over sympathetic system in “Rest and Digest” situations.
    30. 30.  It usually acts to oppose or balance the actions of sympathetic division.
    31. 31.  Eye P-constricts pupils ( III occulomotor) S-dilates pupils
    32. 32.  Heart muscles P-decreases rate; slows and steadies heart(bradycardia) S-Increases rate and force of heartbeat
    33. 33.  Blood vessels P-vasoconstriction S- vasodilation
    34. 34.  Glands (nasal, lacrimal, salivary, gastric, pancreas) P-stimulates secretary activity S-inhibits secretary activity
    35. 35.  Lungs P-constricts bronchioles S-Dilates bronchioles and mildly constricts blood vessels
    36. 36.  Digestive Tract Organs: P-increases motility and amount of secretions by digestive organs' relaxes sphincters and allow movement of food along tract S-decreases activity of glands and muscles of digestive system and constricts sphincte r; causes vasoconstriction
    37. 37. Sweat Glands S-stimulates sweating   Arrector pili muscles attached to hair follicle S-stimulates to contract—Goosebumps
    38. 38. Liver S-Epinephrine stimulates liver to release glucose to blood 
    39. 39. Adrenal Medulla S-Stimulates medulla cells to secrete epinephrine and noreponephrine into bloodstream
    40. 40.   Kidney S- causes vasoconstriction; decreases urine output
    41. 41.  Gallbladder P-stimulates activity; gallbladder contracts to expel bile S-gallbladder relaxed  Bladder, Urethra P-contraction smooth muscle of bladder wall S-relaxation of smooth muscle of bladder wall
    42. 42. Summary 51

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