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Major depressive disorder


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Major depressive disorder

  1. 1. Major Depressive Disorder By: Andrew Rowland
  2. 2. Definition • A mood disorder having a clinical course involving one or more episodes of serious psychological depression that last two or more weeks each, do not have intervening episodes of mania or hypomania, and are characterized by a loss of interest or pleasure in almost all activities and by some or all of disturbances of appetite, sleep, or psychomotor functioning, a decrease in energy, difficulties in thinking or making decisions, loss of self-esteem or feelings of guilt, and suicidal thoughts or attempts
  3. 3. The episode of depression must last two weeks or more to be considered MDD
  4. 4. What is Major Depressive Disorder? • A depressive disorder is a syndrome (group of symptoms) that reflects a sad and/or irritable mood exceeding normal sadness or grief • More specifically, the sadness of depression is characterized by a greater intensity and duration and by more severe symptoms and functional disabilities than is normal
  5. 5. Irritable moods or Sad moods can be part of MDD
  6. 6. “Diagnosing” MDD • Generally MDD consists of some or all of the following characteristics - A long-lasting depressed mood or marked loss of interest or pleasure (anhedonia) in all or nearly all activities - Children and adolescents may be irritable instead of sad - These have to interfere significantly with one’s daily functioning to be considered MDD
  7. 7. With MDD life can this
  8. 8. Causes of MDD • The causes are generally considered to fall into one of these categories - Intrapsychic - Environmental - Or Biological
  9. 9. Intrapsychic • Intrapsychic is defined as occurring inside the mind • Some people blame themselves for negative experiences while attributing positive outcomes to external sources; they may tend to feel guilty, undeserving, and eventually depressed • The theory of learned helplessness suggests that people become depressed when they have long- term experiences of helplessness
  10. 10. Technically the voices are schizophrenia but intrapsychic is basically any inner conflicts
  11. 11. Environmental • Environmental reasons are any sort of external factor - ex: major loss, financial problem, difficult relationship etc. • This kind causes people to become depressed primarily due to unfortunate circumstances that are difficult to change
  12. 12. Example of a major loss
  13. 13. Biological • Some psychologists believe that MDD can be passed down through generations • It is also believed that a lack of certain neurotransmitters may also cause depression
  14. 14. This guy could too > If this guy has depression... ^
  15. 15. Miscellaneous Facts • MDD is usually triggered by an obviously painful event but it can also be caused by a specific stressor • Research suggests that the initial episode of MDD usually starts with a specific stimulus but later episodes can start without a triggering event
  16. 16. The first time is usually triggered While the second can just be spontaneous
  17. 17. Side effects • Find tasks difficult and burdensome • Mental efficiency and memory are affected • Sexual interest decreases • Become withdrawn and avoid social contact • Suicidal thoughts and actions
  18. 18. Symptoms • Depressed mood • Loss of interest or pleasure in activities • Change in appetite (usually very frequently) • Insomnia or hypersomnia • Sense of worthlessness or unreasonable guilt over minor failures • Recurrent thoughts of suicide or death
  19. 19. Treatment • Treatment of depression is generally done by: - Electroconvulsive Therapy: a very effective treatment despite its poor approval ratings - Serotonin re-uptake inhibitors: ones like fluoxetine and sertraline have fewer side effects than their predecessors and work very well - As always there is still the classic psychotherapy in which therapists help patients overcome depression