Fugitive Slave Act• Laws passed by the United States Congress in 1793 and 1850 to provide for the return of slaves who escaped from one state into another state or territory.
Uncle Tom’s Cabin• Uncle Toms Cabin or Life Among the Lowly, is an anti-slavery novel by American author Harriet Beecher Stowe. Published in 1852, the novel, "helped lay the groundwork for the Civil War", according to Will Kaufman.
Harriet Beecher Stowe• An American abolitionist and author. Stowes novel Uncle Toms Cabin (1852) depicted life for African-Americans under slavery; it reached millions as a novel and play, and became inﬂuential in the United States and United Kingdom.
Kansas Nebraska Act• of 1854 created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, opened new lands, repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820, and allowed settlers in those territories to determine if they would allow slavery within their boundaries.
John Brown• An abolitionist who was hanged after leading an unsuccessful raid at Harpers Ferry,Virginia. (1800-1859)
popular sovereignty• A notion that political power or the power to govern is derived from the people. As such, the people retain the right to rescind any grant of power to the government.
Dred Scott• Dred Scott (1799 – September 17, 1858), was an African American slave in the United States who sued unsuccessfully for his freedom in the infamous Dred Scott v. Sandford case of 1857.
Lincoln/Douglas Debate• Abraham Lincoln was a relative unknown at the beginning of the debates in 1858 as they ran for a Senate seat from Illinois. In contrast to Stephen Douglas Popular Sovereignty stance, Lincoln stated that the US could not survive as half-slave and half- free states.
Jefferson Davis• An American soldier and president of the Confederacy (1861–1865). He was captured by Union soldiers in 1865 and imprisoned for two years, and although he was indicted for treason (1866), he was never prosecuted.
secede• Withdraw formally from membership in a federal union, an alliance, or a political or religious organization.
Confederate States of America• The southern states that seceded from the United States in 1861.
Fort Sumter• A historic site in the mouth of the harbor of Charleston in South Carolina. Confederate forces ﬁred on US troops here in April 1861, beginning the Civil War.
Border State• Any of the slave states that bordered the northern free states during the US Civil War.
Robert E. Lee• Robert Edward Lee (January 19, 1807 – October 12, 1870) was a career United States Army ofﬁcer and combat engineer. He became the commanding general of the Confederate army in the American Civil War and a postwar icon of the Souths "lost cause.
blockade• A war measure that isolates some area of importance to the enemy.
Battle of Bull Run/ Manassas• Fought on July 21, 1861, near the city of Manassas. It was the ﬁrst major land battle of the American Civil War.
Ulysses S. Grant• The 18th President of the United States (1869–1877) as well as military commander during the Civil War and post-war Reconstruction periods.
Battle of Shiloh• The second great battle of the American Civil War (1862); the battle ended with the withdrawal of Confederate troops but it was not a Union victory.
Antietam• Fought on September 17, 1862, near Sharpsburg, Maryland, and Antietam Creek, as part of the Maryland Campaign, was the ﬁrst major battle in the American Civil War to take place on Northern soil.
54th Massachusetts Regiment• The regiment was one of the ﬁrst ofﬁcial black units in the United States during the Civil War.
Emancipation Proclamation• The announcement made by President Lincoln during the Civil War on September 22, 1862, emancipating all black slaves in states still engaged in rebellion against the Union.
Copperhead• Named for the poisonous snake which gives no warning before it strikes, Copperheads were Northerners who opposed the American Civil War. Considered traitors by others in the North, they favored immediate peace with the Confederacy.
conscription• Compulsory enlistment for state service, typically into the armed forces.
bounty• A sum paid for killing or capturing a person or animal.
Clara Barton• A Civil War nurse and founder of the American Red Cross.
Battle of Gettysburg• A battle of the American Civil War (1863); the defeat of Robert E. Lees invading Confederate Army was a major victory for the Union.
Siege of Vicksburg• a decisive battle in the American Civil War (1863); after being besieged for nearly seven weeks the Confederates surrendered.
William Tecumseh Sherman• United States general who was commander of all Union troops in the West; he captured Atlanta and led a destructive march to the sea that cut the Confederacy in two.
Appomattox Court House• A courthouse in Appomattox,Virginia built in 1892. It is located in the middle of the state about three miles (5 km) northwest of the Appomattox Court House National Historical Park, once known as Clover Hill.
Thirteenth Amendment• Ratiﬁed in 1865, this amendment abolished slavery.
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