Globalisation and transformation of Higher Education - Indian Experience


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Guest Lecture taken for about 100 students of Master in Business Economics course of Delhi University. The views expressed are personal.

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Globalisation and transformation of Higher Education - Indian Experience

  1. 1. © Copyright Wadhwani Foundation “Globalisation and transformational changes in higher education: The Indian experience” Guest Lecture for students of Masters in Business Economics Delhi University – South Campus August 29, 2013 Ajay Mohan Goel
  2. 2. © Copyright Wadhwani Foundation Wadhwani Foundation Vision and Mission Accelerating economic development in emerging economies Creating Jobs for Millions INDIA BANGLADESH USA We achieve high quality, large scale impact by creating opportunity networks and leveraging technology as linchpins of all our Initiatives
  3. 3. © Copyright Wadhwani Foundation ABOUT ROMESH WADHWANI Romesh Wadhwani • Successful Silicon Valley Entrepreneur • Forbes list of US richest 400 • Pledged to give away majority of his wealth and most of it to India • Driven to catalyze strategic, large scale, high-impact social change
  4. 4. © Copyright Wadhwani Foundation WF Initiatives and Goals Accelerate employability through skill development We revolutionize skill development through use of technology to create millions of highly-skilled knowledge workers, globally 5 Year Target: Skill and place 5MM in sustainable high-quality jobs Enable large scale job creation through entrepreneurship We inspire, educate, and support first generation entrepreneurs to create millions of jobs 5 Year Target: Create half a million high-value jobs Impact policies to accelerate India/US economic activity We strengthen the India-US relationship through a shared vision and a policy framework for economic acceleration 5 Year Target: Facilitate policy frameworks and actionable high impact policies that further US India economic development and cooperation. Mainstream the educated PwDs into corporate jobs We train and place disabled into sustainable high quality jobs 5 Year Target: Train and place 100,000 into corporate jobs Promote world class research and innovation We propel India towards leadership in innovation by enabling world-class research and industry creation 5 Year Target: Facilitate and enable world class research at several prestigious Institutes in high-impact areas
  5. 5. © Copyright Wadhwani Foundation What is Globalisation? The reality shaped by an increasingly integrated world economy, new information and communication technology, the emergence of an international knowledge network, the role of the English language, and other forces beyond the control of academic institutions. – Philip G. Altbach 5
  6. 6. © Copyright Wadhwani Foundation Globalisation - Trends • Worldwide convergence and integration • Integrated global system of scientific research • Increasing mobility of students, researchers, teaching staff and institutional leaders • Emerging market of academics and researchers • Technology-driven expansion of new delivery modes in teaching and learning • International labour market of graduates • Globalising organisation of professions • Migration of high-skilled labour is increasing • Challenges and risks • International activities of higher education institutions ‘escaping’ the ambit of domestic quality assurance • Low-quality provision or even ‘diploma mills’ driven by commercial interests • Difficulties with regard to credit transfer from or to foreign institutions 6
  7. 7. © Copyright Wadhwani Foundation What is Higher Education? Definition • Beyond the secondary level; especially: education provided by a college or university Mission • Societal • Economic • Epistemological 7
  8. 8. © Copyright Wadhwani Foundation Major trends in Higher Education 8 Continued expansion – Massification More heterogeneous student population Soaring tuition fees New funding arrangements Increased focus on accountability and performance New forms of institutional governance and management Global networking, mobility and collaboration MOOCs getting popular – but controversial Nature of Work Changing in developed economies
  9. 9. © Copyright Wadhwani Foundation HE: Indian Experience • Hardly appears on any global higher education ranking • Size of the HE system has increased considerably • But GER (18.8%) still way below the developed world • And has high non-completion rates • Lacks Significant high-quality research based universities at the top • Yet to provide access to those who demand it at the bottom • Accountability and quality assurance • Does not encourage quality • Negligible faculty development (pre-service and in-service) • One of the top exporters of students • Sends 2nd highest number of students abroad for studies • Few meaningful formal overseas relationships or links • Unsubsidised private higher education sector is rapidly expanding • But education remains not-for-profit sector • Foreign universities interested to enter India 9
  10. 10. © Copyright Wadhwani Foundation 10
  11. 11. © Copyright Wadhwani Foundation Key Highlights 11 Employers, education providers, and youth live in parallel universes. The education-to-employment journey is fraught with obstacles. The education-to-employment system fails for most employers and young people. Innovative and effective programs around the world have important elements in common. Creating a successful education-to-employment system requires new incentives and structures. Education-to-employment solutions need to scale up.
  12. 12. © Copyright Wadhwani Foundation India Education Scenario – A snapshot 12 No. of Institutions Enrolment GER Schools [1] 1,396,331 248,568,502 ITIs [2] 9,447 1,335,000 Polytechnics [1] 3,617 2,472,081 Colleges [1] 33,023 22,632,650 HE: 18.8% Universities [1] 621 Source: [1] MHRD 2011-12, [2] 12th five year plan document
  13. 13. © Copyright Wadhwani Foundation Indian Higher Education 13
  14. 14. © Copyright Wadhwani Foundation Indian Higher Education 14
  15. 15. © Copyright Wadhwani Foundation Globalisation and HE - Key Dimensions 1. Employability 2. Student Mobility 3. Institutional exchanges and overseas campuses 4. MOOCs 5. Faculty Mobility 6. Research Collaborations 7. Regulations & legal framework 8. Accreditation and Quality Assurance Frameworks 15
  16. 16. © Copyright Wadhwani Foundation Key Areas 16 Employability Student Mobility Institutional exchanges and overseas campuses MOOCs
  17. 17. © Copyright Wadhwani Foundation The Supply Side of Skills Join Degree, ~5M, 53% Drop Out, ~4.5M, 47% ~9.5 million students enrolled in 12th Class ~4.5 million are left behind each year
  18. 18. © Copyright Wadhwani Foundation The Demand Side of Skills High demand for entry and mid skills jobs Healthcare workers Banking and Retail sales agents, Auto Technicians and Paramedics Other white collar employees Pic: IBAB BangalorePic:
  19. 19. © Copyright Wadhwani Foundation College and High School Graduates Ill-Equipped for Industry Key Issues: • Curriculum: Out-dated courses and inadequate • Lack of practical orientation and apprenticeship • Quantity and Quality of Faculty
  20. 20. © Copyright Wadhwani Foundation India Way Behind in Higher and Skill Education India lags behind in vocational skills programs: - Sweet spot for India’s growing economy and global demand 0.0% 10.0% 20.0% 30.0% 40.0% 50.0% 60.0% 70.0% India Japan US UK China Germany 4.8% 40% 46% 50% 50% 65% % of Students in Vocational Education at Class 12 Level 0.0% 20.0% 40.0% 60.0% 80.0% 100.0% 12.4% 13% 19% 27% 31% 49% 54% 81% Gross Enrolment Ratio for Higher Education India’s target : 21% GER by 2017 (12th Five Year Plan) Source : MHRD NVEQF & Planning Commission SCHE presentations Source : Vital Stats: Higher Education in India, PRS Legislative Research, Oct 2010
  21. 21. © Copyright Wadhwani Foundation Skilling Needs to Align with Shift in Economy • Most of vocational education focused on Manufacturing industry • 58% of India’s GDP now comes from Services Sector
  22. 22. © Copyright Wadhwani Foundation Opportunity for employment driven, accessible, affordable, short- cycle education The Gap Lack of adequate programs to produce job ready candidates Polytechnics, VETs, ITI, etc. NGOs Degree Colleges GAP
  23. 23. © Copyright Wadhwani Foundation Companies Are Responding • Narayana Health and Healthcare Consortium • Maruti Suzuki and Automotive Council • Retail Council • ICICI and other Banking programs • BPO Companies LOSE-LOSE PROPOSITION
  24. 24. © Copyright Wadhwani Foundation Government (MHRD) has Responded NSQF • National framework and recognition of skills education School Pilot • Haryana pilot with 40 schools and 5,000 students College Pilot • Community College pilot with 200 Colleges and 20,000 students Colleges • Introduction of Four Year Undergraduate Program
  25. 25. © Copyright Wadhwani Foundation Key Areas 25 Employability Student Mobility Institutional exchanges and overseas campuses MOOCs
  26. 26. © Copyright Wadhwani Foundation International Mobility of Students • Over 4.3 Million young people studying abroad for a degree. • CAGR 6% (1990-2011) • The largest numbers of international students are from China, India and Korea. Asian students account for 53% of all students studying abroad worldwide. • Drivers • For Students • Cheaper Travel and communication costs • Cultural enrichment and improve language skills • Get high-status qualifications • Create advantage for themselves in competitive job market. • For Governments • Bring new skills back home (Fewer Indian students returning back) • Forex earning • Capacity Building Strategy (e.g. China) • Increasing competition for the globetrotting young people 26
  27. 27. © Copyright Wadhwani Foundation Student Migrations 27 Source: OECD Note July 2013
  28. 28. © Copyright Wadhwani Foundation Foreign Students in India • ICCR Data: 309 / 546 scholarships ( General Cultural) availed in 2011 • Poor diplomacy of India embassies abroad • Poor quality of education in many universities • Alternative destinations more attractive • Few thousand students come to India (IGNOU, Manipal, Pune, DU..) • Cheaper education • Private universities attracting students • Allure of Indian culture, IT strengths and Bollywood! • India is 11th most popular country for US students for studying abroad • South Asian University (SAARC) set up in Delhi 28
  29. 29. © Copyright Wadhwani Foundation Key Areas 29 Employability Student Mobility Institutional exchanges and overseas campuses MOOCs
  30. 30. © Copyright Wadhwani Foundation Foreign HE Institutions in India • Foreign Educational Institutions (Regulation for Entry and Operations) Bill, 2010 - Pending • AICTE has a scheme for collaboration / twinning programs for technical education • Government planning to release an executive order • must be not-for-profit legal entities • have been in existence for at least 20 years • registered by an accrediting agency of the country concerned or by an internationally accepted system of accreditation • maintain a corpus of at least Rs. 25 Crores 30
  31. 31. © Copyright Wadhwani Foundation Indian Campuses overseas 31
  32. 32. © Copyright Wadhwani Foundation Key Areas 32 Employability Student Mobility Institutional exchanges and overseas campuses MOOCs
  33. 33. © Copyright Wadhwani Foundation How many students are learning online? Last year, within the U.S., about 6.7 million students have taken at least one online course (there are about 20 million higher education students in the U.S.) Last year, the growth rate was about 9%, with 570,000 new online enrolments The percentage of students taking at least one online course is 32% Only 2.6% of institutions participate in or use a massive-online open course (MOOC) system. 9.4% of the institutions are considering 33 Source: Changing Course: Ten Years of Tracking Online Education in the United States. January, 2013. Babson Survey Research Group and Quahog Research Group.
  34. 34. © Copyright Wadhwani Foundation MOOCs (Massive Open Online Class) • For-profit MOOC startups are emerging • Udacity, Coursera, Udemy, Kahn Academy • Coursera added 29 more universities, several from overseas to complement the initial 33 universities (March, 2013) • Universities are experimenting with credit transfers from some of these courses • Colorado State is piloting a computer class transfer (September, 2012) from Udacity • California State will use Udacity to offer remedial algebra, statistics for $150 a course (January 2012) • California is considering legislation to require credit transfer for overcrowded classes (March, 2013) • Non-profit MOOCs have been announced • EdX – a joint venture with Harvard, MIT, Berkeley, University of Texas • Industry-university partnerships have been announced • 2U: Northwestern, Duke, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill and a few others (November, 2012) • Academic Partnerships: ASU, University of Cincinnati, University of Arkansas, Cleveland State, Florida International University, Utah State, University of Texas Arlington (January 2013) • Expect more universities, companies with announcements in 2013 and 2014 34
  35. 35. © Copyright Wadhwani Foundation The Coursera Statistics 35
  36. 36. © Copyright Wadhwani Foundation MOOCs – The India Picture • NPTEL – An early start • Many tens of thousands of College / University teachers and students have enrolled for one or more course on Coursera • IITs, NASSCOM and industry coming together to offer MOOC • IIT Delhi to offer big data course on coursera this year • IIT Bombay joined edX to offer some of its regular courses online • Coursera making mobile app for students to access courses on Akash tablets 36
  37. 37. © Copyright Wadhwani Foundation Discussion and Questions 37
  38. 38. © Copyright Wadhwani Foundation Thank You