6. Some Indian Initiatives to reduce Air Pollution
• National Clean Air Program (NCAP) launched in January 2019 by MoEFCC
• Goal: reduce harmful particulate matter pollution by 20-30% by 2024 (vs 2017 levels)
• Delhi - formed 52 cross-government teams to ensure implementation of its Graded
Response Action Plan during peak pollution season.
• Ahmedabad - implemented its health-based plan to protect citizens from high levels of air
pollution. FY19-20 budget for 1000 electric buses, 30,000 electric rickshaws, and capping of
smoldering landfill—Pirana—that contributes to the city’s air pollution woes.
• Nagpur - developed a comprehensive action plan to reduce air pollution in the city.
• Pune - promoting non-motorized transport.
• Raipur - achieved a reduction in local particulate matter pollution over two consecutive
• Chennai - increased generation of solar energy by utilizing metro rail rooftops
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8. Solutions for Cities
1. Post-combustion controls: Introduce state-of-the-art end-of-pipe measures to reduce
sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particulate emissions at power stations and in large-
2. Vehicle inspection and maintenance: Enforce mandatory checks and repairs for vehicles
3. Dust control: Suppress construction and road dust; increase green areas
4. Agricultural crop residue: Manage agricultural residues, including strict enforcement of
bans on open burning
5. Residential waste burning: Strictly enforce bans on open burning of household waste
6. Clean cooking and heating: Use clean fuels – electricity, natural gas, liquefied petroleum
gas (LPG) in cities, and LPG and advanced biomass cooking and heating stoves in rural
areas; substitution of coal by briquettes
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9. Solutions for Cities
7. Renewables for power generation: Use incentives to foster extended use of wind, solar
and hydro power for electricity generation and phase out the least efficient plants
8. Energy efficiency for households: Use incentives to improve the energy efficiency of
household appliances, buildings, lighting, heating and cooling; encourage roof-top solar
9. Electric vehicles: Promote the use of electric vehicles
10. Improved public transport: Encourage a shift from private passenger vehicles to public
11. Solid waste management: Encourage centralized waste collection with source separation
and treatment, including gas utilization
12. Wastewater treatment: Introduce well-managed two-stage treatment with biogas
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• Invest in Energy Efficient Power Generation
• Build safe and affordable public transport systems and Pedestrian & Cycle friendly
• Improve domestic, industry and municipal waste management
• Reduce Agricultural waste incineration, forest fires and certain agro-forestry
• Make greener and more compact cities with energy-efficient buildings.
• Provide universal access to clean affordable fuels and technologies for cooking,
heating and lighting.
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• Acute respiratory infections in young
• Cerebrovascular diseases (stroke)
• Ischaemic heart diseases (IHD)
• Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
• Lung cancer
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• Air pollution, both ambient and household,
increases the risk of cardiovascular and
• 2016: ~7 million deaths worldwide.
• Sub-Saharan Africa and most of Asia and
Oceania (excluding Australia/New Zealand) -
highest mortality rates due to air pollution
• Inadequate and unsafe drinking water,
sanitation and hygiene is linked to (Disease
• 60 % due to diarrhoea,
• 100% from infections with soil-
• 16% protein-energy malnutrition,
• ~870,000 deaths in 2016 from the three
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• ~3 billion people still rely primarily on
inefficient and polluting cooking systems.
17. Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking, 2016
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Share of the total population with access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking.
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• world’s leading risk factors for
• attributed to 5 million deaths each
year. (9% of deaths)
• A leading risk factor for disease
• highest in low-to-middle income
countries, with more than 100-fold
differences in rates across the world.
• Globally, death rates from air
pollution have been falling. This has
mainly been the result of progress on
tackling indoor pollution.
19. Death rates from air pollution, 2017 (Indoor + Outdoor)
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21. China: Aggressive pollution control yield results
• PM2.5 pollution has dropped markedly
• Continue to exceed theWHO’s least-stringent target.
• Action Plan for Air Pollution Prevention and Control
(2013-, State Council of China in 2013.
• set key air quality targets and included
• specific actions to reduce the reliance on coal
• cut industrial emissions
• control the number of vehicles in some cities
• increase lower-emission energy sources
• New 3-year plan (2018 - 2020)
• targets more cities
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Underscore the potential for air quality management efforts to rapidly and
substantially improve air quality both in China and around the world.