Amit Kumar Anand
September 26, 2016
• Education is one of the critical elements
of the national development. It is a pow-
erful tool to build knowledge-based soci-
ety of the 21st century.
• Improvement of access along with eq-
uity and excellence. Enhancing the rel-
evance of higher education through cur-
riculum reforms, vocationalisation, infor-
mation technology, networking and dis-
• In order to reap beneﬁts of this demo-
graphic dividend; access through expan-
sion, equity through inclusion and quality
are major concerns of the higher educa-
• Gross Enrollment Ratio (GER) in Higher
Education (18-23 year): 13.5% (2007)
– World average: 24%
– Developing countries: 18%
– Developed countries: 58%
• Three pillars of higher education: Access,
Equity and Excellence.
2 Challenges in Tertiary Ed-
• Globalisation has aﬀected higher educa-
tion: internationalization, student mobil-
• New institutions with new modes of op-
eration, leveraging ICT forcing existing
institutions to change their modes of op-
eration. e.g. MOOCs
• Danger of growing digital divide between
and within nations.
• Quality assurance.
• Public funding unable to keep pace with
rising costs of higher education.
• Traditionally, education has been seen
as a public good, contributing to soci-
ety through educating citizens, improv-
ing human capital, and boosting eco-
nomic development. There is an increas-
ing pressure to view higher education as
private good, largely beneﬁting individu-
als, with the implication that academic
institutions, and their students, should
pay a signiﬁcant part of the cost of higher
3 Need for continued support
to higher education by gov-
• Existence of externalities from ter-
tiary education: higher productivity,
progress in the agriculture, health and
environment sectors, higher skill levels in
the labor force are mainly due to innova-
tions resultant from research in universi-
• Equity issues: Providing access to mer-
itorious but economically disadvantaged
• Supportive role of tertiary educa-
tion in the education system as a
whole: Qualiﬁed teachers and school
leaders, curriculum design, research on
teaching and learning.
4 Strengths of Indian Higher
• Well established educational institutions:
IISc, IITs and IIMs reputed all over the
• Young population: over 670 million in
age group 15-64 years.
• Robust economic growth
• Availability of resource in the market:
adequate funds available in market, pri-
vate sector opening new institutions.
• Alert civic society.
• Large number of alumni organizations:
5 Weakness of Indian Higher
• Shortage of faculty.
• Existence of large number of regulators
and fragmentation of higher education:
13 regulatory bodies. Multiple agen-
cies increase ineﬃciency, breed corrup-
tion and malpractices.
• Regional imbalances.
• Inadequate infrastructure facilities.
• Low emphasis on research and disconnect
between Universities and Research labo-
• Inadequate response to PPP.
6 Opportunities in Indian
• Young working population.
• Sharp decline in dependency ratio.
• Vast scope for expansion of tertiary edu-
• India is emerging as global hub in educa-
• Commercialization of higher education:
Enormous tuition fees.
• Deterioration of quality of education.
• Economic and Socio-cultural factors:
lack of opportunities, status of women,
disparity in society, rural-urban divide.
8 Improving Quality of Re-
• Outcome based research ﬁnancing.
• Liberal research grant.
• Incubation centers with enough money
for innovative research.
• Collaboration with R&D in industry -
Research parks in central educational in-
stitutions, especially IITs.
• Industry academia collaboration promot-
ing intellectual property.
• Inter-disciplinary research.
• Investment in R&D to be enhanced.
9 Governance reforms
• Independent quality assurance frame-
• Creating single overarching authority.
• Autonomy of institutions.
• Permitting foreign education providers.
• National and State Educational Tri-
bunals to deliver speedy justice to all lit-
igations arising in the higher education
• Capitation fees and misleading advertise-
ments to be punished.
10 Vocational Education
• Market based design of courses.
• Progression pathways.
• Vocational framework with reliable ac-
creditation mechanism. National Voca-
tional Education Qualiﬁcations Frame-
• Structural unemployment to be ad-
dressed by policy interventions.
• NOS for all trades.
11.1 IMPacting Research INnova-
tion and Technology (IM-
• First-of-its-kind Pan-IIT and IISc joint
initiative to address major engineering
challenges that the country must address
and champion to enable, empower and
embolden the nation for inclusive growth
• Ten technology domains as grand en-
gineering challenges have been thought
of. The ten domains that represent the
most important areas for the country
along with their coordinating institutes
are given below:
1. Healthcare Technology: IIT Kharagpur
2. Computer Technology: IIT Kharagpur
3. Advance Materials: IIT Kanpur
4. Water Resources: IIT Kanpur
5. Sustainable Habitat: IIT Roorkee
6. Security and Defense: IIT Madras
7. Manufacturing Technology: IIT Madras
8. Nano-technology Hardware: IIT Bombay
9. Environment and Climate: IISc, Banga-
10. Energy Security: IIT Bombay
11.2 National Institutional Ranking
• Methodology to rank institutions across
• The parameters broadly cover “Teach-
ing, Learning and Resources,” “Research
and Professional Practices,” “Graduation
Outcomes,” “Outreach and Inclusivity,”
11.3 Global Initiative of Academic
• Bring reputed international faculty in the
Indian academic institutes.
• Provide opportunity to our faculty to
learn and share knowledge and teaching
skills in cutting edge areas.
• Provide opportunity to our students to
seek knowledge and experience from re-
puted International faculty.
• Create avenue for possible collaborative
research with the international faculty
• Increase international students in the
• Opportunity for the students of diﬀerent
Institutes/Universities to interact and
learn subjects in niche areas through col-
laborative learning process.
• Provide opportunity for the technical
persons from Indian Industry to improve
understandings and update their knowl-
edge in relevant areas.
• Motivate the best international experts
in the world to work on problems related
• Develop high quality course material in
niche areas, both through video and print
that can be used by a larger body of stu-
dents and teachers.
• To document and develop new pedagogic
methods in emerging topics of national
and international interest.
11.4 Rashtriya Ucchatar Shiksha
• CSS providing strategic funding to eligi-
ble state higher educational institutions.
• Funding to states would be made on the
basis of critical appraisal of State Higher
• Promoting autonomy in State Universi-
ties and improving governance in institu-
• Institutional restructuring & reforms.
• Ensure adequate availability of quality
faculty,capacity building at all levels of
• Research, innovation and quality im-
• Expand the institutional base by creat-
ing additional capacity in existing insti-
tutions and establishing new institutions,
in order to achieve enrolment targets.
• Correct regional imbalances.
• Improve equity in higher education
by providing adequate opportunities of
higher education to SC/STs and socially
and educationally backward classes; pro-
mote inclusion of women, minorities, and
diﬀerently abled persons.
• Vocationalisation of Higher Education.
11.5 National Research Professor-
• Honour distinguished academics and
scholars in recognition of their contribu-
tion to knowledge.
• Attained the age of 65 years and have
made outstanding contributions in their
respective ﬁelds and are still capable of
11.6 Pt. Madan Mohan Malaviya
National Mission on Teachers
and Teaching (PMMNMTT)
• Address comprehensively all issues re-
lated to teachers, teaching, teacher
preparation and professional develop-
• Ensure supply of qualiﬁed teachers, at-
tracting talent into teaching profession
and raising the quality of teaching in
schools and colleges.
• Building a strong professional cadre of
teachers by setting performance stan-
dards and creating top class institutional
facilities for innovative teaching and pro-
fessional development of teachers.
11.7 National Scheme of Appren-
• Practical training to graduate engineers,
diploma holders (Technicians) and 10+2
Vocational pass outs in about 10,000 in-
dustrial establishments/ organizations.
• Fulﬁll/match, any gap, in practi-
cal/hands on experience.
• Enhance technical skills for suitability in
• Apprenticeship period 1 year, paid
11.8 National Programme for Tech-
nology Enhanced Learning
• Promoting distance education and web
• Enhance quality engineering education
in the country by developing curriculum
based video courses and web based e-
• Prepared by 7 old IITs and IISc.