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Higher Education In India

Higher Education In India, CSE Notes, IAS

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Higher Education In India

  1. 1. Higher Education Amit Kumar Anand September 26, 2016 1 Overview • Education is one of the critical elements of the national development. It is a pow- erful tool to build knowledge-based soci- ety of the 21st century. • Improvement of access along with eq- uity and excellence. Enhancing the rel- evance of higher education through cur- riculum reforms, vocationalisation, infor- mation technology, networking and dis- tance education. • In order to reap benefits of this demo- graphic dividend; access through expan- sion, equity through inclusion and quality are major concerns of the higher educa- tion sector. • Gross Enrollment Ratio (GER) in Higher Education (18-23 year): 13.5% (2007) – World average: 24% – Developing countries: 18% – Developed countries: 58% • Three pillars of higher education: Access, Equity and Excellence. 2 Challenges in Tertiary Ed- ucation • Globalisation has affected higher educa- tion: internationalization, student mobil- ity. • New institutions with new modes of op- eration, leveraging ICT forcing existing institutions to change their modes of op- eration. e.g. MOOCs • Danger of growing digital divide between and within nations. • Quality assurance. • Public funding unable to keep pace with rising costs of higher education. • Traditionally, education has been seen as a public good, contributing to soci- ety through educating citizens, improv- ing human capital, and boosting eco- nomic development. There is an increas- ing pressure to view higher education as private good, largely benefiting individu- als, with the implication that academic institutions, and their students, should pay a significant part of the cost of higher education. 3 Need for continued support to higher education by gov- ernment • Existence of externalities from ter- tiary education: higher productivity, progress in the agriculture, health and environment sectors, higher skill levels in the labor force are mainly due to innova- tions resultant from research in universi- ties. • Equity issues: Providing access to mer- itorious but economically disadvantaged groups. • Supportive role of tertiary educa- tion in the education system as a whole: Qualified teachers and school leaders, curriculum design, research on teaching and learning. 1
  2. 2. 4 Strengths of Indian Higher Education • Well established educational institutions: IISc, IITs and IIMs reputed all over the world. • Young population: over 670 million in age group 15-64 years. • Robust economic growth • Availability of resource in the market: adequate funds available in market, pri- vate sector opening new institutions. • Alert civic society. • Large number of alumni organizations: PanIIT 5 Weakness of Indian Higher Education • Shortage of faculty. • Existence of large number of regulators and fragmentation of higher education: 13 regulatory bodies. Multiple agen- cies increase inefficiency, breed corrup- tion and malpractices. • Regional imbalances. • Inadequate infrastructure facilities. • Low emphasis on research and disconnect between Universities and Research labo- ratories. • Inadequate response to PPP. 6 Opportunities in Indian Higher Education • Young working population. • Sharp decline in dependency ratio. • Vast scope for expansion of tertiary edu- cation. • India is emerging as global hub in educa- tion. 7 Threats/Challenges • Commercialization of higher education: Enormous tuition fees. • Deterioration of quality of education. • Economic and Socio-cultural factors: lack of opportunities, status of women, disparity in society, rural-urban divide. 8 Improving Quality of Re- search • Outcome based research financing. • Liberal research grant. • Incubation centers with enough money for innovative research. • Collaboration with R&D in industry - Research parks in central educational in- stitutions, especially IITs. • Industry academia collaboration promot- ing intellectual property. • Inter-disciplinary research. • Investment in R&D to be enhanced. 9 Governance reforms • Independent quality assurance frame- work. • Creating single overarching authority. • Autonomy of institutions. • Permitting foreign education providers. • National and State Educational Tri- bunals to deliver speedy justice to all lit- igations arising in the higher education sector. • Capitation fees and misleading advertise- ments to be punished. 2
  3. 3. 10 Vocational Education • Market based design of courses. • Progression pathways. • Vocational framework with reliable ac- creditation mechanism. National Voca- tional Education Qualifications Frame- work (NVEQF). • Structural unemployment to be ad- dressed by policy interventions. • NOS for all trades. 11 Schemes 11.1 IMPacting Research INnova- tion and Technology (IM- PRINT) • First-of-its-kind Pan-IIT and IISc joint initiative to address major engineering challenges that the country must address and champion to enable, empower and embolden the nation for inclusive growth and self-reliance. • Ten technology domains as grand en- gineering challenges have been thought of. The ten domains that represent the most important areas for the country along with their coordinating institutes are given below: 1. Healthcare Technology: IIT Kharagpur 2. Computer Technology: IIT Kharagpur 3. Advance Materials: IIT Kanpur 4. Water Resources: IIT Kanpur 5. Sustainable Habitat: IIT Roorkee 6. Security and Defense: IIT Madras 7. Manufacturing Technology: IIT Madras 8. Nano-technology Hardware: IIT Bombay 9. Environment and Climate: IISc, Banga- lore 10. Energy Security: IIT Bombay 11.2 National Institutional Ranking Framework (NIRF) • Methodology to rank institutions across the country. • The parameters broadly cover “Teach- ing, Learning and Resources,” “Research and Professional Practices,” “Graduation Outcomes,” “Outreach and Inclusivity,” and “Perception”. 11.3 Global Initiative of Academic Network (GIAN) • Bring reputed international faculty in the Indian academic institutes. • Provide opportunity to our faculty to learn and share knowledge and teaching skills in cutting edge areas. • Provide opportunity to our students to seek knowledge and experience from re- puted International faculty. • Create avenue for possible collaborative research with the international faculty • Increase international students in the academic Institutes. • Opportunity for the students of different Institutes/Universities to interact and learn subjects in niche areas through col- laborative learning process. • Provide opportunity for the technical persons from Indian Industry to improve understandings and update their knowl- edge in relevant areas. • Motivate the best international experts in the world to work on problems related to India. • Develop high quality course material in niche areas, both through video and print that can be used by a larger body of stu- dents and teachers. • To document and develop new pedagogic methods in emerging topics of national and international interest. 3
  4. 4. 11.4 Rashtriya Ucchatar Shiksha Abhiyan (RUSA) • CSS providing strategic funding to eligi- ble state higher educational institutions. • Funding to states would be made on the basis of critical appraisal of State Higher Education Plans. • Promoting autonomy in State Universi- ties and improving governance in institu- tions. • Institutional restructuring & reforms. • Ensure adequate availability of quality faculty,capacity building at all levels of employment. • Research, innovation and quality im- provement. • Expand the institutional base by creat- ing additional capacity in existing insti- tutions and establishing new institutions, in order to achieve enrolment targets. • Correct regional imbalances. • Improve equity in higher education by providing adequate opportunities of higher education to SC/STs and socially and educationally backward classes; pro- mote inclusion of women, minorities, and differently abled persons. • Vocationalisation of Higher Education. 11.5 National Research Professor- ship • Honour distinguished academics and scholars in recognition of their contribu- tion to knowledge. • Attained the age of 65 years and have made outstanding contributions in their respective fields and are still capable of productive research. 11.6 Pt. Madan Mohan Malaviya National Mission on Teachers and Teaching (PMMNMTT) • Address comprehensively all issues re- lated to teachers, teaching, teacher preparation and professional develop- ment. • Ensure supply of qualified teachers, at- tracting talent into teaching profession and raising the quality of teaching in schools and colleges. • Building a strong professional cadre of teachers by setting performance stan- dards and creating top class institutional facilities for innovative teaching and pro- fessional development of teachers. 11.7 National Scheme of Appren- ticeship Training • Practical training to graduate engineers, diploma holders (Technicians) and 10+2 Vocational pass outs in about 10,000 in- dustrial establishments/ organizations. • Fulfill/match, any gap, in practi- cal/hands on experience. • Enhance technical skills for suitability in job absorption. • Apprenticeship period 1 year, paid stipend. 11.8 National Programme for Tech- nology Enhanced Learning (NPTEL) • Promoting distance education and web based learning. • Enhance quality engineering education in the country by developing curriculum based video courses and web based e- courses. • Prepared by 7 old IITs and IISc. 4