Ethics of AI


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About ethics of artificial intelligence, the potential, limitations and concerns in robotics and how to develop software in a responsible manner.

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  • Discuss: What do you see? My Answer: The opportunity for 50,000 robots within the next few years/decades Announcement of Korean Government -> at least on robot per home within the next years (maybe 10 years) Already test area with 10,000 households to be populated with robots -> Question: Is it already I,Robot like? Japanese/Asian are more willing to adapt
  • Embedded in everyday equipment: PDA, Speech Recognition, addressed in research, see N# Potential: we will see “the” standard slide later on Limitations : I will talk about this later Latest development: Here we go – that’s the reason I am here Public concerns: somethin about MS Research and the ERO Mission
  • Two definitions from Wikipedia and Encarta, I liked especially the one of the traffic light in south Africa However address they address the mechanical aspects Robot from the polish language, introduced in 1930s by Issac assimov in one of his early novels – and stands for workers – there is some responsibility
  • Our one, clear definition. As you can see it is simple – but there is not a lot of intelligence. Actually also a piece of software can
  • Less work at home – service in the public – sound to me like ROBOT by its origin definition - worker
  • Increasing software challenges, but also increasing responsibilities, 24h assistant, companion, pro-active robots
  • Where and why does Microsoft as a company fit in there?
  • Yellow: re-invent the slavery
  • The Visual Robotik Development Kit is a first approach in building an unique visual programming environment. By abstracting from underlying source code, the VRDK enables non technical audience or groups of persons nor familiar with this certain domain of technology to access and program its functionality. Thereby the VRDK allows abstracting on different levels. Abstract models can be used as well as a in-depth look into source code is provided corresponding to the audience, from beginners up to experts.
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  • Tools – no rules This Microsoft thing is just sitting there, without the manufactuere doing anything, nothing happens --- Improved CCR and DSS Runtime We’ve made some significant improvements that has doubled message throughput within node (between services) and between nodes. XML footprint has been reduced by half. Peak message throughput on multiprocessor machines is now close to 90,000 SOAP messages per second, between services on the same node, and 2,500 messages between nodes (using TCP or HTTP, full serialization). A scalable, extensible runtime architecture that can span a wide variety of hardware and devices. The programming interface can be used to address robots using 8-bit or 16-bit processors as well as 32-bit systems with multi-core processors and devices from simple touch sensors to laser distance finding devices. A set of useful tools that make programming and debugging robot applications scenarios easier. These include a high quality visual simulation environment that uses for software physics supplied by the Ageia Technologies PhysX engine. A set of useful technology libraries services samples to help developers get started with writing robot applications.
  • Ethics of AI

    1. 1. ERO Technology Group Presented byEthics of AI Andreas Heil Date 11. December 2006About Potential, Limitations andConcerns in Robotics
    2. 2. Intelligent RoboticsThere are many misconceptions in the public mind about thecapabilities of artificial intelligence in general and intelligentrobots in particular. As intelligent behaviours becomeembedded in everyday equipment, there is an increasing needto understand the huge potential of these new technologies,as well as their limitations. This workshop will review not onlythe latest developments in intelligent robotics and promotediscussion of the challenges they present, but also questionthe desirability of research into different application areas andreview public concerns regarding the quest to createconscious robots.
    3. 3. Definition: Robot A robot is an electro-mechanical device that can perform autonomous or pre- programmed tasks. A robot may act under the direct control of a human (e.g. the Canadarm on the space shuttle) or autonomously under the control of a programmed computer. Wikipedia 1. Mechanical device programmed to perform tasks Any machine that can be programmed to carry out instructions and perform particular duties, especially one that can take over tasks normally done by people 2. Imaginary machine like human A machine that resembles a human in appearance and can function like a human, especially in science fiction 3. Person like a machine Somebody who works or behaves mechanically, showing little or no emotion and often responding to orders without question 4. Traffic light South Africa - a set of automatic traffic lights Encarta Dictionary
    4. 4. Definition: Robot A robot is a device, hard- or software with the capability of sensing and (re)acting.
    5. 5. Robotics Market PotentialService and consumer markets just emerging• Remote assistance/presence• Assistive• Facilities maintenance• Security• Education• EntertainmentWhy Robotics Research at All?•High market expectation•Demographic push in health & elderly care•Longer working times – people spend lesstime at home•Service in the publicMilitary•300 units x 800k * Source Japan Robotics Association
    6. 6. 3 2 1 20 05 Real vacuum cleaner Filtering unnecessary Information Household devices (Microwave, Fridge) 20 Robot with integrated communication capabilities1 07 Robot loading dishwasher2 20 10 Tourguide3 Development Trend Robot adapting to individual needs Gaming robot Learning about new environments by taking a tour of it, after that it can re-give that tour. 20 Robot helping handicapped people 15 Increasing Software Challenges Ironing robot Proactive robot Robot understanding human activities 20 20 24h assistant Companion for elderly people* Source EURON Workshop 2005
    7. 7. Microsoft & Robotics Experience Groups Systems Microsoft Research • PC Ecosystem (desktop, web, • Enabling Technologies mobile, home) • Human Robot Interaction • XP, XP Embedded, CE (real-time) • Personal Robotics • Educational Robotics Development Environment and Tools • Programming Environments • Programming IDE Microsoft Robotics Groups • Debugging and Optimization • Microsoft Robotics Group Existing Applicable Technologies Redmond • Center for Innovative Robotics • Speech Carnegie Mellon University • Real-time Communications • External Research Office • Infrastructure Cambridge
    8. 8. New RequirementsNew Requirements• Ultra Heterogeneity• Distributed Environments• Dynamic Configuration• Context-Awareness• Personalization• Extensibility• Reliability• Security• Privacy Protection• Usability• Autonomy• …Ubiquitous computing environments should be deployed incrementally• Living space is not a demonstration room• We like to replace existing objectsHow can software infrastructures help to decrease the complexities?
    9. 9. Challenges to AddressFuture Applications• Support & care, education, entertainment• Timesaving, repetitive work• Have a servant, companionPersonal Robotics• Human-robotics Interaction• Mediator between Digital/Real world From nature to• Natural and Affective Interaction (speech, software models gestures, emotions)• Adaptive to individual needsWhat is needed so that robots could be successfully integrated in our everyday life? What are the key technical issues?
    10. 10. Come more Challenges• Costs When a human is in danger, robots can do this work on behalf, then maybe, the costs are a minor issue• Robot’s image is cultural depended > We will never accept a Japanese robot because of its cultural differences > Its important to build a robot corresponding to your culture• Japan vs. Hollywood > Japan, friendly TV-series > Hollywood, dangerous, instable Bring me a cup of tea…• Acceptance > Emotional component > Robot as a luxury• Learning vs. Imitation > “Do I really want it to play as bad chess as I do?”
    11. 11. VRDK – A Research Prototype• Building a compelling & engaging Programmable Environment• Innovative, very easy, flexible Programming Environment for Robot control applications• Accessible to non technical audiences (children, nurses, elderly, machine operators)• Enables a ‘Path’ from very simple (beginner, child) to professional (using Visual Studio) Abstracting complexity on different levels Source Code Visual
    12. 12. Domain Specific Language Visual N# Users can switch between• Domain-specific both notations graphical language• Extension of VRDK• Easy to design Code Translator N# • Domain-specific textual language • Easy to read and write C# / VB.NET • General purpose programming language • Don’t write code anymore
    13. 13. N# - A Textual Notation for Visual N#ambient MyAmbient @ Person where filter ($1.Company == „Microsoft Research“), filter($1.Location == „Cambridge"), filter($1.SecurityLevel > 2) { discover Lights @ Light where distance(a), filter($1.Color == „green"); process OnLampAdd @ l = Lights.Added { l.On(); } process OnLampRemove @ l = Lights.Removed { l.Off(); } a = 100;}
    14. 14. AI• A lot of the AI will stay in its virtual world• Only limited connections to the real world• Responsibility
    15. 15. The Microsoft Robotics Studio – Tools No Rules*A lightweight concurrency and services oriented runtime• Handling of sensory input and controlling actuators• Based on synchronous message passing• Decentralised System Services (DSS) facilitating tasks and basic services such as debugging, logging, monitoring, security, discovery and data persistenceAuthoring/development tools• Visual programming editor• Simulation• Message debuggingTechnology libraries and basic algorithms• Code samples and documentation * AI2005
    16. 16. Runtime EnvironmentAn application is a composition of loosely-coupled services concurrently executing acrossscopes• Interactions described using service contacts• Components are networked• Provides isolation between components > Reliability – ability to restart independently, replaceable/updatable > Parallelism y dar oun UI B ion Main Port ic at A ppl Main Port Service Private Port Code State Main Port Service Main Port Code Main PortPrivate Port State Private Port Service Service Code Service Code State Code State State H/W H/W* Example: Model car + sensors
    17. 17. Simulation Capabilities
    18. 18. Supported KUKA robot
    19. 19. Community: Robot Swarm Heading Target Area * R.D. Rango,
    20. 20. Community: Robot Swarm Simulation * R.D. Rango,
    21. 21. Community: Maze Simulator* B. Axelrod, T. Taylor,
    22. 22. Outlook• VRDK > Research Prototype > Proof of Concept• Microsoft Robotics Studio > Available as CTP (November CTP) > Improved Visualization > Package based Deployment > Wrap up for final version end of Dec 2006 > CCR / DSS maybe available as separate DL >• N# > Ongoing research > Publications etc. > Visual Studio integration >
    23. 23. Thank you or your attention.