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spices scenario

spices scenario

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spices Presentation Transcript

  • 1. BY:VISHNU KUMAR MISHRA ID NO 13-533-011 1st M.Sc.(Hort)
  • 2. HISTORY, SCOPE AND IMPORTANCE, CURRENT SCENARIO & GAP OF SPICES
  • 3. Content History of spices Scope and importance of spices Current status of spice Area and production Distribution of spices in Indian states Export and import GAP of spices
  • 4.  Indian story of Spices - more than 7000 years old.  Archeologists discovered spices in Egyptian tombs in 3000 BC.  Archaeological excavations have burnt clove onto the floor of a kitchen, dated to 1700 BCE, at the Mesopotamian  The Spice trade developed throughout South Asia and Middle East in around 2000 BCE with cinnamon and pepper, and in East Asia with herbs and pepper.  The ancient Indian epic Ramayana mentions cloves. It reveals that the history of Indian spices dates back to the beginning of the human civilization.
  • 5. Important Landmarks in the History of Spices at a Glance Remarks about the importance and use of spices in 6000 BC Vedic texts. Pyramid age remarks about spices in Egyptian history 6000-2100 BC and the use spices in 'Mummies' as preservative. Charaka, and Susrutha mentioned the use of pepper in 1550-600 BC medicine A Chinese envoy visited the Malabar Coast in search 1st century of pepper. Chinese traveler, Sulaiman visited Kerala coast, 851 AD recorded the black pepper cultivation and trade with China China imports large quantity of pepper from Malabar 1200 AD Coast and Java
  • 6. Vasco de Gama discovered the sea route to India and arrived at 1498 Calicut. Pedro Alvares Cabral landed in Calicut and established supremacy of Portugal over spices trade in the Malabar coast. 1500 Establishment of the British East India Company for trading in 1600 spices. British landed in India on 24 August. 1600 at Surat. The French came for spices trade. 1700-1800 America entered the pepper trade 1795-1800 First research station for pepper established in India at Panniyur. 1952-1953 Kerala Establishment of International Pepper Community at Jakarta 1972 (Indonesia) Establishment of National Research Centre for Spices (NRCS) 1986 NRCS Upgraded as Indian Institute of Spice Research. (IISR) 1996 Source :- Spices Board of India
  • 7. India has diverse soil and climate & several agro- ecological regions which provides the opportunity to grow a variety of spice crops. It is low volume and high value crop. spice crops play a unique role in India’s economy by improving the income of the rural people Labor intensive so generate lot of employment opportunities for the rural population. The demand of Indian spice is very much in other countries . Hence we have very much scope to meet that demand by huge production. source- UCLA Louise M. Darling Biomedical Library 12-077 CHS, Box 951798
  • 8.  Spices can improve the palatability and the appeal of dull diets.  Flavors stimulate salivation and promote digestion  Improve health, by affecting the humors & moods (sanguine, phlegmatic, choleric and melancholic)  Having antibacterial and preservative action Ex- pickles  The strong preservative quality of many spices made them ideal for embalming.
  • 9. scenario of spices
  • 10. CURRENT STATUS  India- Land of spices  India- Largest producer, consumer and exporter of spices  China - second largest producer  >90% for domestic consumption  109 spices- all over world  India- 52 spices  Share of spices in total agricultural export- 6%  India’s share of world spice trade- 45-50% by volume and 25-30% by value
  • 11. CURRENT STATUS  The total exports of spices have touched a record Rs 153384.46 lakhs for 525750 tonnes in 2011.  Value-added spices (Curry powder/paste, mint products and spice oils and oleoresins) has contributed around 43 per cent of the total foreign earnings during this period.  Export of pepper was the major contributor, which had gone up to 18850 tonnes valued at Rs 7788.5 lakhs.
  • 12. Crop Area (000’ Ha) Production (000’ Mt) Productivity (Mt/Ha) Chillies 792.1 1223.4 1.5 Garlic 200.6 1057.8 5.3 Turmeric 195.1 992.9 5.1 Ginger 149.1 702.0 4.7 Coriander 530.5 482.0 0.9 Tamarind 59.6 206.3 3.5 Cumin 507.8 314.2 0.6 Fenugreek 81.2 118.4 1.5 Fennel 61.8 105.4 1.7 Pepper 183.8 52.0 0.3 Cardamom 86.7 15.7 0.2 Ajwan 25.8 22.2 0.9 Nutmeg 16.1 11.4 0.7 Cinnamon 29 5.0 1.7 Clove 24.0 1.2 0.5 Total 2940 5351 1.8 (Source- NHB Database ,2011)
  • 13. GINGER 13.12% CORIANDER 9.01% TURMERIC 18.56% GARLIC 19.77% CHILLI 22.87% (Source- NHB Database ,2011)
  • 14. State Area (000’ Ha) Production (000’ Mt) Productivity (Mt/Ha) Andhra Pradesh 289.2 1069.2 3.7 Gujarat 479.4 792.6 1.7 Rajasthan 598.9 668.0 1.1 Karnataka 259.1 460.4 1.8 Madhya Pradesh 287.5 413.7 1.4 Tamil Nadu 134.3 341.2 2.5 Assam 89.2 222.1 2.5 Uttar Pradesh 56.6 200.7 3.5 West Bengal 96.9 192.9 2.0 Orissa 124.0 174.7 1.4 Kerala 234.8 113.1 0.5 Mizoram 21.4 110.5 5.2 Maharashtra 116.5 100.6 0.9 Haryana 15.1 77.9 5.2 Meghalaya 16.8 71.4 4.3 (Source- NHB Database ,2011)
  • 15. Crop Quantity (in tonnes) Value(in Rs. Lakhs) Pepper 18850 38318.50 Cardamom(s) 1175 13216.25 Cardamom(L) 775 4462.90 Chilli 240000 153554.00 Ginger 15750 12131.25 Turmeric 49250 70285.15 Coriander 40500 16663.25 Cumin 32500 39597.75 Fenugreek 18500 6548.25 Celery 3750 2585.90 Fennel 7250 6588.25 Garlic 17300 6977.30 Tamarind 17500 8000.00 Spice oils & oleoresins 7600 91062.45 Other spices 7575 6140.80 SOURCE : DGCI&S.
  • 16. Major Country Wise Export Of Spices From India (2004-2005 to 2010-2011, April-June) (Qty. in Mt, Value Rs. Lakhs) Major Countries 2009-10(E) 2010-11(April-June) Qty. Value Qty. Value U.S.A 47310 87265 12400 23818 Malaysia 64163 45120 20648 14510 China 8910 42520 3488 8427 U.A.E 54904 35471 13113 8435 U.K 22520 29944 6735 8908 Sri Lanka 42364 23690 9950 5191 Bangladesh 48077 23577 8189 3020 Source – Indianstat
  • 17. Crop Quantity (in tonnes) Value(in Rs. Lakhs) Pepper 16100 27010.63 Cardamom(s) 75 656.53 Cardamom(L) 4050 10217.50 Chilli 450 408.25 Ginger 21500 8266.75 Turmeric 3900 4220.54 Coriander 915 621.91 Cumin 515 593.30 Garlic 115 116.10 Clove 7,000 15,337.03 NutMeg 1,460 5,272.28 Mace 400 2,559.94 Other Spices(2) 5,470 6,037.72 Oils & Oleoresins(3) 1,205 14,492.32 Total 86,775 117,550.59 SOURCE : DGCI&S.
  • 18. Import of Spices by India (2009-2010 to 2011-2012-upto November 2012) (Quantity in Tonne, Value Rs. in Lakh) Year Quantity Value 2009-10 106700 110045.75 2010-11 86775 117550.57 2011-12 (Upto November 2012) 62880 109456.32 Source – Indianstat
  • 19. Month-wise Total Exports of Spices from India (November 1992 to June 2013) (Rs. in Crore) Year April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. 2005-06 166.77 162.09 162.19 160.79 175.06 178.36 187.73 160.29 192.91 169.11 176.98 221.39 2006-07 187.32 222.72 232.33 235.40 267.57 272.59 245.04 292.45 256.74 248.55 288.91 402.35 2007-08 301.69 296.14 308.73 364.32 492.92 469.99 482.60 393.73 328.33 405.70 433.55 534.15 2008-09 545.33 639.01 574.22 606.75 459.89 474.80 533.06 498.76 470.31 522.59 471.44 542.26 2009-10 453.56 413.18 442.95 566.81 461.79 480.95 602.61 562.47 511.71 487.69 532.03 624.50 2010-11 606.19 570.33 540.12 655.2 542.08 617.59 644.81 744.37 774.89 686.45 720.51 748.80 2011-12 953.92 899.97 895.51 1064.72 1176.92 988.99 1247.58 1169.70 1276.78 1079.87 1034.91 1376.08 2012-13 1244.47 1206.93 1510.58 1605.70 1433.64 1296.11 1127.50 1401.90 1125.45 1080.43 1070.16 1404.57 2013-14 1059.55 1091.64 1175.31 Source – Indianstat
  • 20. Threat from other nations in the global spice trade Crop Competitors Garlic China, Thailand Coriander Morocco, Bulgaria Cumin Turkey, Syria Ginger China, Nigeria Black pepper Vietnam, Brazil Cardamom Guatemala Seed spices Turkey, Morocco, Egypt
  • 21.  A/C to United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization"practices that address environmental, economic and social sustainability for on-farm processes, and result in safe and quality food and non-food agricultural products“  GAPs is a set of principles, regulations and technical recommendations applicable to production, processing and food transport, addressing human health care, environment protection and improvement of worker conditions and their families.
  • 22. Healthy food production with minimum chemical use Aims of GAP Safe and safety foods towards zero microbial loads Preservation of environment while exploiting the resources
  • 23. The major practices of GAP Soil management Crop production and protection On farm processing
  • 24. SOIL FERTILITY & SOIL CONSERVATION  Keep the ground covered by a crop or a mulch  Plant a cover crop as soon as land is cleared  Construct drains to avoid rapid flows which cause erosion  Use of mulches  Add manure and plant litter after pruning where organic matter is low  Leave leaf fall and pruned from shade trees in the field.
  • 25. NUTRIENTS  Use a combination of mulches and fertilisers  Local fertiliser recommendations should be used but always taking into account the actual condition of the crop  Use of leguminous species  Do not use ash from fires on fields because it will reduce the soil acidity  Algal blooms in ponds within the farm should be investigated, as they indicate nutrient leakage to surface water
  • 26. PEST MANAGEMENT  The use of pesticides on spices should be avoided  The use of pesticides may kill the natural enemies of pests and allow an epidemic to develop  Serious pest infestations can occur seek advice on Integrated Pest Management (IPM)  Application must be restricted to those products recommended by the national research institutes  Pesticides must not be used if workers are not trained
  • 27. WEED CONTROL  Use cost effective mechanical methods including the use of mulches  If weeds are a problem in spice crops, consider whether this is a result of pruning policy  Ensure that the safer compounds, such as glyphosate, are used wherever practical  Use ultra low volume or similar technology to minimise discharge chemical levels
  • 28. BIODIVERSITY • Consider the impact of any new planting before land preparation starts • Maintain areas of land with native plant species and where wildlife can live • Plant trees that can be used to control pests (for example Neem) • Plant woodlots that will produce firewood, while maintaining a diversity of native species
  • 29. WATER  Ensure that irrigation water is applied to maximise availability to the bush with minimal run-off  Consider the impact on down-stream users when extracting water from rivers.  Use buildings with appropriate roofing to feed water tanks, collecting rain water for domestic use
  • 30. LOCAL ECONOMY • Rural communities are dependent on sustainable agriculture. • As a farmer you can build and sustain these communities by buying and resourcing locally • Use reliable local suppliers. • Use local employees as much as possible. • Encourage employees to send their earnings to their home and family.
  • 31. Who benefit from the GAPs?  Farmers and their families that will obtain healthy and good quality food to assure their nutrition and nourishment.  Consumers, that will enjoy better and safe quality food, with sustainable production.  The population in general, that will benefit from a better environment.
  • 32. References  Nybe ,E.V & Miniraj, N. 2007. Spices, New India Publishing Agency, New Delhi, pp. 202-206  Peter, K.V. 2001. Handbook of herbs and spices  Peter, K. V. & Ravindran, P.N. Breeding of Spice Crops
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