Rice is 3rd highest worldwide production, after sugarcane and maize.
world-wide- 158.8 mh (2015-2016), And production about 744.4 mt (2014)
Asian farmers account 87%
India is 2nd largest producers -20%
In India – Area 46 mh and production 157.2 million tonns. (2014)
43% of total food grain production and 46% of total cereal production of
the country and contribute about 24% of gross cropped area of the country.
Oryza includes 24 species in which 22 are wild and two are cultivated i.e Oryza sativa
(found in Asia ,America and Europe), Oryza glaberrima (found in West Africa)
Oryza sativa grouped into three sub species –A. Indica B. Japonica C.
• Top five Producing State In India 2012-2013 Nutritional value of rice per 100 g
S.N STATE Production In Thousand
1. West Bengal 15023.68
2. Utter Pradesh 14416
3. Andhra Pradesh &
4. Punjab 11374
5. Bihar 7529.3
Name Amount in
Amount in white
Calories 111 130
Total Fat 1g 0g
Sodium 5 mg 1mg
Protein 3g 3g
Calcium 1% 1%
Iron 2% 7%
Highest productivity in Punjab 6000 kg/ha - 2013 . Egypt - 9.5 tonnes
India exported 40,45,796.25 MT of Basmati Rice of Rs. 22718.44 crores.
Uttar Pradesh export 443957.16 MT of Rs. 2722.65 crore (2015-16)
63,66,585.53 MT of Non-Basmati Rice to the world for the worth of Rs.
15129.09 crores Uttar Pradesh export 3, 21,473.61 MT worth of Rs.
949.82 crores. (2015-16)
Climate And Soil Requirements
Average temp.- 21 to 37º C, Blooming required tem. 26.5-29.50C
Ripening the tem. should be 20-250C
Clay loams soil most suited with PH range between 5.5-6.5
LOCAL NAME SOWING TIME HARVEST TIME
Aus (West Bengal,
Aman or Aghani
Boro (west Bengal)
varieties depends to a great extent on agro-climatic conditions, the cropping
system followed, grain quality and several other factors.
Some example are-
S.N State Rainfed
2. Bihar Birsa Dhan-201,
Prahlad Krian, Gautam
3. U.P Renu,
Pant Dhan 12,
Pant Dhan 10
4. W.B Panke, Bhupen Munal,
Kunti, CHRH 3,
Method Of Rice Cultivation
and drying (AWD)
Ground cover rice
Deep water rice
Low land rice
• Aerobic rice varieties e.g PMK-3, CO47
• Well drained
• Non puddled
• 4-6t/ha with 50% saving irrigation water
• Undulating, rainfed lowlands
• Water-short irrigated low lands
Called ‘intermittent irrigation’ or ‘controlled irrigation’
Save -15-30% water
Ground covered rice production system
Mainly in mountainous regions.
Soil is constantly kept very
moist, but not flooded
Plastic sheet or pre-composted
Checks the ET
Adds OM to soil
Deep water rice cultivation
Grow where water more then 50 cm deep for at least a month
Grow two type of rice floating rice and traditional talls
Traditional talls are varieties that are grown at water depths of between
50 cm and 100 cm Floating rice grows in water deeper than 100 cm
eg.- Swarna 1
Drip irrigation system
Very new system and under experiment in rice cultivation
Experiment is doing different public and private sector e.g IARI,
TNAU, Jain Irrigation Systems (world's 2nd largest micro-irrigation
System of rice intensification (SRI)
Developed in Madagascar early-1980s by Father Henri de Laulanie
Formal experimentation started in India 2002-2003
Core principles of SRI
8-10 Days (2 leaf stage)
Wider spacing (25X25cm) Weeding with weeder Use of Organics
Saving of 30 – 40% irrigation water
Saving of 85 % seed (2 kg / acre as against 25-30 kg/ acre in
Saving of chemical inputs
More healthy and tasty rice due to organic farming practices
Better and higher yields with lower inputs
Crop duration reduced by 7-10 days due to absence of transplanting
Also called direct –seeded rice
Mainly early maturing variety of 100-115 days
Seed are sown mainly two way-
Behind the plough or drilling Broadcasting
Field Preparation- After harvesting the Rabi crop in April-May, the field should be
plough with soil turning plough. The field should be prepared and bunds should be made
around the field just after the first shower of monsoon.
Seed rate- 60 kg in behind the plough or drilling and for broadcasting
100 kg seed /hectare.
Fertilizer Application in Dry and Rainfed Upland cultivation
60 kg Nitrogen, 30 kg Phosphorus, 30 kg potash per hec.
25% N, total P & K applied at time of land preparation. After 35-40 days of
sowing or tilering stage, top dress 50% of total N, The remaining 25% N
should be top dressed at dressed at panicle initiation stage.
Weeding and Howing
In upland rice weeds are major problem. Apply Benthiocarb at the rate of 2
kg a.i per hectare 6-7 days after seedling of rice. One manual weeding 40-45
days after sowing.
Wet or low land rice cultivation
1. Transplanting in puddled fields.
2. Broadcasting sprouted seeds in puddled fields.
• For transplanting one hectare area about 500 square meter area is sufficient
for nursery raising. In case of late sowing area should be 750-1000 square
Seed rate- 40-45 kg seed for bold grain varieties and 30-35 kg seed for
fine grain varieties
Method of raising seedling
1. Wet bed nursery 2. Dry bed nursery 3. Dapog
1. Wet bed nursery
• Most popular worldwide, Raised beds within the swamp, Apply 225g urea
or 500g ammonium sulphate and 500g SSP per 10 square meter, Keep the
seed beds saturated with water for five days, Seedling would be ready for
transplanting at the age of 20-25 days.
2. Dry bed nursery
Practiced in areas where water is not sufficient, Use the same seed rate and
fertilizer as in wet nurseries.
Beds should be watered thoroughly immediately after planting and twice
every day thereafter
Maintain a thin film of water if possible after 5days of sowing
Seedlings on the dry bed should be ready for transplanting from 21 days
Water the bed to saturation before uprooting
3. The Dapog Nursery
Method introduced in India from Philippines
Main merit of this method is that less area is needed to raise seedlings
about 25-30 square meters
Save almost half of the time in seedling raising
1 Sq m of seed bed should be require for every 3 Kg of seed.
Seedling would be ready for transplanting with in 11 to 14 days
A. Brushing and Clearing B. Repairing Water Control Structures
C. Plowings and Puddling
1st plowing- 2-3 weeks before transplanting begins
2nd take place 7-10 days after the first plowing
Puddling- 10 days after the second plowing and one day before
If a basal application of fertilizer is intended, broadcast the fertilizer just
A. Hand Transplanting
Most widely practiced method
1/2" -1" deep transplanting is best
Space the hills 8"X8" during the wet season, 6"X6" during the dry season but can
Method use where rice grown in extremely boggy, making it difficult to walk in them
Seedlings are thrown randomly into a the puddled soil
The technique requires smaller plots than are found ordinarily
2.Broadcasting sprouted seed in puddle field
Area where there is a shortage of labourers or otherwise labour is very
extensive for transplanting.
100 kg seed are required for one hectare
Seed should be shocked in water and pre-germinated before broadcast
The sprouted seed with radicle length one to two millimeter are uniformly
broadcasted by hand
Water requirement is high during in initial period about 10 days
Tillering to flowering is most critical stage
Water allowed to stand in the field at deft of 2-5 cm
Water drained out from field 7 -15 days before harvest encourage quick
and uniform maturity of grain.
• Water saving method:- System of rice Intensification (SRI): 30-40% •
Alternate wetting and drying (AWD): 15-30% • Aerobic rice: 40-50% • Direct
seeded rice: 75% • Ground cover rice production system: 50-60%
Yield reduce 20 to 40 percent
Most common weed are-
• Echinochloa coionum Echinochloa crusgallli Cyperus iria Eclipta iria
• Cyprus defformis Setaria glauca Scirpus spp. Ceiosia argentia etc.
Weed should removed once at 20 days after transplanting and second at
50-60 days after transplanting
Herbicide Used in paddy control for weed control are-
• Butachlor50 a.i (Machete) @1.5 kg per hectare within 5-6 day of transplanting.
• Thiobencarp 30a.i (Saturn) @ 1.5 kg per hectare within 5-6 day of transplanting.
• Pendimethalin 30a.i (stomp) 1 kg/hec spray uniformly within 1-2 days of direct seeding
Diseases of rice
Pathogen: Pyricularia oryzae (fungus)
Infection takes place at any stage of growth
Lesions are typically oval or spindle-shaped,
with a grayish center and a brown halo.
Spray 0.1% Hinosan50EC Or spray Bavestin
10 kg seed with 5g Emisan, 1g streptocyclin in
10 litres of water for 24 hours before sowing.
2. Brown Spot
Pathogen: Heliminthosporium oryzae
kernels of infected spikelet become shriveled and
Brown spot starts as small, circular to oval, dark
brown lesions with a light yellow halo around their
3-4 sprays with 0.2% zineb or Mancozeb75WP
3. False Smut
Pathogen: Ustinaginoidea virens (fungus)
Transformation of the individual grains
into greenish spore ball of velvety
Balls are slightly flattened, smooth and
yellow, and covered by a membrane
Control- Spray the crop with 0.2% copper
oxychloride (Blitox) at the time of 50%
4. Sheath Blight
Pathogen: Rhizoctonia solanii (fungus)
Grayish-green lesions on the leaf sheath
between the surface of irrigation water and
the leaf blade.
The lesions may also extend to the leaf
Control- spray with 1.0 kg carbendazin
(Bavistin) per hectare in 1000L of water.
Damage caused by the larva
They bore and feed inside the stem.
They drying of growing, part form the base
causing the plant die
Control- Apply carbofuron (Furadon) @
30 kg per hectare or Phorate (Thimet) 10%
granules @10 kg hectare in 3-4 cm standing
water in field.
This is sucking type of insect
Regular tillers are transformed into tubular
galls resembling the leaf of onion
Control- same as for the control of stem
Both nymph and adult caused damage
Suck the plant sap and particularly the
milky juice of the development grains in
early morning hours or at dusk
grain are either empty or partly filled
• Control- apply 2% Methyl parathion or
5% Malathion dust @ 20-25 kg per hectare.
Adults of this insect scrap on upper
surface of leaf blade, leaving only lower
Control- spray Phosphamidon 85 SL
(Dimecron) @ 0.5milliliter in 1L of water of
Monocrotophos 36EC @ 1ML in 1L of
water or dust 2% Methyl parathion @ 20 kg
Harvesting and threshing
85-90% of the panicles are ripe means 90% of the spikelets are golden
Drain the plots 7-10 days before anticipated harvesting
At the time of harvesting, moisture content - 20-26%
12-14% before milling or storage
A well-managed crop of mid duration (135-150) paddy, yields about 60-70
quintal paddy per hectare. Short duration varieties yield about 45-55quintals
per hectare, Hybrid rice yield, about 60-70 quintals per hectare
Conclusion and future aspect
About half of the world population depending upon the rice specific food.
By 2025 about 15-20 mh of irrigated rice fields may suffer from water
To over come this water problem and supply sufficient amount of food to
the people it is necessary that type of cultivation system who need less
water but give more yield.
Awareness about rice is not aquatic plant
Standardization of AWD
Weed management in aerobic and AWD
Scope for sprinkler and drip irrigation