BY:VISHNU KUMAR MISHRA
ID NO 13-533-011
HISTORY, SCOPE AND
IMPORTANCE, CURRENT SCENARIO & GAP
History of spices
Scope and importance of spices
Current status of spice
Area and production
Distribution of spices in Indian states
Export and import
GAP of spices
Indian story of Spices -
more than 7000 years old.
Archeologists discovered spices in Egyptian tombs in 3000 BC.
Archaeological excavations have burnt clove onto the
floor of a kitchen, dated to 1700 BCE, at the
The Spice trade developed throughout South Asia and Middle
East in around 2000 BCE with cinnamon and pepper, and
in East Asia with herbs and pepper.
The ancient Indian epic Ramayana mentions cloves.
It reveals that the history of Indian spices dates back to the
beginning of the human civilization.
Important Landmarks in the History of Spices at a
Remarks about the importance and use of spices in 6000 BC
Pyramid age remarks about spices in Egyptian history 6000-2100 BC
and the use spices in 'Mummies' as preservative.
Charaka, and Susrutha mentioned the use of pepper in 1550-600 BC
A Chinese envoy visited the Malabar Coast in search 1st century
Chinese traveler, Sulaiman visited Kerala coast, 851 AD
recorded the black pepper cultivation and trade with
China imports large quantity of pepper from Malabar 1200 AD
Coast and Java
Vasco de Gama discovered the sea route to India and arrived at 1498
Pedro Alvares Cabral landed in Calicut and established supremacy
of Portugal over spices trade in the Malabar coast.
Establishment of the British East India Company for trading in 1600
spices. British landed in India on 24 August. 1600 at Surat.
The French came for spices trade.
America entered the pepper trade
First research station for pepper established in India at Panniyur. 1952-1953
Establishment of International Pepper Community at Jakarta 1972
Establishment of National Research Centre for Spices (NRCS)
NRCS Upgraded as Indian Institute of Spice Research. (IISR)
Source :- Spices Board of India
India has diverse soil and climate & several agro- ecological
regions which provides the opportunity to grow a variety of spice
It is low volume and high value crop.
spice crops play a unique role in India’s economy by improving
the income of the rural people
Labor intensive so generate lot of employment opportunities for
the rural population.
The demand of Indian spice is very much in other countries .
Hence we have very much scope to meet that demand by huge
source- UCLA Louise M. Darling Biomedical Library
12-077 CHS, Box 951798
Spices can improve the palatability and the appeal of dull diets.
Flavors stimulate salivation and promote digestion
Improve health, by affecting the humors & moods (sanguine,
phlegmatic, choleric and melancholic)
Having antibacterial and preservative action Ex- pickles
The strong preservative quality of many spices made them ideal
India- Land of spices
India- Largest producer, consumer and exporter of spices
China - second largest producer
>90% for domestic consumption
109 spices- all over world
India- 52 spices
Share of spices in total agricultural export- 6%
India’s share of world spice trade- 45-50% by volume and
25-30% by value
The total exports of spices have touched a record Rs
153384.46 lakhs for 525750 tonnes in 2011.
Value-added spices (Curry powder/paste, mint products and
spice oils and oleoresins) has contributed around 43 per cent
of the total foreign earnings during this period.
Export of pepper was the major contributor, which had gone
up to 18850 tonnes valued at Rs 7788.5 lakhs.
Major Country Wise Export Of Spices From India
(2004-2005 to 2010-2011, April-June)
(Qty. in Mt, Value Rs. Lakhs)
Source – Indianstat
Import of Spices by India
(2009-2010 to 2011-2012-upto November 2012)
(Quantity in Tonne, Value Rs. in Lakh)
2011-12 (Upto November 2012)
Source – Indianstat
Month-wise Total Exports of Spices from India
(November 1992 to June 2013)
(Rs. in Crore)
Source – Indianstat
Threat from other nations in the global spice
Turkey, Morocco, Egypt
A/C to United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization"practices that address environmental, economic and social
sustainability for on-farm processes, and result in safe and
quality food and non-food agricultural products“
GAPs is a set of principles, regulations and technical
recommendations applicable to production, processing and food
transport, addressing human health care, environment protection
and improvement of worker conditions and their families.
Healthy food production
with minimum chemical use
Aims of GAP
Safe and safety foods
towards zero microbial loads
Preservation of environment
while exploiting the resources
The major practices of GAP
Crop production and protection
On farm processing
SOIL FERTILITY & SOIL CONSERVATION
Keep the ground covered by a crop or a mulch
Plant a cover crop as soon as land is cleared
Construct drains to avoid rapid flows which cause erosion
Use of mulches
Add manure and plant litter after pruning where organic
matter is low
Leave leaf fall and pruned from shade trees in the field.
Use a combination of mulches and fertilisers
Local fertiliser recommendations should be used but always
taking into account the actual condition of the crop
Use of leguminous species
Do not use ash from fires on fields because it will reduce the
Algal blooms in ponds within the farm should be
investigated, as they indicate nutrient leakage to surface
The use of pesticides on spices should be avoided
The use of pesticides may kill the natural enemies of pests and
allow an epidemic to develop
Serious pest infestations can occur seek advice on Integrated
Pest Management (IPM)
Application must be restricted to those products recommended
by the national research institutes
Pesticides must not be used if workers are not trained
Use cost effective mechanical methods including the use of
If weeds are a problem in spice crops, consider whether this
is a result of pruning policy
Ensure that the safer compounds, such as glyphosate, are
used wherever practical
Use ultra low volume or similar technology to minimise
discharge chemical levels
• Consider the impact of any new planting before land
• Maintain areas of land with native plant species and where
wildlife can live
• Plant trees that can be used to control pests (for example
• Plant woodlots that will produce firewood, while
maintaining a diversity of native species
Ensure that irrigation water is applied to maximise availability
to the bush with minimal run-off
Consider the impact on down-stream users when extracting
water from rivers.
Use buildings with appropriate roofing to feed water
tanks, collecting rain water for domestic use
• Rural communities are dependent on sustainable agriculture.
• As a farmer you can build and sustain these communities by
buying and resourcing locally
• Use reliable local suppliers.
• Use local employees as much as possible.
• Encourage employees to send their earnings to their home
Who benefit from the GAPs?
Farmers and their families that will obtain healthy and
good quality food to assure their nutrition and
Consumers, that will enjoy better and safe quality food,
with sustainable production.
The population in general, that will benefit from a better
Nybe ,E.V & Miniraj, N. 2007. Spices, New India Publishing
Agency, New Delhi, pp. 202-206
Peter, K.V. 2001. Handbook of herbs and spices
Peter, K. V. & Ravindran, P.N. Breeding of Spice Crops