Everything we do is predicated on reading in one form or another:
Most of the findings in this report come from a survey of 2,986 Americans ages 16 and older, conducted on November 16-December 21, 2011, that extensively focused on the new terrain of e-reading and people’s habits and preferences. Other surveys were conducted between January 5-8 and January 12- 15, 2012 to see the extent to which adoption of e-book reading devices (both tablets and e-readers) might have grown during the holiday gift-giving season and those growth figures are reported here. Finally, between January 20-Febuary 19, 2012, we re-asked the questions about the incidence of book reading in the previous 12 months in order to see if there had been changes because the number of device owners had risen so sharply. All data cited in this report are from the November/December survey unless we specifically cite the subsequent surveys. This work was underwritten by a grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates 81% (9% e)favoured print for reading to children, and 69% (25% e) for sharing with others
All the statistics in this report, including all specific data about various groups, comes from a series of nationally-representative phone surveys of Americans. They were conducted in English and Spanish, by landline and cell phone. The main survey, of 2,986 Americans ages 16 and older, was conducted on November 16-December 21, 2011, and extensively focused on the new terrain of e-reading and people’s habits and preferences.
Today’s data source: 100 million articles saved by Read It Later users across all major web and mobile platforms.
“ more than half of Facebook users – and one of every 13 people on Earth is a Facebook user – log on every day. Among 18 to 34 year olds, nearly half check Facebook minutes after waking up, and 28 percent do so before getting out of bed. The relentless is what is so new, so potentially transformative.” Stephen Marche The Atlantic May 2012 ‘Is Facebook Making Us Lonely?” p69 “ When asked about reading books in bed, the verdict was split: 45% prefer reading e-books in bed, while 43% prefer print.” Pew study aforementioned…
Lack of scientific rigour has reduced the value of many of these studies. Especially frequent were flaws in experimental design and subject selection, both of which threaten the validity of results. In addition, the choice of experimental settings and dependent and independent variables often made it difficult to generalize the results beyond the conditions of the particular study. (p. 55.) ‘process measures’ (eye movements, navigation, manipulation vs ‘outcome measures’ (speed, comprehension, accuracy, fatigue)
The study analyzed the differences in reading from various kinds of media (e-book, tablet PC, paper) in two sample groups, young and elderly adults. Each participant read various texts with different levels of complexity on an e-book reader (Kindle 3), on a tablet PC (iPad), and on paper. The reading behavior and the participants' corresponding neural processes were assessed by means of concurrent measures of eye movements (eye tracking) and electrophysiological brain activity (EEG). The criteria that were taken into account and analyzed were changes in the theta frequency band power, reading behavior, text comprehension, and information recall as well as the participants' preferences for the respective medium
Cathy N. Davidson As you point out in the book, the reason why certain things distract us more than others has to do with the way our brains develop when we're young children. We used to think that as we get older we develop more neural pathways, but the opposite is actually the case. You and I have about 40 percent less neurons than a newborn infant does. A baby pays attention to everything. You’ve probably witnessed this -- if there are shadows in the ceiling or sand blades are making peculiar patterns, we adults don’t recognize that, but it can be utterly mesmerizing to a child. They learn what not to pay attention to over and over and over again, and learn what to pay attention to, and that makes for neural pathways that are very efficient. They're what we tend to call reflexes or automatic behaviors , because we’ve done them so many times we don’t pay attention to them anymore. As an adult, you feel distracted when you learn something new and you can’t depend on those automatic responses or automatic reflexes that have been streamlined neurally over a lifetime of use.
Foregrounding or backgrounding of the medium – e vs p ; technology as leading to distraction/fragmented attention/lowered attention span/endless possibilities vs a p book as a self-contained unit with no other possibilities Therefore changing the nature of reading, how we read, our expectations of reading. A phenomenological immersion is not easily possible anymore.
Some publishers are experimenting with a new kind of book, published as an app, that mixes elements of film, videogames, and social media with traditional text. Challenging the notion of what a book is, this hybrid offers librarians new opportunities in evaluation, selection, and services. Panelists led by Nicole Hennig
It’s a flexible, interactive publishing platform where the human is at the center of the creative process, not the book. Where the iPad is the canvas, not paper.
This implies a close involvement with faculty and students to understand how new forms of reading affect the delivery of education.
http://www.the39clues.com/ The 39 Clues™ is an interactive and multi-platform adventure series combining books, collectible cards, and an online game where readers become a part of the story. The groundbreaking series is the first of its kind in the publishing industry. More than 15 million copies of the books are in print worldwide. The 39 Clues online game on www.the39clues.comcontinues to attract readers in all 50 states and 191 countries with more than 2 million registered users to date. The 39 Clues Madrigal Maze App for the Apple iPhone™ and iPod Touch® has been ranked among the top "Paid Kids Games" in Apple’s App Store since release. Coliloquy's digital books, which are available on Kindle, Nook and Android e-readers, have a "choose-your-own-adventure"-style format, allowing readers to customize characters and plot lines. The company's engineers aggregate and pool the data gleaned from readers' selections and send it to the authors, who can adjust story lines in their next books to reflect popular choices.
A pattern emerged within my now fluid reading habits, one that mirrors the first point Tim Carmody makes in his essay "10 Reading Revolutions Before E-Books": "a shift from 'intensive' reading and rereading of very few texts to 'extensive' reading of many, often only once." These were behaviours first explored by the German historian Rolf Engelsing, describing the sea change in the 18th century from reading just the Bible to everything else. How the iPad changed my reading habits By Anshuman Iddamsetty September 21, 2010 8:00 AM Comments 1 Recommend 5
Atlas of New Librarianship – Lankes Lankes recasts librarianship and library practice using the fundamental concept that knowledge is created though conversation The core of the Atlas is about conversation and the means of facilitating conversations: access, knowledge, environment, and motivation.
She is professor and Director of Graduate Studies in the Program in Literature at Duke University. 
The Future of Reading in a DigitalAge: What Does it Mean – or not Mean – for Us? Tony Horava, University of Ottawa Charleston Conference Nov. 8, 2012
Outline• The act of reading in today’s world• Reading as a lightning rod for a multitude of issues for libraries• Trends• Ebooks & mobile culture• Implications of the rise of e-reading• Issues and ideas to consider• Various conclusions
Libraries and reading"Libraries are not about books; they were, are, and will be aboutfacilitating communication across time and space. Books havebeen a way to do that historically, but today there are other, oftenbetter, ways to accomplish this. Libraries need to become facile atsupporting all sorts of media, and they must continue to embracethe new, or face the consequences of losing relevance to themainstream culture.“ - Mark Sandler, “Collection Development in the Day ofGoogle” Library Resources & Technical Services 50(4): 240 Whatever the media we provide or support, libraries are about reading….
Reading as a lightning rod for the role of libraries• Connecting authors to readers; connecting publishers with readers• Core values such as intellectual freedom, privacy, literacy and learning, and democracy• The future of the book/ebook• Collection development• Information literacy & digital literacy• Scholarly communication initiatives• Digital tools• Services to persons with disabilities• Research services
University libraries & the reading tradition: what has changed? “University libraries, by their sheer physical nature, tell you something about the value of reading. Universities tend to perpetuate the sacred aura of reading in general and of books in particular, and students pick up on that — even if it is an engineering student who never reads much and never intends to read much. Universities are part of the reproduction of the prestige and sacred quality that is associated with reading … . [There is an] ideology of reading. Reading is a sacred activity “- Wendy Griswold, 2008. Regionalism and the reading class. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Various Trends….“Reading at Risk: A Survey of Literary Reading in America ”National Endowment for the Arts, 2004Was a large-scale survey, the Survey of Public Participation in the Arts,conducted by the Census Bureau in 2002 at the request of the NationalEndowment for the Arts17,000 people sampled.The results were compared with data from similar surveys in 1982 and1992The overarching conclusion:“Literary reading in America is not only declining rapidly among allgroups, but the rate of decline has accelerated, especially among theyoung. “
“The Rise of e-reading”Pew Internet and American Life Projecthttp://libraries.pewinternet.org/2012/04/04/the-rise-of-e-reading“The average reader of e-books says she has read24 books (the mean number) in the past 12months, compared with an average of 15 books bya non-e-book consumer”“30% of those who read e-content say they nowspend more time reading, and owners of tabletsand e-book readers particularly stand out asreading more now. ““In a head-to-head competition, people prefer e-books to printed books when they want speedyaccess and portability, but print wins out whenpeople are reading to children and sharing“books with others.”
“Libraries, Patrons, and Ebooks” PewInternet study, June 22, 2012http://libraries.pewinternet.org/2012/06/22/libraries-patrons-and12% of readers of e-books borrowed an e-bookfrom the library in the past year. But a majority ofAmericans do not know that this service is providedby their local library.E-book borrowers say they read an average (themean number) of 29 books in the past year,compared with 23 books for readers who do notborrow e-books from a library.Perhaps more striking, the median (midpoint)figures for books reportedly read are 20 in the pastyear by e-book borrowers and 12 by non-borrowers
More key findings….46% of those who do not currently borrow e-books fromlibraries say they would be “very” or “somewhat” likely toborrow an e-reading device that came loaded with a book theywanted to read.Asked where they look first when they are trying to find an e-book, 47% of those who borrow e-books from libraries saythey first look at online bookstores and websites and 41% saythey start at their public library.
Time shifted reading (Pocket app)“Aside from a quick lunch hour at their desk, iPad owners are no longerdoing the majority of their reading on their computers. They are savingit for their personal prime time, when they can relax comfortably, iPad inhand and burn through the content they found during the day.” Is Mobile Affecting When We Read? http://readitlaterlist.com/blog/2011/01/is-mobile-affecting-when-we-r
Four spikes:6am - Early morning, breakfast9am - The morning commute, start of the work day5pm – 6pm - End of the work day and the commute home8pm – 10pm – Couch time, prime time, bed time Is Mobile Affecting When We Read? http://readitlaterlist.com/blog/2011/01/is-mobile-affecting-when-we-r
A Facebook Planet• With over 500 million users, Facebook is now used by 1 in every 13 people on earth, with over 250 million of them (over 50%) who log in every day. The average user still has about 130 friends, but that should expand in 2011.• 48% of 18-34 year olds check Facebook when they wake up, with 28% doing so before even getting out of bed.• The 35+ demographic is growing rapidly, now with over 30% of the entire Facebook user base. The core 18-24 year old segment is now growing the fastest at 74% year on year. Almost 72% of all US internet users are on now Facebook, while 70% of the entire user base is located outside of the US.• A form of communication that is shaping how we read…http://www.digitalbuzzblog.com/facebook-statistics-stats-facts-2011/
Studies on print reading and screen reading• Many studies out there• Drawing conclusions on the strengths and weaknesses of screen vs print reading is a tricky business• Results are mixed; can’t be generalized• Various reasons – methodology & experimental design; rapidly evolving technology, complexity of reading practices, subject selection and background, technological savvy, etc• The more important question is, How do we remain sensitive to the range of reading preferences and how this affects our strategies for what we acquire and how we deliver services?
Different reading devices, different modes of reading? JGU Media Convergence Research Unit study on reading devices vs. paper (20 Oct 2011) http://www.uni-mainz.de/eng/14685.php• “Almost all participants stated that reading from paper was more comfortable than from an e-ink reader despite the fact that the study actually showed that there was no difference in terms of reading performance between reading from paper and from an e-ink reader. “• “This study provides us with a scientific basis for dispelling the widespread misconception that reading from a screen has negative effects," explains Dr Stephan Füssel. "There is no (reading) culture clash – whether it is analog or digital, reading remains the most important cultural technology.“• “Tablet PCs actually provide an advantage over e-ink readers and the printed page that is not consciously perceivable: the information is processed more easily when a tablet PC is employed. Furthermore, while there were no differences between the three media employed in terms of rates of reading by the younger participants, the older participants exhibited faster reading times when using the tablet PC.”
Characteristics of older and newer forms of readingPrint reading Screen readingTypically a private act Can be private or socialSingle medium Multiple mediaFrequently linear Non-linear/power browsingArtifact-based Technologically volatileSelf-contained Optimization driven by search algorithmsAttention abundance Attention scarcity (a state of ‘continuous partial attention’)Static objects Radical impermanenceThe fixed page as the unit of experience The user-defined screen as basis for experience: ‘breaking the page’Autonomous & private act Tracking and surveillance of reading – how will this be used?
Older and newer forms (cont’d)Print reading Screen readingMateriality of content, ie the work is Immateriality of content, ie the work isembedded in the container (the pages) detached from the container (a digital file that is invisible and distinct from the device)Hand-eye interaction focused on page Hand-eye interaction is a constantmanipulation activity, focused on touch screens and keypads and new stimuliThe architecture of the codex book The architecture of the web and digitalgoverns the reading process, such as technology governs the reading process.navigating tables of contents, chapter Navigation and orientation is user-driven.divisions, footnotes or endnotes, index,etc.
Ebooks & reading• E-books have transformed the experience of reading due to portability, e-ink technology, expansion of content, mimicking of print reading habits, and new functionality• Choice of devices, display, use of collaborative tools• Interactive fiction, where readers choose the outcome of a story• Visual images balancing text to inform the narrative• Embedded links to video or audio files, reference tools, and instant posting and sharing of thoughts• Highly dynamic, customized experience
Mobile world• Saturation in rich media as the new normal• Mobile reading: being in control of time and space (e-readers, smartphones, tablets)• Easy sharing, annotating, reviewing, ranking, saving.• Profound transformation of the reading experience, from solitary to communal• New reading communities such as Library Thing (600K members) and Good Reads (1.8M); online book clubs are flourishing• The app world: making reading more social, more connected, more personal.
New reality of reading*• Intensely interactive; the growing use of social media to share, review, annotate, etc.• Discontinuous & fragmented: immersive experience is rare• Highly editable and moveable• ‘Squirreling behaviour’ (downloading files aside for future reading…will it really be read later?)• Text boundaries become porous and blurred• A visual culture: meaning is informed by pictorial input (images, animations, video) much more than ever before• Steady expectation of new stimuli to punctuate the experience: the urge to click is irresistible.*Terje Hillesund, “Digital Reading Spaces” First Monday, Volume 15, Number 4 - 5 April 2010
Materiality and reading• The experience of reading is fundamentally dependent on the material support, eg print book, e-reader device, desktop pc, microfilm viewer, etc.*• With a print book, the material form embodies the text: the words are tangibly ingrained on the physical page• Hand-eye relationship and technological manipulation bear upon the experience – think of touch screen interaction versus that of a printed book. Very different relationship.• With an ebook, the work is disembodied from the material support- an intangibility and a distancing between the work and the platform• The tactile quality of the interaction is profoundly different* Anne Mangen, ‘Hypertext fiction reading: Haptics and Immersion’ Journal of Research in Reading 31(4) 2008: 404-19
The iPad – a revolution in the reading experience for the digital age….far beyond the Kindle.
ALA TechSource Webinar ‘TheBook as iPad App’ with NicoleHennig.http://www.alatechsource.org/blog/2012/07/archive-of-our-boThe book as iPad App allows for a new & porousreading experience:Text interacts with video, audio clips, animation,images, special features, links to social media.With the tablets, the medium is indeed becomingthe message…
Inkling e-textbooks: a game-changer for the way readingand learning are carried outhttps://www.inkling.com/about/
Reading in an attention-challenged society“In a world influenced by a powerful online culture, we must remain committed to motivating our students to take the time required for in– depth reading. Independent learning, which continues to be based on in– depth reading, will always take time.”“In addition, learning how to learn is also a process that takes time. … Therefore we may need to remind ourselves of the importance of teaching transferable critical reading skills- Barry Cull, “Reading Revolutions: Online Digital Text and Implications for Reading in Academe” First Monday, Volume 16, Number 6 - 6 June 2011
‘Every Reader His or Her Ebook: An Ebook Advocacy Statement from the Duke University Libraries’ (Section on Reading)*• Accommodate personal preferences in research, teaching, and learning by allowing reading of a desired e-book title on the device preferred by the researcher.• Allow annotating, highlighting, and bookmarking of the text and the downloading or saving of reader annotations in an open format to allow sharing of comments and notes.• Aid in the sequential reading of a logical argument by providing orientation to the layout of the e-book.• Provide intuitive navigation to facilitate browsing within an e-book.*http://library.duke.edu/ebookstrategy/e_book_advocacy.pdf
Duke Ebook advocacy statement (cont’d)• Allow for easy printing of substantial portions of the e-book, including a reasonably priced POD (Print on Demand) copy.• Anticipate and provide source-specific and discipline-specific formats; for example, historical sources will be reproduced as an exact copy to simulate interactions with the original object.• Be downloadable for reading off-line (portable format).
Thinking about ‘critical reading’ in the new eraSome questions to consider:• How does reading in various forms promote learning and teaching outcomes? How does the interaction of textual, visual, and audio elements affect the reading experience?• How can we assess public services and collections through the lens of critical reading practices- the richness of the reading experience in different technological environments• Do vendors incorporate reading research and usability studies into their products?• How do interfaces incorporate social media into reading?• What are the evolving strengths and challenges in digital reading?
The gamification of reading (and writing)• Is becoming more prevalent for children’s literature and popular literature….how will it influence teaching & academic writing?• Involves game-thinking as a vehicle for reader engagement: using milestones, competition, rewards, and fun as learning approaches.• We are a game-saturated culture. Digital reading is self-directed, involving multiple pathways and rich in media - fertile ground for learning styles that involve gaming elements
A Publisher’s view“When people hear the term ‘gamification’ they might think I mean ‘let’s make a space explorer game out of this book. But that’s not it. I mean that we need to take lessons of the game and apply them to other forms, to implement parts of the game framework — such as levels, incentives, and a social network. I’m not asking publishers to become game companies, but to take the finer points and insert them into their models.” Think of a series such as Scholastic’s 39 Clues, and you have one example. Gabe Zichermann, “Ready Reader One: Why Gamification is Key to Publishing’s Future” http://publishingperspectives.com/2011/09/gamification-key-publishing- future/
Some conclusions• Reading and readers remain fundamental to the role of libraries and our core values. As new reading technologies develop, reading needs to become format-agnostic, platform-agnostic, portable, and simpler (eg no DRM) to enable greater success.• The experience and definition of reading in our culture is being profoundly reinvented. There is a major shift from ‘intensive’ reading (few works) to ‘extensive’ reading (sampling of extremely wide range of works and medias)• Is this the very long twilight of the codex book? We are rapidly transitioning from a text-based culture to a visual, networked culture. New reading communities are flourishing across digital media.• The intimacy of reading - The formerly private quality of reading is being transformed into a more mobile, social, interactive experience: how does this impact what we learn and how we learn?
Some conclusions (cont’d)• Reading as enabling conversations to generate new forms of knowledge (David Lankes)• Paradox of speed and broad connectivity – reading becomes a power browsing and squirreling activity, while attention becomes scarcer• The importance of advocating best practices with vendors for reading and usability to enhance the experience• E-reading becomes a database interaction: a user-constructed path than a pre-determined one. How do the dynamics of this interaction effect us?• ‘The ways in which the stories are displayed come and go, and what matters are the stories and the storytelling’ (Joseph Janes)
“As electronic literature matures, it developsrhetorics, grammars, and syntaxes unique to digitalenvironments. Learning to speak digital, it calls forth fromus new modes of attending --listening, seeing, moving, navigating -- that transformwhat it means to experience literature (read is no longeran adequate term).”- N. Katherine Hayles, “Deeper into the machine: the future ofelectronic literature. Culture Machine 5 (2003):http://www.culturemachine.net/index.php/cm/article/viewArticle/245/241
Thanks!Any comments or questions? Tony Horava firstname.lastname@example.org