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6543456

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  • 1. 2110443Human Computer Interaction Chate Patanothai Dept. of Computer Engineering Faculty of Engineering Chulalongkorn University
  • 2. Overview Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) a discipline concerned with the design, evaluation and implementation of interactive computing systems for human use and with the study of major phenomena surrounding them. The Association for Computing Machinery’s Special Interest Group on Computer-Human Interaction (ACM SIGCHI)2110443 Human Computer Interaction Chate Patanothai 2
  • 3. Resources HCI Bibliography : Human-Computer Interaction Resources http://www.hcibib.org/ Common Front Group at Cornell http://cfg.cit.cornell.edu/cfg/design/contents.h tml http://www.aw.com/DTUI/ http://developer.java.sun.com/developer/tech Docs/hi/jlf-home.html http://www.useit.com2110443 Human Computer Interaction Chate Patanothai 3
  • 4. Introduction Main focus of HCI is UID What is involved in UI? H/W Behavior of S/W Supporting Documentation2110443 Human Computer Interaction Chate Patanothai 4
  • 5. Who Builds Interfaces? A team of specialists (ideally) graphic designers interaction / interface designers technical writers marketers test engineers software engineers customers2110443 Human Computer Interaction Chate Patanothai 5
  • 6. Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) Human the end-user of a program the others in the organization Computer the machine the program runs on often split between clients & servers Interaction the user tells the computer what they want the computer communicates results2110443 Human Computer Interaction Chate Patanothai 6
  • 7. What is HCI? Organizational & Task Social Issues Design Technology Humans2110443 Human Computer Interaction Chate Patanothai 7
  • 8. Why Study User Interfaces? Major part of work for “real” programs approximately 50% You will work on “real” software intended for people other than yourself Bad user interfaces cost money (5% satisfaction -> up to 85% profits) lives (Therac-25) User interfaces hard to get right people are unpredictable2110443 Human Computer Interaction Chate Patanothai 8
  • 9. Interface Hall of Shame or Fame?2110443 Human Computer Interaction Chate Patanothai 9
  • 10. Interface Hall of Shame Hard to tell the difference between the two icons & names2110443 Human Computer Interaction Chate Patanothai 10
  • 11. User Interface Design Goals “Usability”2110443 Human Computer Interaction Chate Patanothai 11
  • 12. What is Usability? 1. Learnability 2. Efficiency 3. Memorability 4. Errors 5. Satisfaction2110443 Human Computer Interaction Chate Patanothai 12
  • 13. Learnability Easy to learn How long does it take for typical member of the community to learn relevant task?2110443 Human Computer Interaction Chate Patanothai 13
  • 14. Efficiency How long does it take to carry out the benchmark set of tasks? A high level of productivity is possible Efficiency refers to the expert user’s steady- state level of performance at the time when the learning curve flattens out. Speed of performance2110443 Human Computer Interaction Chate Patanothai 14
  • 15. Efficiency2110443 Human Computer Interaction Chate Patanothai 15
  • 16. Memorability Easy to remember Frequency of use and ease of learning help make for better user retention Retention over time2110443 Human Computer Interaction Chate Patanothai 16
  • 17. Errors Low error rate How many and what kinds of errors are commonly made during typical applications?2110443 Human Computer Interaction Chate Patanothai 17
  • 18. Satisfaction Pleasant to use Allow for user feedback via interviews, free-form comments and satisfaction scales Questionnaires in 1-5 or 1-7 rating scales Likert scales or semantic differential scales2110443 Human Computer Interaction Chate Patanothai 18
  • 19. Trade-offs The system may be easy to learn or eventually efficient, though initially hard to learn Alternatives: providing a UI w/ multiple interaction styles Accelerators2110443 Human Computer Interaction Chate Patanothai 19
  • 20. User-centered Design “Know the Users” Cognitive abilities visual & aural perception physical manipulation memory Organizational / job abilities Keep users involved throughout project2110443 Human Computer Interaction Chate Patanothai 20
  • 21. Categories of User Novice User of System vs. Expert User of System Minimal Computer Experience vs. Extensive Computer Experience Ignorant about Domain vs. Knowledgeable about Domain * Difference between individual user is very high.2110443 Human Computer Interaction Chate Patanothai 21
  • 22. Categories of User system computer2110443 Human Computer Interaction Chate Patanothai 22
  • 23. Accommodation of Human Diversity Physical abilities and physical workplaces There is no average user Physical measurement of human dimensions are not enough, Dynamic measurement needed, e.g., reach, strength, or speed Vision: depth, contrast, color blindness, and motion sensitivity Touch: keyboard and touchscreen sensitivity Hearing: audio clues must be distinct Workplace design2110443 Human Computer Interaction Chate Patanothai 23
  • 24. Accommodation of Human Diversity Cognitive and perceptual abilities Cognitive process/central process short-term memory long-term memory and learning problem solving decision making attention and set search and scanning time perception2110443 Human Computer Interaction Chate Patanothai 24
  • 25. Accommodation of Human Diversity Cultural and international diversity Characters, numerals, special characters Left-to-right versus right-to-left versus vertical input and reading Date and time formats Weights and measures Telephone numbers addresses2110443 Human Computer Interaction Chate Patanothai 25
  • 26. Accommodation of Human Diversity Users with disabilities Designers must plan early to accommodate user with disabilities Early planning is more cost efficient than adding later Elderly Users Including the elderly is fairly ease, designers should allow for variability with in their applications via settings for sound, color, brightness, font size, etc.2110443 Human Computer Interaction Chate Patanothai 26
  • 27. การมีปฏิ สัมพันธ์ คืออะไรการติดต่อสื่ อสารระหว่าง •ภาษาของงาน •ภาษาแก่น •(task language) •(core language) 28/10/52 27
  • 28. แบบจําลองของโดนัล นอร์ แมน(Donald Norman’s Model)มี 7 ระยะ1. ตั้งเป้ าหมาย (forming the goal)2. สร้างความตั้งใจ (forming the intention)3. กําหนดการกระทําที่ส่วนต่อประสาน (specifying action at interface)4. ดําเนิ นตามการกระทํา (executing the action)5. รับรู ้สถานะของระบบ (perceiving the system state)6. แปลสถานะของระบบ (interpreting the system state)7. ประเมินผลลัพท์เปรี ยบเทียบกับเป้ าหมาย (evaluating the outcome respect to goal) 28/10/52 28
  • 29. Human Activity Cycle Intention Sequence Execution of the to act of actions action sequence Goals Interpreti Perceiving the Evaluation of interpretations ng the state of the perception world2110646:01-Introduction Chate Patanothai 29
  • 30. Human Activity Cycle Intention Sequence Execution of the to act of actions action sequence Goals Interpreti Perceiving the Evaluation of interpretations ng the state of the perception world2110646:01-Introduction Chate Patanothai 30
  • 31. ตัวอย่ างสมมติเรากําลังนังอ่านหนังสื ออยู่ ปรากฎว่าต้องการแสงเพิ่ม ่ เป้ าหมาย: ต้องการแสงเพิม ่ การกระทํา: เปิ ดโคมไฟ เอื้อมมือไปเปิ ด ่ ถ้ามีคนอื่นอยูใกล้โคมไฟก็วานให้เปิ ดให้ ผล ไฟเปิ ด ไฟไม่เปิ ด จะทําอะไรต่อไป 28/10/52 31
  • 32. การนําเอาแบบจําลองของนอร์ แมนไปใช้ ทําไมส่ วนต่อประสานกับผูใช้บางระบบใช้ยากกว่าระบบอื่น ้ เหวลึกของการกระทํา (Gulfs of execution) ความแตกต่างระหว่างการวางเป้ าหมายของการกระทํา กับการกระทําที่ ระบบมีให้ เหวลึกของการประเมิน (Gulfs of evaluation) ความแตกต่างของการแสดงสถานะของระบบกับความคาดหวังของผูใช้ ้ 28/10/52 32
  • 33. สรุ ป Usability ลักษณะของผูใช้ ้ แบบจําลองของนอร์แมน2110443 Human Computer Interaction Chate Patanothai 33

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