Background• Small African nation• Two ethnic groups lived in Rwanda: Hutus and Tutsis• Generally lived peacefully until the Europeans came
BackgroundHutus• Majority - 80%• Migrated from southern Africa• General: found themselves as laborers and farmers
BackgroundTutsis• Minority - 20%• Migrated from Northern Africa (Egypt)• General: found themselves as the elite and political rulers
Background• German colony until 1918 (end of WWI)• Belgium took it over• Put Tutsis in charge• Handed out “ethnic identity cards”• Education only open to Tutsis• Hutus could only be laborers or low level workers
Independence • Once Belgium granted independence in 1962, Hutu majority took control • Over 200,000 Tutsis fled to neighboring countries and formed a rebel guerrilla army, the Rwandan Patriotic Front.
Civil War• In 1990, the rebel army invades Rwanda and forces Hutu President Juvenal Habyarimana into signing an accord mandating that Hutus and Tutsis share power.
Escalating Conflict • Ethnic tensions heightened in October 1993 upon the assassination of Melchior Ndadaye • United Nations peacekeeping force of 2,500 is dispatched to preserve the cease-fire
Assassination• On April 6, 1994, Rwandan President Juvenal Habyarimana is assassinated when his plane is shot down• Hutu extremists begin killing Tutsis
Unite Nations Response• The U.N. Security Council votes unanimously to abandon Rwanda. The remainders of U.N. peacekeeping troops are pulled out, leaving only a tiny force of 200 soldiers for the entire country.
Aftermath• Between April and June 1994, an estimated 800,000 Rwandans were killed in the space of 100 days.
Still at Large• Hundreds of men are still wanted in connection with the Rwandan genocide• Do they look any different from anyone you’d see on the street?