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Become a good speaker

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  • If you’re passionate, your vocal & visual skills will come naturally. Passion could come from subject, experience, or environment.
  • 04/29/11 16:38
  • 04/29/11 16:38
  • 04/29/11 16:38
  • Transcript

    • 1. How to Become A Good Speaker Kai-Fu Lee Corporate Vice President Microsoft Corporation
    • 2. Why Be a Good Speaker?
      • “ The man who can think and does not know how to express what he thinks is at the level of him who cannot think.”
      • Pericles
      • Not just “presentation”, but also “ persuasion”
      • Get people’s “mindshare”
      • Influence a friend, colleague, or boss
      • Tell people what you did, and why it matters
    • 3. What You’ll Learn Today: Learn Speaking Skills Develop Key Point Organize Story Design Graphics Practice Talk Q&A Delivery
    • 4. First Topic: Learn Speaking Skills Learn Speaking Skills Develop Key Point Organize Story Design Graphics Practice Talk Q&A Delivery
    • 5. Speaking Skills Are Important “ Without effective delivery, a speech of the highest mental capacity can be held in no esteem. With effective delivery, even one with moderate abilities may surpass those of the highest talent.” Cicero
    • 6. What Are Speaking Skills?
      • Verbal (words spoken)
      • Vocal (tone, range, appeal, credibility of voice)
      • Visual (physical appearance, gestures, eye contact)
      • 7%
      • 38%
      • 55%
      Delivery Skills Can be learned
    • 7. Most Important: Enthusiasm
      • “ There is just one sure cure for bad speeches – Get truly excited on the subject, and 99 percent of the faults of your speaking will disappear.” Robert Montgomery
      • Don’t accept a talk without enthusiasm
      • Could be from interest, experience, environment
      • Example: Martin Luther King
        • I have a dream… that one day this nation will rise up; live out the true meaning to its creed. We hold these truths to be self-evident that all men are created equal.
      • Not how loud, but how sincere
    • 8. Verbal Skills – Be Simple & Clear
      • Be simple and clear!
        • Don’t ramble
        • Stop to think if you need to
        • Example one: Dan Quayle celebrates democracy
        • Example two: Dan Quayle trying to say “A mind is a terrible thing to waste”
    • 9. Verbal Skills – Use simple words
      • Speaking is not like writing!!!
        • Use simple words
        • Don’t use complex sentences
        • Can you understand this:
      • Text:
        • The development of this frightful means of destruction was ardently demanded by the perils of the time and situation. Simultaneously, however, a new paradoxical situation has been…. is upon us continually. One cannot defend oneself effectively any more.
        • -- Albert Einstein
    • 10. Vocal Skills : Play your voice
      • Project & resonate your voice
      • No “UM”s and “ER”s. (Pause instead)
      • Tools: silence, loudness, intonation, speed
        • “ You are right. I am wrong.” – Stalin to Trotsky
        • “ Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country.” -- John F. Kennedy
        • “ I welcome this kind of examination, because people have to know whether their president is a crook . Well, I’m not a crook.” -- Richard M. Nixon
      • Don’t overdo it!!!
    • 11. Vocal+Verbal : Words+Intonation
      • John Kennedy:
        • “ You need to contribute to your country”
        • “ Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country”.
      • Quayle vs. Benson Debate:
        • Quayle: "I have as much experience in the Congress as Jack Kennedy did when he sought the presidency."
        • Answer 1: “Jack Kennedy is better than you.”
        • Answer 2: "Senator, I served with Jack Kennedy. I knew Jack Kennedy. Jack Kennedy was a friend of mine. Senator, you're no Jack Kennedy.“
    • 12. Visual Skills
      • US Election 1960 was won on visual skills
      • Components of Visual Skills:
        • Eyes
        • Body
        • Hands
        • Face
    • 13. Visual Skills – Eyes
      • Look forward at audience (trust)
        • Don’t shift eyeballs; don’t look in corner
        • Don’t look too much at computer screen or notes
      • Look at people’s faces (not eyes)
        • 3-6 seconds per person
        • Shift randomly
        • Nod, smile, use facial expression
    • 14. Visual Skills – Body
      • Stand up when talking
      • Walk around = informal
      • Don’t:
        • Rock, shake
        • Lean too much
    • 15. Visual Skills – Hands
      • Gesture complements talk
        • Should come naturally, without thinking
        • Make sure they match!
      • Need to exaggerate a little
        • Especially with large audience
      • Don’t fidget or put in pocket
      • Videotape whole talk & watch
        • Can improve hand gesturing!
    • 16. Visual Skills – Face
      • Show emotion!
      • Most of the time:
        • “I care a lot about this.”
        • “I really believe in this.”
        • “I love my work.”
      • Sometimes (in response to questions).
        • “This is the most outrageous thing I’ve ever heard.”
        • “I will have nothing to do with this.”
    • 17. Next Topic: Develop the talk Learn Speaking Skills Develop Key Point Organize Story Design Graphics Practice Talk Q&A Delivery
    • 18. The Key Point: the Goal of the Talk
      • The ONE clear walk-away message.
        • The answer to the question: “How was the talk?”
        • The one thing people remember in 3 months
      The Origin Point (Where the audience was) The Key Point (Where you took them) Persuasion
    • 19. Must Have Audience Benefit
      • Put audience needs at heart
          • “What’s in it for you?”
        • Has to be their reason, not yours
        • Must consider feeling, not just reaction
        • Must have right “you”
      • Good phrases to know:
        • “This is important to you because…”
        • “Why am I telling you this? Because…”
        • “What does this mean for you? Let me tell you…”
      • Know your audience
        • Experience, knowledge, attitude
    • 20. Next Topic: Learn Speaking Skills Develop Key Point Organize Story Design Graphics Practice Talk Q&A Delivery
    • 21. Organizing the Story
      • You’re the salesman
      • First lesson for salesmen:
      Tell them what you’re going to say Say it Tell them what you said Opening Body Ending
    • 22. The Opening
      • You never get a second chance to make a first impression Jerry Weissman
      • The opening
        • A question
        • Factoid
        • Anecdote
        • Quotation
        • Analogy
        • Joke (make it relevant!)
      • Customize the opening
      • Lead to the Key Point
      • Give a (very short) outline/overview
    • 23. The Body
      • Brainstorming into data dump
      • Connect the ideas into “main themes”
      • Connect the teams using one logic flow
      Ready to write the slides? DON’T!!!
    • 24. Data Dump & Main Themes Key point “ How was the talk? Remember in 3 months What’s in it for you? Right you Audience benefit Audience feeling Good phrases to use 3-step salesman Opening Joke Relevant Quote Analogy Data dump brainstorming Connect to main themes Clusters Research background Transitions Repeat KP Issue / Action Problem / Solution Feature Benefit Chronological Flow Form / Function Opportunity / Leverage Everything a good idea main themes Ending
    • 25. The Flow
      • Possible flows:
      • Convincing logic & order
      • Smooth transitions
      • Keep repeating the Key Point!
      (See “Presenting to Win” by Jerry Weissman for more examples) Chronological Numerical Spatial Feature / Benefit Problem / Solution Compare / Contrast
    • 26. The Ending
      • End with a BANG!
        • “ Tonight, we are a country awakened to danger and called to defend freedom. Our grief has turned to anger, and anger to resolution. Whether we bring our enemies to justice or bring justice to our enemies, justice will be served.”
        • George W. Bush
      • Repeat the Key Point
        • “ If you remember only one thing from this talk, then you should remember XXX”
      • Say thank you
    • 27. Review of Organizing Your Story Opening  Key Point Closing  Key Point Body (Repeat Key Point) Tell them what you’re going to say Say it Tell them what you said Flow Main Themes Theme 1 Issue  Action Theme 2 Issue  Action Data Dump  Main Themes
    • 28. Next Topic: Learn Speaking Skills Develop Key Point Organize Story Design Graphics Practice Talk Q&A Delivery
    • 29. Design Graphics
      • PowerPoint only supports your talk
        • Spend more time on organization & delivery!
      • Design principles
        • Keep it simple
        • Apply psychology
        • Make it easy to follow
        • Make it attractive
        • Your titles should tell your story
    • 30. Why “Keep It Simple”?
      • Aim to develop a consistent style, using the standard stylesheet whenever possible.
      • One concept per slide.
      • The font that is being used should be very large
        • 24 point or larger . I will now use smaller fonts to prove to you that it is a major strain to your eyes to read small fonts.
        • The color of the font and the background should be in sharp contrast. If one is light, then the other should be dark. Otherwise it will be very hard to read.
      • The use of bullets should be simple. Too many bullets distracts the user from listening to you.
        • 3 big sub-ideas (or bullets) is the most you should have.
        • The entire slide should have fewer than 8 bullets and sub-bullets.
          • I will add a few more bullets to show this is not a good idea
          • And one more
          • And one more
      • Keep the language used simple, so that the user doesn’t have to “think” to understand your point.
        • Each bullet should fit in one line , because the idea of a bullet is to convey idea, headline, and server as a reminder (or cue) for you to describe and amplify.
        • Parallel wording means the bullets are roughly parallel, and contain similar grammatical constructs. This can save the user a lot of time trying to “understand” what you said.
    • 31. Keep It Simple
      • Consistent look
      • One concept per slide
      • Readable
        • >20 point
        • Avoid abbreviation
        • Use shadow outline fonts
        • Contrast font & background
      • Don’t leave too much blank space
    • 32. Keep It Simple : Bullets
      • Headline, not sentence
        • Reminder for you
      • Concise
        • <4 top-level bullets
        • <10 total bullets & sub-bullets
      • Simple language
        • One line per bullet
        • Parallel wording
    • 33. What’s wrong with this?
      • A good speech
        • Clear point
        • Understands what audience wants
        • Organization based on logic
        • Powerful opening
        • Ending that people remember
    • 34. Instead, do this….
      • A good speech
        • Clear point
        • Appealing audience benefit
        • Logical flow
        • Powerful opening
        • Strong close
    • 35. Apply Psychology to Design
      • Don’t fight natural eye movements
        • Move left to right
        • Return to upper left corner
        • Sweep to lower right corner
      • Subliminal hints
        • Graphics to match your key point
        • Anticipation
      Requirement Easy to use Low cost Fast speed Our Solution
    • 36. Apply Psychology to Design
      • Don’t fight natural eye movements
        • Move left to right
        • Return to upper left corner
        • Sweep to lower right corner
      • Subliminal hints
        • Graphics to match your key point
        • Anticipation
        • Avoid bad signs
    • 37. What’s Wrong With This?
      • Great financial results -- Revenue reached $1,000,000 -- Growth passed 20% -- Profit exceeded $200,000
    • 38. Instead, do this
      • Great financial results
        • Revenue reached $1,000,000
        • Growth passed 20%
        • Profit exceeded $200,000
    • 39. What’s Wrong With This? Revenue
    • 40. Instead, do this Revenue
    • 41. Make it Easy to Follow
      • Use outline
        • Highlight upcoming section
      • Use builds
        • Remind where you are
      • General goal:
        • Don’t make the audience think (Other than what you’re saying)
    • 42. Make It Attractive
      • 20 hours on preparation
      • 10 hours on practice
      • Why not spend 1 hour on attractive design?
    • 43. Instead of doing this…
      • Cost
      • Satisfaction
      • Productivity
      • Revenue
    • 44. Why not do this… Productivity Satisfaction Cost Revenue
    • 45. Instead of doing this…
      • Bill Gates
        • Brilliant Technologist
      • Steve Ballmer
        • Powerful Salesman
      • Steve Jobs
        • Passionate Evangelist
      • Lou Gerstner
        • Logical Businessman
    • 46. Why not do this… Bill Gates Lou Gerstner Steve Jobs Steve Ballmer Logical Businessman Passionate evangelist Powerful salesman Brilliant technologist
    • 47. Your Titles Should Tell the Story
      • “ The man who can think and does not know how to express what he thinks is at the level of him who cannot think.”
      • Pericles
      • Not just “presentation”, but “persuasion”
      • Influence a friend, colleague, or boss.
      • Tell people what you did, and why it matters.
      • Get people’s “mindshare”.
      Body & hands Eyes
        • Visual skills
          • Play your voice
          • Enthusiasm
        • Vocal skills:
          • Simple & Clear
        • Verbal skills
        • What are speaking skills?
        • Speaking skills are important
      Learn speaking skills What you’ll learn today Why be a good speaker?
        • Use simple words
        • Words + intonation
      Apply psychology to design Keep it simple PowerPoint only supports talk
        • Design graphics
          • The ending
          • The flow
        • Data dump & main themes
          • The body
        • Organizing the story
        • Must have audience benefit
        • Key point = Goal of the talk
      Develop Key Point Face
        • The opening
        • Review of organizing story
      • Show emotion!
      • Most of the time: “I care a lot about this.” “I really believe in this.”
        • “ I love my work.”
      • Sometimes (in response to questions).
        • “ This is the most outrageous thing I’ve ever heard.”
        • “ I will have nothing to do with this.”
      Conclusion Giving a good answer
        • Opportunity to amplify
          • Be yourself
          • Audience participation
        • Humor
          • Overcoming nervousness
        • Confidence & passion
        • Delivery
        • Rehearsing your delivery
      Practice your talk Make it attractive Make it easy to follow
        • Overcoming language barrier
        • Q&A
      • Use outline
        • Highlight upcoming section
      • Use builds
        • Remind where you are
      • General goal:
        • Don’t make the audience think
        • (Other than what you’re saying)
    • 48. Next Topic: Learn Speaking Skills Develop Key Point Organize Story Design Graphics Practice Talk Q&A Delivery
    • 49. Rehearsing Your Content
      • Prepare, prepare, prepare
      • Customize the talk
      • Within-talk references
        • Repeat key point
        • Repeat main themes
        • Repeat your company (university) name
      • Practice to use same word(s) per concept
      • Practice transitions between slides
    • 50. Rehearsing Your Delivery
      • Record & listen to every talk at least twice!
        • Best : PowerPoint features
        • OK : Tape recorder
      • Get the timing right
        • Running out of time is a disaster
      • Practice to an audience or record video
        • Ask experienced speaker to critique
        • Record video for critique
    • 51. Next Topic: Learn Speaking Skills Develop Key Point Organize Story Design Graphics Practice Talk Q&A Delivery
    • 52. Delivering the Talk
      • Confidence & passion
      • Overcoming language barrier
      • Overcoming nervousness
      • Humor
      • Audience participation
      • Be yourself
    • 53. Confidence & Passion
      • Make sure you’re not too tired:
        • Get enough sleep the previous night
      • Drink (up to) 3 cups of coffee!
        • No milk
      • Stand on left side of screen
    • 54.  
    • 55. Confidence & Passion
      • Make sure you’re not too tired:
        • Get enough sleep the previous night
      • Drink (up to) 3 cups of coffee!
        • No milk
      • Stand on left side of screen
      • During your talk, do not apologize
        • “Sorry I’m behind on time”
        • “Sorry this slide is so hard to read”
    • 56. Overcoming Language Barrier
      • Know your limitations
        • Don’t use fancy words, complex sentences
        • Don’t take any chance of looking silly
      • Prepare an outline/script
        • Rehearse before the talk
        • Don’t have to use it
      • Not OK to read your bullets
      • But OK to read or memorize your speech
        • Practice still required
        • Proper vocal & visual skills still required
    • 57. Overcoming Nervousness
      • It is possible to hide nervousness!
      • Don’t let the shaking show!
        • Make a fist; hold the lectern
        • Speak loudly
        • Take a deep breath
      • Don’t have to look at audience’s eyes
        • Look at a friendly face
        • Look above people’s heads
      “ Do the thing you fear and the death of fear is certain.” -- Ralph Waldo Emerson
    • 58. Humor
      • Good humor:
        • Relevant
        • Respectful
        • Short
      • How to tell a joke?
        • Prepare audience
        • Pause after “punch line”
        • Move on naturally if no reaction!
      • Plan your humor:
        • Remember what worked
        • Use it again!
    • 59. Audience Participation
      • Ask audience a question
        • Anticipate their answer(s)!
        • Respond with something interesting AND relevant
      • Also OK to ask before talk & include in talk
      “ I hear and I forget; I see and I remember; I do and I understand.”
    • 60. Be Yourself
      • Don’t copy others’ styles
        • Many styles could be effective
      • You must be yourself to be credible
      • Adapt your style, but stay within “comfort zone”
      Technology visionary Trustworthy CEO Great strategist Comfort zone Steve Jobs Steve Ballmer Bill Gates Passionate evangelist Powerful salesman Brilliant technologist Ideal role
    • 61. Last Topic: Learn Speaking Skills Develop Key Point Organize Story Design Graphics Practice Talk Q&A Delivery
    • 62. Q&A: Opportunity to Amplify
      • Q&A is your last chance to:
        • Amplify your points (particularly the Key Point)
        • Increase your credibility
      • If people are too shy, you start!
      • Hard questions
        • No need to answer directly
        • But don’t hide!
      • Narrow questions
        • Take offline
    • 63. Q&A – Giving A Good Answer
      • Respect the listener
        • Don’t argue or dismiss a question
        • Right body language
      • Answer to the entire audience
      • Repeat the question
        • Complete if people cannot hear
        • Paraphrase to help amplify your point
    • 64. Conclusion
      • Anyone can become a good speaker;
      • It just takes :
        • a little skill,
        • and a lot of practice!
    • 65. Use of Demos / Multimedia
      • Keeps the talk interesting
      • Don’t overdo it
        • Should be tied to content
      • Ordering :
        • 2,N, N-1, N-2,….3, 1

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