PRESENTATION SKILLSIt is not sufficient to know what to say; one must also know how to say it. - Aristotle
PRESENTATION SKILLS• After going through this session, you will be able to : Identify the steps required in planning a speech, or presentation. Develop an introduction, a body and a final summary for a long, formal presentation. Analyse the audience for speeches and presentations. Select, design and use visual aids. Deliver your speech or presentation effectively. Handle questions effectively.
EFFECTIVE PRESENTATION Characteristics• It should be sequential.• It should address the needs of the customer.• It should be timed well.• It should be well planned, organized & delivered.• The occasion – formal, informal or casual
EFFECTIVE PRESENTATION Should Focus On:• Message well understood by the participants• Invites participation of the entire group
VOICEPurpose: To make people want to listen• Projection• Articulation• Modulation• Pronunciation• Enunciation• Repetition• Speed
RULES FOR PRESENTERS Respect your Audience• Think like a listener• Write like a speaker• Be interesting• Break down the Barriers• Maintain rapport
PRESENTATION Time: 1.5 minutes each• Introduction• Company• Your work• The skills you would like to acquire
PERCEPTION MANAGEMENT Accepting the responsibility to give people you are dealing with the picture YOU want them to see
PRESENTATION The Beginning• Ready Position• Movements• Gestures
PRESENTATION Gestures• To Emphasize• To Illustrate• Nervous Gesture
PRESENTATION DESIGN AND DELIVERYDefine the purpose Analyze the audience Design Develop the Presentation Deliver Post Delivery
PRESENTATION Purpose• To inform or analyze an idea• To simulate people to action• To activate people then and there
AUDIENCE ANALYSIS Analyzing the Audience• Profile of the group• Expectations of the audience• Knowledge level of the audience
PRESENTATION PLANNING Planning• Developing a main idea• Developing an outline• Deciding on the style
AUDIENCE WILL THINKBefore you start preparing consider the following I am Important Consider my needs Will your ideas help me What are the facts I accept Remember audience is doing critical listening to you!
PRESENTATION Introduction• Start with an Elevated Pitch (WIFM)• Use technique of “Big Bang” i.e. trying to catch peoples attention by saying something different / unusual…….• Let the audience know what lies ahead (Agenda).• State the intended outcomes• Set ground rules, if any.
PRESENTATION Introduction• Elevated Pitch (WIFM) – A humorous anecdote – A provocative or dramatic statement – Audience participation (a question, a reference to a local event, a survey of hands etc.) – An object (a prop, a product, a model etc.) – An action (a demonstration, an unexpected entry a quotation etc.)
PRESENTATIONIntroduction : Questions that may help you develop your message• What do people need to know, believe and care about to become engaged with your issues / organization?• What obstacles or misconceptions do you need to overcome to get people engaged?• What needs to happen or what do people need to do to meet your organization’s goals or have an impact on your issues?• If people did this, how would things be different?
PRESENTATION Time: 1.5 minutes• Elevated Pitch• Choose and write 5 gestures you would use during the presentation• Remember:• To maintain eye contact• To do feet control• To move only for a purpose
GOLDEN RULES FOR PRESENTAERS Be yourself made large• Project your personality• Be conversational• Maintain high energy levels
GOLDEN RULES FOR PRESENTAERS3 P’s of Effective Presentation Preparation PreparationPreparation
PRESENTATION Body The body should preferably be point-wise instead of running lines of text.• There should be a logical sequence.• Be clear on inputs.• Give examples related to listeners needs.• Use powerful and sequenced visual aids.
EFFECTIVE POWER POINT PRESENTATION Mistakes• People tend to put every word they are going to say on PPP.• People do not run spell checks Please realize the impotence of ruining a spell cheek.
EFFECTIVE POWER POINT PRESENTATION Mistakes• Adding •Too •Many• Excessive •Bullets• Bullet •& •Your• Points •Key• Only •Message• Bullet •Will •Not• Key •Stand• Points •Out
GOLDEN RULES FOR AVMTo be useful visual aid must be both Necessary and Visual
GOLDEN RULES FOR AVM It is not desirable to show data in a chart Sales Qtr 1 Qtr 2 Qtr 3 Qtr 4 TrendPerson A 2254 2589 3008 2199Person B 1254 1357 1288 1466Person C 3542 3645 3467 3798
GOLDEN RULES FOR AVM Graphical representation is more appealing4000350030002500 Person A2000 Person B1500 Person C1000 500 0 1st Qtr 2nd Qtr 3rd Qtr 4th Qtr
GOLDEN RULES FOR AVMRemember: Your AVM should never draw more attention than you do
AIDS TO MAXIMISE IMPACT I Integrate into your styleM Moves the presentation onP Gives Professional AppearanceA Appropriate to the momentC Communicates to the audienceT Technically sound
PRESENTATION Conclusion• Reinforce the main points and summarize the main ideas.• Make it memorable by enthusiastic remarks.• End on a positive note.• Ask for questions and clarifications, if any (look for non verbal clues ).• Involve the audience to outline the next steps.
INITIATING BEHAVIOURS Building Proposing A behavior, usually in the form A behavior which puts of a proposal, which extends forward a new suggestion, or develops a proposal made proposal or course of action by another person and your plan would be even better if we added a second Let’s leave this item reporting stage and move on to the next I suggest we reduce stocks by 15% to return to target You suggested we should try to raise money to buy now. If I can take that further, Let’s do it by ...OK. I think we we could also adapt theshould focus on system to give us better the IT market cost control
REACTING BEHAVIOURS Supporting DisagreeingA behavior which makes a consciousand direct declaration of agreement or A behavior which states a directsupport for another person or their disagreement or which raises objectionsconcepts and opinions and obstacles to another person’s concepts or opinions (note: disagreeing is about issues) I’m afraid that Fine, sounds won’t work - the OK to me system would overload Yes, I go along I don’t like that with that ... idea one bit
CLARIFYING BEHAVIOURS Testing Understanding Summarizing A behavior which seeks to A behavior which establish whether or not an summarizes, or otherwise earlier contribution has been understood restates in a compact form, the content of previous discussion or events Can I check that we’re talking about the same thing here? So, we have agreed: 1 To take legal action 2 To take it before MayWhat Before I go on, does this data 3 To introduce it byadditional Marchinformation do make sense to youyou want fromme?
CLARIFYING BEHAVIOURS Seeking Information Giving Information A behavior which offers facts, A behavior which seeks facts, opinions or clarification to opinions or clarification from another person another person I think, on balance, How have things things have gone Who were you gone for you pretty well this yearworking with on the this year? said project? There are three of those on stream at the moment Can anyone tell me which page this is on?
PROCESS BEHAVIOURS Bringing In Shutting OutA behavior which invites views A behavior which excludesor opinions from a member of another person or reduces theirthe group who is not actively opportunity to contributeparticipating in the discussion Sue has been very John: What do you quiet, I wonder think, Carol? whether she has anything to add? Steve: What I think is ... Well, what I think we should Jack, have you do in this case is ... anything to say ... I believe we should ... on this one?
GENERAL BEHAVIOURAL CATEGORIES Initiating Reacting Supporting Proposing Disagreeing Building Defending/Attacking Clarifying Process Testing Understanding Shutting Out Summarizing Bringing In Seeking Information Giving Information
HANDLING QUESTIONS• Remain unemotional, cool, reserved.• Answer the questions to the best of your ability, do not bluff.• Do not answer questions on topics which you are unaware.• Convert negative questions in your favor.• Do not be rude at any cost to any member of the group.• Be relevant and speak to audience needs.
A QUICK RECAP… INTRODUCTION PURPOSE ENTRY STATEMENT BENEFIT(S) OVERVIEW BODY SUPPORTING INFORMATION MAIN CONCEPT(S) DEMONSTRATION OF SOLUTIONREVIEW CONCLUSION SUMMARIZE CLARIFY DOUBTS ACTION (NEXT STEP) EXIT BLUEPRINT FOR A PRESENTATION
AUDIENCE ATTENTION SPAN You indicate end is near- verbally or non verballyHigh Start EndLow Presentation
CHALLENGES FOR A PRESENTER How can I How can I Prevent/ minimize Establish the dipcredibility? in interest? How do I keep everyone involved? If interest level falls how do I get them back again?
BODY LANGUAGE SHOWS• Openness• Frustration• Defensiveness• Confidence• Active listening• Nervousness
UNDERSTANDING NON VERBAL CUES Defensiveness is Confidence is displayed displayed through through• Arms crosses on chest. • Back straight.• Fist like Gestures. • Purposeful movement.• Pointing index finger • Eye contact
UNDERSTANDING NON VERBAL CUES Active listening is Nervousness is displayed displayed through through• Putting hand on the chin. • Clearing throat -“whew” sound.• Stroking chin • Tugging the ear• Head tilted. • Not making eye contact • Leaning on the chair.
SOME PRACTICES IN NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION Practices Reinforce AvoidWord Choice Speak to inform, not Words with numerous impress meaningsNon-words Pause Silence to add “UH”, “OK”, “You know” impactVoice Enthusiasm, Varying Monotone,modulation Pitch and Pace SqueakinessPosture Straight and tall whether Slumped sitting or standing Draped over the lectern Slouched over chair
SOME PRACTICES IN NON- VERBAL COMMUNICATION Practices Reinforce AvoidMovement Purposeful, Shifting weight, Jerky controlled Constant pacingGestures Above waist Below waist One finger pointingHands Palms up Both hands in pocket Arms crossed, Hands on hipsEye Contact Purposeful Light house sweep Look at eye Only to friendly level face
FLOW OF THE PRESENTATION DELIVERYDuring delivery the flow should be like driving AC car : – Focus on the traffic not on which gear you are in – that’s a part of learning how to drive. – Focus on the audience not on what to say when – that’s part of preparation.
REACTING BEHAVIOURS Defending/Attacking Disagreeing A behavior which states a direct disagreement or which raisesA behavior which attacks objections and obstacles to anotheranother person either directly, or person’s concepts or opinions (note:by defensiveness. These Disagreeing is about issues)behaviors usually involve valuejudgments and often containemotional overtones (note:Defending/ Attacking is usually I’m afraid that won’tabout people, not issues) work - the system Trust you to try would overload and dodge the issue! That’s bloody I don’t like that rubbish idea one bit
ENDING• Restate the main points and summarize the main ideas.• Make it memorable by enthusiastic remarks.• End on a positive note.• Ask for questions and clarifications, if any (look for non verbal clues ).• Involve the audience to outline the next steps.
LAST BUT NOT LEAST“It’s always helpful to learn from yourmistakes because then your mistakes are worthwhile” Garry Marshall