Public Speaking, Presentation Skills &  Techniques A Presentation by Rajiv Bajaj
<ul><li>What do you fear most ? </li></ul><ul><li>Speaking to Groups  –  41% </li></ul><ul><li>Heights  – 32 %  </li></ul>...
<ul><li>Speaking to a group is a notoriously  stressful   activity ! </li></ul><ul><li>Something  strange  seems to happen...
When the spotlight is on you, the audience will be judging not only your ideas and the evidence you present, but also  you...
<ul><li>People may not remember reports & spreadsheets easily, but a presentation can make a  powerful impression  that la...
An effective presenter puts himself  centre-stage An ineffective presenter  tries to hide  behind notes, a lectern or podi...
<ul><li>Putting yourself on the show   </li></ul><ul><li>Anxiety  – more about your relationship with the audience than ab...
<ul><li>Checklist of symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid pulse </li></ul><ul><li>Shallow breathing </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle s...
<ul><li>The worst part of it is… </li></ul><ul><li>However much you suffer, audience will forget virtually  everything  yo...
<ul><li>The BEST news is…Nerves are there to  help  you ! </li></ul><ul><li>They remind you that the presentation matters…...
<ul><li>The trick is  not  to try to dispel your nerves, but to  use  them </li></ul><ul><li>Once you understand that  ner...
<ul><li>‘ All great speakers </li></ul><ul><li>were bad speakers </li></ul><ul><li>once.’ - Emerson  </li></ul>Remember…
Preparing for  a  presentation
<ul><li>A presentation  is like any other communication.. </li></ul><ul><li>Analyse the  reasons  for this communication <...
How long? <ul><li>Duration? </li></ul><ul><li>Time  adequate  for your subject? </li></ul><ul><li>Remember - the  lesser t...
As one speaker said… <ul><li>If you want me to speak for five minutes, I need two weeks to prepare.  </li></ul><ul><li>If ...
Venue - Where ? <ul><li>Surroundings… </li></ul><ul><li>Familiar to your  audience ?  </li></ul><ul><li>Familiar to  you ?...
Audience <ul><li>Number, age group and type </li></ul><ul><li>Gender mix ?  </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual level - current...
Why me? <ul><li>What special knowledge or position do  you  have?  </li></ul><ul><li>What will the audience  expect  from ...
How? <ul><li>Are you expected to… </li></ul><ul><li>Give a formal   speech   or lecture, or an   introductory talk   to pr...
Adjusting to circumstances <ul><li>Many times, there is likelihood of a conflict between the desired circumstances and the...
Developing the material <ul><li>Stage one –Think ! </li></ul><ul><li>You have selected your subject, now  give it some tho...
<ul><li>Think   about the talk  at  any convenient moment.. When not preoccupied with something else </li></ul><ul><li>Lik...
<ul><li>Stage Two –  Read  ! </li></ul><ul><li>Read as much as time permits </li></ul><ul><li>Gather more material  than y...
<ul><li>Stage Three – Construct your  outline </li></ul><ul><li>As with any carefully presented message, it will require a...
<ul><li>Of course the middle needs to be  well structured  if you are to achieve your goal </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Men perish ...
<ul><li>Stage 4 – Practice & Rehearse </li></ul><ul><li>Practice the whole talk </li></ul><ul><li>-  out loud , in a simil...
Getting ready for the presentation : Dress to  Impress  !
<ul><li>Remember,  first impression is the last impression .. </li></ul><ul><li>Golden Rule – You have only  ONE  chance t...
The Actual Presentation -  TELL THEM   <ul><li>1. Tell them WHAT you’re  GOING TO TELL  them  </li></ul><ul><li>Indicate  ...
Creating a good opening impression <ul><li>Arrange  the ‘stage’ on which you are to perform  </li></ul><ul><li>Take a litt...
Opening the talk <ul><li>First few minutes very  crucial  because: </li></ul><ul><li>You may be slotted  after another  sp...
<ul><li>Don’t hesitate ; start as soon as the audience is  settled  </li></ul><ul><li>But take a few seconds to  survey th...
The Opening  <ul><li>Introduce  yourself –  Who  you are and  why  you are there </li></ul><ul><li>Clear  statement of  ob...
<ul><li>Using an  Anecdote  as a start is sometimes good . Must be well told,  relevant  to the subject, brief and, if pos...
The Main Presentation <ul><li>TELL  Them ! Put forward your ideas in a  structured  manner </li></ul><ul><li>Must be  rele...
<ul><li>Use  Quotations  – perhaps the easiest method to use and often most effective </li></ul><ul><li>Should be from a w...
Delivery of the Talk <ul><li>Be  yourself  ! Look at the audience – make  Eye Contact  – The Lighthouse principle  </li></...
Closing the Talk <ul><li>Close of the presentation most  memorable  moment </li></ul><ul><li>Whatever happens, audience wi...
<ul><li>If you have finished before your allotted time-  sit down . Don’t try to drag it on ! </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid havi...
<ul><li>In fact, it is probably best to  avoid a closing signal  altogether </li></ul><ul><li>Your closing remarks should ...
<ul><li>As with every communication, final objective is to seek some  action </li></ul><ul><li>You want action now, not la...
Conclusion <ul><li>Thank  your audience for their attention </li></ul><ul><li>Invite  questions </li></ul><ul><li>You may ...
Making a presentation: The MUST AVOID  list of 20 common bloopers
The First Ten Bloopers  <ul><li>N </li></ul><ul><li>I </li></ul><ul><li>N </li></ul><ul><li>C </li></ul><ul><li>O </li></u...
The First Ten Bloopers  <ul><li>N ot being prepared </li></ul><ul><li>I nadequate content </li></ul><ul><li>N ot deliverin...
The Next Ten Bloopers  <ul><li>P </li></ul><ul><li>O </li></ul><ul><li>O </li></ul><ul><li>R </li></ul><ul><li>R </li></ul...
The Next Ten Bloopers  <ul><li>P oorly planned visuals </li></ul><ul><li>O ffensive or inappropriate humour </li></ul><ul>...
Using  Powerpoint  Effectively
Powerpoint… <ul><li>…  is a Digital Storytelling tool for conveying  verbal   &  visual  messages </li></ul><ul><li>…  is ...
Avoid… <ul><li>…  Templates . They are not related to your subject matter </li></ul><ul><li>…  Bullets . Use visuals inste...
Do’s <ul><li>One  idea per slide. Use more slides if needed </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis – Use Font colours for  emphasis  o...
<ul><li>Use  Graphics  only to support ideas, if required </li></ul><ul><li>Humour  where possible </li></ul><ul><li>Prepa...
<ul><li>Avoid Clipart  … Use proper images wherever possible </li></ul><ul><li>Visuals must compliment your messages – mus...
<ul><li>Remember – Powerpoint not meant as a stand-alone tool.  YOU  are the most important ingredient in the presentation...
 
Acknowledgements: This presentation is based on excerpts from the books “ Improve Your Communication Skills” by Alan Barke...
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Presentation Skills

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Some helpful tips for public speaking & making effective presentations.

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Presentation Skills

  1. 1. Public Speaking, Presentation Skills & Techniques A Presentation by Rajiv Bajaj
  2. 2. <ul><li>What do you fear most ? </li></ul><ul><li>Speaking to Groups – 41% </li></ul><ul><li>Heights – 32 % </li></ul><ul><li>Insects & Bugs – 24% </li></ul><ul><li>Financial Problems – 23% </li></ul><ul><li>Deep Water – 22% </li></ul><ul><li>Sickness – 20% </li></ul><ul><li>Death – 19% </li></ul><ul><li>Flying – 18% </li></ul><ul><li>(Source: The Book of Lists – David Wallechinsky) </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Speaking to a group is a notoriously stressful activity ! </li></ul><ul><li>Something strange seems to happen when people are called upon to talk to a group formally </li></ul><ul><li>Many irrational – and maybe not so irrational – fears raise their ugly heads </li></ul>
  4. 4. When the spotlight is on you, the audience will be judging not only your ideas and the evidence you present, but also you personally
  5. 5. <ul><li>People may not remember reports & spreadsheets easily, but a presentation can make a powerful impression that lasts.. </li></ul><ul><li>If the presenter appears nervous, incompetent or ill-prepared, that reputation will stick – at least until the next presentation ! </li></ul>
  6. 6. An effective presenter puts himself centre-stage An ineffective presenter tries to hide behind notes, a lectern or podium, slides or computer generated graphics
  7. 7. <ul><li>Putting yourself on the show </li></ul><ul><li>Anxiety – more about your relationship with the audience than about what you have to say </li></ul><ul><li>Moments before you present, you may find yourself suffering from – </li></ul><ul><li>Demophobia – Fear of people </li></ul><ul><li>Laliophobia – Fear of speaking </li></ul><ul><li>Katagelophobia – Fear of ridicule </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Checklist of symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid pulse </li></ul><ul><li>Shallow breathing </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle spasms in the throat, knees and hands </li></ul><ul><li>Dry mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Cold extremities </li></ul><ul><li>Dilated pupils </li></ul><ul><li>Sweaty palms </li></ul><ul><li>Blurred vision </li></ul><ul><li>Nausea </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>The worst part of it is… </li></ul><ul><li>However much you suffer, audience will forget virtually everything you say ! </li></ul><ul><li>That’s the bad news… </li></ul><ul><li>The GOOD news is… YOU are not alone ! </li></ul><ul><li>Every presenter suffers from nerves, experience never seems to make them better </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>The BEST news is…Nerves are there to help you ! </li></ul><ul><li>They remind you that the presentation matters… that YOU matter </li></ul><ul><li>YOU are the medium through which the audience will understand your ideas.. </li></ul><ul><li>You SHOULD feel nervous ! </li></ul><ul><li>If you don’t you aren’t taking it seriously .. You are in danger of letting your concentration slip </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>The trick is not to try to dispel your nerves, but to use them </li></ul><ul><li>Once you understand that nervousness is natural, and indeed necessary , it becomes a little easier to handle </li></ul><ul><li>If you can support your nerves with SOLID preparation, you can channel your nervous energy into the performance itself </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>‘ All great speakers </li></ul><ul><li>were bad speakers </li></ul><ul><li>once.’ - Emerson </li></ul>Remember…
  13. 13. Preparing for a presentation
  14. 14. <ul><li>A presentation is like any other communication.. </li></ul><ul><li>Analyse the reasons for this communication </li></ul><ul><li>Why? Who? What? </li></ul><ul><li>When? Where? And How? </li></ul><ul><li>Be sure that you have adequate preparation time - for both written material and visual aids </li></ul>
  15. 15. How long? <ul><li>Duration? </li></ul><ul><li>Time adequate for your subject? </li></ul><ul><li>Remember - the lesser the time you have to speak, the more carefully planned your talk must be ! </li></ul>
  16. 16. As one speaker said… <ul><li>If you want me to speak for five minutes, I need two weeks to prepare. </li></ul><ul><li>If you want me to speak for an hour- I need a week to prepare. </li></ul><ul><li>If you don’t mind how long I speak, I’ll get up now and do it now ! </li></ul><ul><li> - Unknown </li></ul>
  17. 17. Venue - Where ? <ul><li>Surroundings… </li></ul><ul><li>Familiar to your audience ? </li></ul><ul><li>Familiar to you ? If not, try to visit the venue before you speak </li></ul><ul><li>In any case check before-hand type & size of the room, tiered seating or flat floor, acoustics, lighting, equipment available, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t hesitate to ask if a particular arrangement is possible </li></ul>
  18. 18. Audience <ul><li>Number, age group and type </li></ul><ul><li>Gender mix ? </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual level - current knowledge of the subject, reasons for attending and their attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>These will, of course, influence the ideas and the language you use. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Why me? <ul><li>What special knowledge or position do you have? </li></ul><ul><li>What will the audience expect from you? </li></ul>
  20. 20. How? <ul><li>Are you expected to… </li></ul><ul><li>Give a formal speech or lecture, or an introductory talk to provoke discussion? </li></ul><ul><li>Will there be a question session ? </li></ul><ul><li>If YES , then you might like to leave some things unsaid … </li></ul><ul><li>… leave your audience with some questions to ask and yourself with something fresh to say in reply to the questions ! </li></ul>
  21. 21. Adjusting to circumstances <ul><li>Many times, there is likelihood of a conflict between the desired circumstances and the given circumstances </li></ul><ul><li>Some modifications or compromises may be necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>It could be time, audience size, equipment… </li></ul><ul><li>Be mentally prepared to adjust to these unforeseen issues ! </li></ul>
  22. 22. Developing the material <ul><li>Stage one –Think ! </li></ul><ul><li>You have selected your subject, now give it some thought … give it time to grow </li></ul><ul><li>Write down for yourself the objective ! </li></ul><ul><li>Gather and arrange your thoughts. Put them on paper ! </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss theme with friends and colleagues.. Get their inputs </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Think about the talk at any convenient moment.. When not preoccupied with something else </li></ul><ul><li>Like when you are doing some other, usually manual job, like digging the garden, decorating your flat, or perhaps traveling to work or college </li></ul><ul><li>Carry a notebook on which to note ideas as they occur to you </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Stage Two – Read ! </li></ul><ul><li>Read as much as time permits </li></ul><ul><li>Gather more material than you can possibly use, for example possible quotations </li></ul><ul><li>Collect anecdotes and stories from newspapers and magazines </li></ul><ul><li>Browse the internet for related material </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Stage Three – Construct your outline </li></ul><ul><li>As with any carefully presented message, it will require an introduction and a conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>However you do it, it should be logical and systematic.. Well structured ! </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t allow yourself to be misled by the adage “Look after the beginning and the end…and the middle will take care itself.” </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Of course the middle needs to be well structured if you are to achieve your goal </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Men perish because they cannot join the beginning with the end .” </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Stage 4 – Practice & Rehearse </li></ul><ul><li>Practice the whole talk </li></ul><ul><li>- out loud , in a similar-sized room, if possible </li></ul><ul><li>- using a tape recorder </li></ul><ul><li>- checking the timing </li></ul><ul><li>- do a dry run in front of friends / colleagues </li></ul><ul><li>This will help you find your own particular strengths and weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>Learn to exploit your strengths and avoid your weaknesses </li></ul>
  28. 28. Getting ready for the presentation : Dress to Impress !
  29. 29. <ul><li>Remember, first impression is the last impression .. </li></ul><ul><li>Golden Rule – You have only ONE chance to make a first impression ! </li></ul><ul><li>Wear clothes appropriate to the occasion </li></ul><ul><li>Dress to impress … Dress for impact </li></ul><ul><li>Wear clothes that you are comfortable in - those clothes which you know you look good in ! </li></ul>
  30. 30. The Actual Presentation - TELL THEM <ul><li>1. Tell them WHAT you’re GOING TO TELL them </li></ul><ul><li>Indicate key-points that will form the sections of your presentation. You may even use a slide to outline these </li></ul><ul><li>2. TELL them </li></ul><ul><li>3. Tell them what you’ve TOLD them ! </li></ul><ul><li>Summarise ! Drive home your point ! Conclude ! </li></ul>
  31. 31. Creating a good opening impression <ul><li>Arrange the ‘stage’ on which you are to perform </li></ul><ul><li>Take a little time before you start speaking to position your notes and visual aids so that you can use them comfortably </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure you have room to move around , and that your notes are handy </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid using a podium or lectern – it is equivalent to a barrier between you & your audience – Move around ! </li></ul>
  32. 32. Opening the talk <ul><li>First few minutes very crucial because: </li></ul><ul><li>You may be slotted after another speaker who for whatever reasons has had a great acceptance ; or </li></ul><ul><li>You may be the first or only speaker and you have to cut the ice - make the audience feel immediately that their attendance is worthwhile ; AND </li></ul><ul><li>You may, like most people, feel far more nervous during the first few minutes </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>Don’t hesitate ; start as soon as the audience is settled </li></ul><ul><li>But take a few seconds to survey the audience and let them take stock of you </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid opening with clichés or hackneyed expressions, e.g. ‘it gives me great pleasure…’ ‘I would like to thank you…’ </li></ul><ul><li>Do this towards the end of your talk </li></ul>
  34. 34. The Opening <ul><li>Introduce yourself – Who you are and why you are there </li></ul><ul><li>Clear statement of objective – Tell them what you’re going to tell them ! </li></ul><ul><li>A timetable – finish times, breaks if necessary </li></ul><ul><li>How will you take questions – during the presentation or at the end </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes, it is a good idea to talk with your audience before launching into the proper presentation </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>Using an Anecdote as a start is sometimes good . Must be well told, relevant to the subject, brief and, if possible, personal. Willingness to laugh at yourself will usually win an audience </li></ul><ul><li>Joke, IF your experience tells you that you can do this well. Must be well told, relevant and brief </li></ul><ul><li>Peoples’ sense of humor differs radically, and if the joke falls flat you are worse off than before ! </li></ul>
  36. 36. The Main Presentation <ul><li>TELL Them ! Put forward your ideas in a structured manner </li></ul><ul><li>Must be relevant to the subject, logical & must have a purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Must not be ambiguous </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid too many statistics . Use graphs instead </li></ul><ul><li>Do not wander. Adopt a clear thought process </li></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>Use Quotations – perhaps the easiest method to use and often most effective </li></ul><ul><li>Should be from a well known person or author known to the audience, and strictly relevant to your subject </li></ul><ul><li>Use shock element , if appropriate – it leaves a lasting impression </li></ul>
  38. 38. Delivery of the Talk <ul><li>Be yourself ! Look at the audience – make Eye Contact – The Lighthouse principle </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrate on the four qualities below </li></ul><ul><li>- conviction / sincerity </li></ul><ul><li>- enthusiasm </li></ul><ul><li>- power of speech </li></ul><ul><li>- simplicity </li></ul><ul><li>These are the basic ingredients of all effective communication </li></ul>
  39. 39. Closing the Talk <ul><li>Close of the presentation most memorable moment </li></ul><ul><li>Whatever happens, audience will most certainly remember this </li></ul><ul><li>Your last chance to “Tell them what you’ve told them !” – SUMMARISE WELL ! </li></ul><ul><li>Summarise key-points & your message – Don’t go into details again ! </li></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>If you have finished before your allotted time- sit down . Don’t try to drag it on ! </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid having to rely on notes for your final remarks </li></ul><ul><li>Memorise well your closing words so that you can look at your audience as you reach your climax </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t give too many closing signals , e.g. ‘and finally’, ‘in conclusion’, ‘one other thing before I finish’, ‘then, before you fall asleep’,… </li></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>In fact, it is probably best to avoid a closing signal altogether </li></ul><ul><li>Your closing remarks should round off your talk, and therefore by implication your audience will know that your talk is complete </li></ul><ul><li>End your talk on a high or dramatic note that the audience will remember – but don’t overdo it ! </li></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>As with every communication, final objective is to seek some action </li></ul><ul><li>You want action now, not later. So ask for it </li></ul><ul><li>Be specific – What do you want your audience to do ? </li></ul><ul><li>Talk about the advantages or benefits to the audience of your ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Show them how they can put them into action </li></ul>
  43. 43. Conclusion <ul><li>Thank your audience for their attention </li></ul><ul><li>Invite questions </li></ul><ul><li>You may also pre-arrange a planted question in the audience to set the ball rolling ! </li></ul>
  44. 44. Making a presentation: The MUST AVOID list of 20 common bloopers
  45. 45. The First Ten Bloopers <ul><li>N </li></ul><ul><li>I </li></ul><ul><li>N </li></ul><ul><li>C </li></ul><ul><li>O </li></ul><ul><li>M </li></ul><ul><li>P </li></ul><ul><li>O </li></ul><ul><li>O </li></ul><ul><li>P </li></ul>Don’t be one !
  46. 46. The First Ten Bloopers <ul><li>N ot being prepared </li></ul><ul><li>I nadequate content </li></ul><ul><li>N ot delivering the goods </li></ul><ul><li>C onstantly boring the audience </li></ul><ul><li>O verload of Information </li></ul><ul><li>M isreading the group </li></ul><ul><li>P oor pacing </li></ul><ul><li>O mission of practice </li></ul><ul><li>O dd or distracting visuals </li></ul><ul><li>P oor handling of questions </li></ul>
  47. 47. The Next Ten Bloopers <ul><li>P </li></ul><ul><li>O </li></ul><ul><li>O </li></ul><ul><li>R </li></ul><ul><li>R </li></ul><ul><li>E </li></ul><ul><li>S </li></ul><ul><li>U </li></ul><ul><li>L </li></ul><ul><li>T </li></ul>You don’t want this !
  48. 48. The Next Ten Bloopers <ul><li>P oorly planned visuals </li></ul><ul><li>O ffensive or inappropriate humour </li></ul><ul><li>O ver or under-dressing </li></ul><ul><li>R unning overtime </li></ul><ul><li>R unning late for the start </li></ul><ul><li>E ye contact missing </li></ul><ul><li>S howing your back too often </li></ul><ul><li>U nder-utilising the media available </li></ul><ul><li>L ack of enthusiasm </li></ul><ul><li>T otal lack of conclusion </li></ul>
  49. 49. Using Powerpoint Effectively
  50. 50. Powerpoint… <ul><li>… is a Digital Storytelling tool for conveying verbal & visual messages </li></ul><ul><li>… is used to compliment verbal & visual messages. Presentations should not rely on it exclusively </li></ul><ul><li>… is used to balance the verbal & visual </li></ul>
  51. 51. Avoid… <ul><li>… Templates . They are not related to your subject matter </li></ul><ul><li>… Bullets . Use visuals instead </li></ul><ul><li>… Unnecessary Graphics & Animations </li></ul><ul><li>… Overloading the slides </li></ul><ul><li>… Too much text. It dilutes your message </li></ul>
  52. 52. Do’s <ul><li>One idea per slide. Use more slides if needed </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis – Use Font colours for emphasis or frame text for high emphasis </li></ul><ul><li>Background in High contrast with text </li></ul><ul><li>Use blank slides to start, avoid templates </li></ul><ul><li>Use high impact Visuals , pictures with Emotion </li></ul><ul><li>Black screen to get audience focus on you </li></ul>
  53. 53. <ul><li>Use Graphics only to support ideas, if required </li></ul><ul><li>Humour where possible </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare outline first. Don’t directly start with Powerpoint </li></ul><ul><li>Make good use of notes section . Memories are faulty. Making notes helps ! </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal use of animation . More effective if used sparingly </li></ul>
  54. 54. <ul><li>Avoid Clipart … Use proper images wherever possible </li></ul><ul><li>Visuals must compliment your messages – must be relevant to the topic </li></ul><ul><li>Turn off email alerts. Adjust power settings ! </li></ul>
  55. 55. <ul><li>Remember – Powerpoint not meant as a stand-alone tool. YOU are the most important ingredient in the presentation ! </li></ul>
  56. 57. Acknowledgements: This presentation is based on excerpts from the books “ Improve Your Communication Skills” by Alan Barker, “ Basic Business Communication” by R V Lesikar & ME Flatley, And other internet resources.

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