European Union’s Foreign, Security, and Defence Policies RenXu Professor D’Alimonte New York University
Introduction EU has not moved much closer towards a supranational foreign policy, although the EU remains a “civilian superpower” Move towards “Brusselsized” Common Foreign and Security Policy(CFSP) is slow. A look at historical and institutional developments and the future of such policies.
Brief History 1st Step-establishment of European Political Cooperation(EPC) framework from the Luxembourg Report of 1970. Collapse of U.S.S.R. affected E.U. greatly
The Maastricht Treaty CFSP formed Pillar 2, rests on member state unanimity in the Council, enabling each country the ability to veto. CFSP is also in opposition to the other 2 pillars since it is positioned outside the Community decision-making structures.
Treaty on European Union(TEU) Three identifiable sources of external relations policy in the EU Member states pursue their own policies independent of CFSP Coordinating CFSP frame work which places responsibility on member states to inform and consult with each other The Commission with increasing responsibilities over trade and overseas representations
Amsterdam Treaty Constructive Abstention- enabled less than a third of member states to opt out of a Joint Action without vetoing it for the others. This was later replaced by Enhanced Cooperation. Creation of High Representative for CFSP Creation of the Policy Planning and Early Warning Unit Common Strategy
The Saint Malo Process Led by the UK and France aimed to bring defense cooperation into the heart of Europe However there’s trouble as UK see NATO as a security institution choice and French want EU to be more independent, however is difficult funding is difficult for these nations as education or health care is more electorally attractive
Treaty of Nice Empowered the Commission to ensure EU’s actions are consistent and designed to meet the national governments’ objectives. Also allowed Council to use Qualified Majority Voting for decisions relating to internal matters.
Lisbon Treaty Aimed to move nations more closely and changes to institutional framework. European External Action Service is created to act as diplomatic corps for the EU Linking internal and external Security together Lisbon Agenda
Global Terrorism Divisions over Iraq War once again deepened the separation. European Security Strategy was drafted to share intelligent information, strongly rejected Even today, the civilian superpower in economy was not transferred acrossed to foreign, security, and defense sphere.
Conclusion Enhanced Cooperation Joint Action & Common Positions Does a “Europeanized” foreign & security policy strengthen member states? What do CSFP and ESDP tell us about EU as a political entity?