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G&P - Chapter 10 - European Union


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G&P - Chapter 10 - European Union

  1. 1. International Integration<br />CHAPTER TEN<br />International Relations 9/e<br />Goldstein and Pevehouse<br />Pearson Education, Inc. <br />publishing as Longman © 2010 <br />
  2. 2. Globalization and Integration<br />Why do states cooperate in order to create international organizations that are supranational?<br />Supranational: subsuming a number of states and their functions within a larger whole<br />United Nations - limited supranational aspects<br />European Union <br />Conflict with nationalism<br />Transnational actors – MNCs and NGOs<br />Transnational issues<br />Issues that force states to work together because they cannot be solved by a single state on its own<br />Pearson Education, Inc. <br />publishing as Longman © 2010<br />
  3. 3. Integration Theory<br />Refers to the process by which supranational institutions replace national ones <br />The gradual shifting upward of sovereignty from state to regional or global structures<br />Ultimate expression of integration: merger of several (or many) states into a single state, or ultimately into a single world government<br />In practice: integration has never gone beyond a partial and uneasy sharing of power between state and supranational levels.<br />Sovereignty issues<br />Most successful example: European Union<br />Pearson Education, Inc. <br />publishing as Longman © 2010<br />
  4. 4. Integration Theory<br />Functionalism<br />Theory that discusses growth of specialized technical organizations that cross national borders.<br />Supranational structures’ response to the need to find practical means to fulfill necessary functions, such as delivering mail from one country to another.<br />Pearson Education, Inc. <br />publishing as Longman © 2010<br />
  5. 5. Integration Theory<br />Neofunctionalism<br />Modification of functional theory by IR scholars that argues that economic integration generates a political dynamic that drives integration further.<br />Process of spillover<br />Sense of community<br />Security community in Western Europe<br />Cost of integration<br />Open borders<br />Centralization<br />Disintegration<br />Pearson Education, Inc. <br />publishing as Longman © 2010<br />
  6. 6. Group Quiz (EU) 11-10-10<br />1. What was the first step towards the creation of the European Union. What was the primary reason this was done?<br />2. What did the Treaty of Rome do in 1957? The Common Agricultural Policy?<br />3. The European Commission consists of what? Whose interests do they represent?<br />4. The Maastricht Treaty sought change in three areas of a United Europe. What were the three areas?<br />5. How many members are there currently in the European Union?<br />
  7. 7. The European Union (EU)<br />Created after WWII<br />EU has gone through several waves of expansion in its scope, membership, and mission over the past 50 years.<br />EU has nearly 500 million citizens.<br />EU nearly equals the U.S. economy in GDP.<br />Pearson Education, Inc. <br />publishing as Longman © 2010<br />
  8. 8. The Vision of a United Europe<br />Europe in 1945 – decimated by war<br />Functionalism in Europe<br />1950 merger of French and German steel and coal industries<br />European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC)<br />Six ECSC states signed treaty in 1952 to create a European Defense Community<br />French parliament failed to ratify the treaty.<br />Britain refused to join.<br />Economic cooperation, but not in political and military affairs<br />Pearson Education, Inc. <br />publishing as Longman © 2010<br />
  9. 9. The Treaty of Rome<br />Six states of the ECSC created two new organizations with the Treaty of Rome (1957)<br />Euratom: the European Atomic Energy community – to coordinate nuclear power development by pooling research, investment, and management.<br />European Economic Community (EEC), renamed the European Community (EC)<br />Pearson Education, Inc. <br />publishing as Longman © 2010<br />
  10. 10. The Treaty of Rome<br />Free-trade areas<br />Lifting tariffs and restrictions on the movement of goods across (EEC) borders <br />Today the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) is an extended free-trade area associated with the EU<br />Customs Union<br />Participating states adopt a unified set of tariffs with regard to goods coming in from outside the free-trade area.<br />Pearson Education, Inc. <br />publishing as Longman © 2010<br />
  11. 11. The Treaty of Rome<br />Common Market<br />Means that in addition to the customs union, member states allow labor and capital (as well as goods) to flow freely across borders.<br />Common Agricultural Policy (CAP)<br />Economic and monetary union (EMU)<br />Overall economic policies of the member states would be coordinated for greatest efficiency and stability.<br />Single currency would replace the separate national currencies now in use.<br />Pearson Education, Inc. <br />publishing as Longman © 2010<br />
  12. 12. The Treaty of Rome<br />Inclusion of poorer countries (Greece, Portugal and Spain) created difficulties in effectively integrating Europe’s economies.<br />With Ireland these considered the “poor four”, but have grown more prosperous.<br />New “poor” members have joined from Eastern Europe<br />Pearson Education, Inc. <br />publishing as Longman © 2010<br />
  13. 13. Structure of the European Union<br />Roots in technical and economic cooperation<br />Eurocrats (technical problem solving) balanced by provisions that uphold the power of states and state leaders.<br />Leaders have qualms about losing power to Eurocrats; citizens worry about accountability.<br />Pearson Education, Inc. <br />publishing as Longman © 2010<br />
  14. 14. Structure of the European Union<br />European Commission<br />Staff of 24,000<br />HQ in Brussels, Belgium<br />Commission has 27 individual members – one from each member state<br />Chosen for 4-year renewable terms<br />Lacks formal autonomous power except for day-to-day EU operations<br />Reports to, and implements policies of, the Council of Ministers<br />Pearson Education, Inc. <br />publishing as Longman © 2010<br />
  15. 15. Figure 10.1<br />Pearson Education, Inc. <br />publishing as Longman © 2010<br />
  16. 16. Structure of the European Union<br />Council of the European Union (formerly Council of Ministers)<br />Meeting of the relevant ministers of each member state – politicians who control the bureaucrats<br />Reflects states’ resistance to yielding sovereignty<br />Voting system is based on each state’s population, but in practice it operates by consensus on major policy issues.<br />Has a rotating presidency (with limited power)<br />European Council (1970s)<br />Pearson Education, Inc. <br />publishing as Longman © 2010<br />
  17. 17. Structure of the European Union<br />European Parliament<br />Falls somewhat short of a true legislature passing laws for all of Europe<br />At present, it operates partly as a watchdog over the Commission, but with some power to legislate.<br />Must approve the Commission’s budget but no item by item control.<br />Shares power with the Council under a “co-decision procedure.”<br />Economic and Social Committee<br />European Court of Justice (Luxembourg)<br />Pearson Education, Inc. <br />publishing as Longman © 2010<br />
  18. 18. The Single European Act<br />First major revision of the Treaty of Rome<br />1985 act began a new phase of accelerated integration <br />Europe 1992 due to target date set<br />Centered on 300 directives from the European Commission<br />Push for European Central Bank<br />Moved economic integration into more political and controversial areas<br />Hollowing out/eroding the state from below and above<br />Pearson Education, Inc. <br />publishing as Longman © 2010<br />
  19. 19. The Maastricht Treaty<br />Renamed the EC as the EU and committed it to further progress in three main areas:<br />Monetary union<br />Justice and home affairs<br />Political and military integration<br />Controversial<br />Pearson Education, Inc. <br />publishing as Longman © 2010<br />
  20. 20. The Maastricht Treaty<br />Ratification - complicated and slow<br />Has begun to reshape political economy at a global level<br />Political and military integration more problematic<br />Struggle between nationalism and supranationalism<br />Pearson Education, Inc. <br />publishing as Longman © 2010<br />
  21. 21. Monetary Union<br />A European currency, the euro, has replaced national currencies in 16 EU members, as mandated in the Maastricht process.<br />Came into full circulation in 2002; national currencies ceased to exist<br />Difficulties: equalization among state economies<br />Main solution adopted was to restrict membership in the monetary union, at least in the first round, to only those countries with enough economic stability not to jeopardize the union.<br />Hard choices by states; Britain, Denmark, and Sweden opted to retain their national currencies<br />Pearson Education, Inc. <br />publishing as Longman © 2010<br />
  22. 22. Monetary Union<br />Breaking the rules<br />Germany and France’s budget deficits over those allowed by the rules<br />Greece falsified economic data needed to be admitted<br />Latvia’s government lost power within six months of joining the EU due to unpopular budget cuts<br />Difficult birth, given it was the largest financial overhaul ever attempted in history, and in its first five years was deemed very successful.<br />Pearson Education, Inc. <br />publishing as Longman © 2010<br />
  23. 23. Expanding the European Union<br />Success has attracted neighboring states who wish to join.<br />EU has expanded from 15 members to 27 since 2004<br />Spain and Portugal, 1986 (11th and 12th members)<br />Austria, Sweden, and Finland (1995)<br />Norway applied to join and was accepted, but its citizens voted down the idea in 1994.<br />Switzerland’s plans to join were halted by a popular referendum in the early 1990s.<br />Pearson Education, Inc. <br />publishing as Longman © 2010<br />
  24. 24. Expanding the European Union<br />Current expansion guided by the 2000 Treaty of Nice<br />10 new members joined in 2004<br />Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, and Cyprus<br />Expanded to 25 members<br />Without the five largest having two seats<br />New voting rules that move away from a requirement for consensus<br />2007, Romania and Bulgaria entered the EU, bringing the total to 27<br />Unlike previous members, Britain and Ireland imposed work restrictions on citizens of new 2007 members <br />Turkey continues to seek membership<br />Would be the only Muslim country in the EU<br />Would bring workers, growth, bridge to the Middle East<br />Some fear immigration<br />Would be the poorest member; worry about costs of social programs, etc.<br />Cyprus- removal of Turkism military forces<br />Inner and outer layers<br />Pearson Education, Inc. <br />publishing as Longman © 2010<br />
  25. 25. Figure 10.2<br />Pearson Education, Inc. <br />publishing as Longman © 2010<br />
  26. 26. Expanding the European Union<br />EU Constitution (late 2004 signed by 25 leaders)<br />To establish a stronger president of the EU and a foreign minister, to represent Europe as a global superpower in world affairs, majority vote rather than consensus in more cases<br />France and Netherlands rejected<br />Lisbon Treaty – new proposed constitution<br />Rejected by Ireland in 2008, but will hold another vote<br />Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE0)<br />Operates by consensus<br />Pearson Education, Inc. <br />publishing as Longman © 2010<br />