Urban planning and development rajendrapsharma

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This document was used to teach to the students at the Center for Underdevelopment Studies at Kathmandu, Nepal by Rajendra P Sharma

This document was used to teach to the students at the Center for Underdevelopment Studies at Kathmandu, Nepal by Rajendra P Sharma

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  • 1. Introductory Class Rajendra P Sharma, August 15, 2009 [email_address]
  • 2. DEVS 401: Urban Planning & Development (3 credits)
  • 3. Objective to familiarize about the basic concept of urban planning and development and implication in the process of development with reference to Nepal
  • 4. Background Information
  • 5. ASCI Conference Background Information: World view
    • Cities, Towns or urban centers: are they burden or blessing?
    • The world is about to leave its rural past behind: by 2008, for the first time, more than half of the glob’s population, 3.3 billions, living in urban area
    • Social contradiction in growing in cities: speed of cultural change
    • The space taken up by urban localities increasing faster than urban population, the expected increasement in 2000-2030:
        • world urban population by 72%
        • built areas of cities of 100000 people or more by 175%
        • Recent satellite imagery shows all urban sites covers 2.8% land, meaning 3.3 billions occupying area slightly smaller than Japan
    Cont ...
  • 6.
    • urban population will grow up to 4.9 billion by 2030 , while rural population will decreased by 28 million
    • doubling the urban population in few decades in LDCs
    • slum dwellers: 90% in developing world , China India alone: 37%
    • local actions, global consequences: global change local impact
    • rates of urbanization: 30% in 1950, 47% in 2000, 50% in 2007
    • urban centers are central to access markets and employment .
    • urban centers have importance for providing access to services, rule of law, fulfillment of civic rights: but this is often overlooked
    Background information World view cont
  • 7. Background Information: changing role of cities
    • de-bordering’ of national and local economies
    • contest global markets’
    • cities as centers of innovation, and learning
    • widening inequalities
    • growing mismatch between jobs, housing and transit
    • inequality and marginalization
    • urban violence and exclusion
    • fewer resources to deal with greater problems
  • 8. Defining urban area
    • Urban and Rural character
      • Economic activity and livelihood
      • Population Density and composition
      • Infrastructure and services; and resources
      • Market, institutions
      • Culture, civilization and innovation
      • Concentration of population: economic, social and political implications (higher per capita productivity; Political process and participation)
      • Resource consumption and pollution emission
  • 9. Defining urban area
    • Acceptable basis: Density, Contiguity, occupational structure
    • Criteria used in Nepal
      • 1952 census: prominent settlement, ≥5000 population
      • 1961 census: Urban environment, ≥ 5000 population
      • Municipal Act 1962: Urban environment, ≥ 10,000 population
      • LSGA 1999: Metropolitan City (≥ 300,000; NPR 400 m revenue; Urban facilities; already sub-metropolitan); Sub-metropolitan (≥ 100,000; NPR 100 m revenue; Urban facilities; already Municipality);, Municipality ( Tarai ≥ 20,000; NPR 5 m revenue; Urban facilities), Municipality ( Hill ≥ 10,000; NPR 500,000 revenue; Urban facilities)
  • 10. Background Information
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  • 19. Urban Issues
      • Individualism
      • Ineffective service delivery
      • Low social security (disable, old)
      • Resources/opportunities hold by Elites
      • Exploitation of natural resources by elite and victimization of poor
      • Discrimination in terms of gender, caste, class, race, ethnicity
      • Unemployment
      • Frustration
  • 20. Urban Concerns Total 1,350 t/ day: Kathmandu 383 t/day Per capita per day 0.34 kg (vary 0.11 to 0.93 kg) Solid waste Air pollution Emerging issue in major towns: vehicular/industrial emission, waste burning, adulterated fuel. Kathmandu Foggy days increased : 38 d/y (1970) to 60 d/ y (1994) Indoor air pollution in smaller towns: (biomass fuel) Health impacts: ARI, Pneumonia, Bronchitis, Asthma Congestion Urban roads : narrow, poor network function, lacks parking Deficiency in planning and provision: Increase in vehicles not matched by provision of roads and infrastructure Mix traffic types, poor driving, bad parking, roadside trading add to traffic congestion Impact: travel time, air/noise, fuel consumption
  • 21. Hidden Urban Problems
      • Drug addicts
      • Domestic Violence
      • Isolation of youth, family instability
      • Increasing number of street children
      • Large number of school dropout (age 15-20)
      • Health care/Social Security System
    Self Society Family Sexual abuse of worker Gender violence
  • 22. In this context: First step is to ask questions
      • Are the existing cities safe & just?
      • Are we moving forward ?
    • If YES…
    • If NOT we need to start here……
  • 23. Second and the last…….
    • The most important step may be review that,
    • “ What we gets done!” and, What and how we get measured ?
      • are we doing, alone? Or in partnership? Or in collaboration? and
      • What are the indicators?
      • So on……….So on.
  • 24.
    • Where we are?
    • Where we want to go?
    • And,
    • What should we do……….now? For better future?
    • How we want to do?
    • Ensuring the required resources ………
    Planning and Development is simply questioning and finding the answers - - - - ?
  • 25. Urbanization is the physical growth of urban areas from rural areas as a result of population immigration to an existing urban area. Effects include change in density and administration services. While the exact definition and population size of urbanized areas varies among different countries, urbanization is attributed to growth of cities. Urbanization is also defined by the United Nations as movement of people from rural to urban areas with population growth equating to urban migration. The UN has projected that half of the world's population would live in urban areas at the end of 2008 Urbanization
  • 26. Urban planning is concerned with the ordering and design of settlements, from the smallest towns to the world's largest cities. Urban, city, and town planning is the integration of the disciplines of land use planning and transport planning , to explore a very wide range of aspects of the built and social environments of urbanized municipalities and communities. Regional planning deals with a still larger environment, at a less detailed level.
  • 27. Thank you for your Attention !!!