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Urban governance [compatibility mode]


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A Presentation on urban governance !

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Urban governance [compatibility mode]

  1. 1. Urban governance Tools to Support Transparency in Local Governance Urban governance Tools to Support Transparency in Local Governance Rajendra P Sharma, 1 Rajendra P Sharma Rajendra P Sharma
  2. 2. The context and challengeThe context and challenge Global trend towards urbanisation Increasing poverty and insecurity Unsustainable urbanization patterns requiring preventive and adaptive approaches Rajendra P Sharma, 2 Limited local government implementation capacity is main bottleneck New approach to ‘good governance’ Local authorities as ‘enablers’ Emphasis on partnership for service delivery Focus on inclusiveness of access to city benefits and decision making Promising innovations, but need to scale up
  3. 3. The missing linkThe missing link “The key ingredient to realizing more inclusive cities is neither money nor technology, nor even expertise or legislative change (although Rajendra P Sharma, 3 even expertise or legislative change (although all these are important), but good urban governance.” The Global Campaign on Urban Governance, Concept Paper, 2nd Edition, March 2002
  4. 4. “Urban governance is the sum of the many ways individuals and institutions, public and private, plan and manage the common affairs of the city. Local Government Civil Society Private Sector It is a continuing process through which conflicting or diverse interests may be accommodated and cooperative action can be taken. It includes formal institutions as well as informal arrangements and the social capital of citizens.”
  5. 5. Principles of Good Urban GovernancePrinciples of Good Urban Governance Sustainability Subsidiary Equity Rajendra P Sharma, 5 Equity Efficiency Transparency and Accountability Civic Engagement and Citizenship Security
  6. 6. Urban Governance ToolUrban Governance Tool Participatory Urban Decision Making Transparency in Urban Governance Rajendra P Sharma, 7 Participatory Budgeting Local-to-Local Dialogues Urban Governance approaches
  7. 7. Conflict Management Participatory Budgeting Local-to-Local Dialogues Commercialization of Services Local Government Municipal Front Office Independent Audit Debt Management Disclosure of Assets Local Leadership Training Vulnerability Assessment Building NGO/CBO Capacity Civil Society Code of Ethics for Professional Associations Private Sector Urban Governance Index Urban Poverty Profile Urban Bribery Index City Consultation Urban Pact Report Cards Local-to-Local Dialogues
  8. 8. Participatory Urban Decision IV: Follow Up and Consolidation •Monitoring Tools •Programme Evaluation •Institutionalisation I: Preparatory and Stakeholder Mobilsation •Municipal Checklist •Stakeholder Analysis •Profiling •Vulnerability Assessment •Gender Responsive Tools The Participatory Process and Tools Feedback Decision Making III: Strategy Formulation and Implementation •Action Planning •Programme Formulation •Demonstration Project •MIS •Conflict Resolution II: Issue Prioritisation and Stakeholder Commitment •Proposition Paper •Facilitation •City Consultation •Stakeholder Working Group
  9. 9. Expected Development OutcomesExpected Development Outcomes More equitable and effective service delivery Increased accountability, civic engagement Enhanced legitimacy of local government Rajendra P Sharma, 10 Enhanced legitimacy of local government Improved policy design and implementation Greater resources from stakeholders Increased urban investment Reduced corruption
  10. 10. Transparency Tool: Intervention StrategiesTransparency Tool: Intervention Strategies Assessment and Monitoring: understanding the degree of transparency in local governance, while creating a base-line against which progress in improving transparency can be measured; Access to information: measures to improve stakeholders’ access to information; Rajendra P Sharma, 11 information; Ethics and integrity: tools for clarifying what is expected from professionals and elected leaders; Institutional reforms: including both administrative procedures and structural innovations; Targeting specific issues: using specific issues as an entry-point for improving transparency.
  11. 11. Tool on Transparency to include tools such as…Tool on Transparency to include tools such as… Municipal Checklist Transparent Procurement Procedures Codes of Conduct Rajendra P Sharma, 12 Codes of Conduct Public Hearings Independent Audits
  12. 12. Can local government make a difference?Can local government make a difference? Some researchers suggest that local governments have to follow neo-liberal agenda and cannot adopt localized social policies in the face of global economic forces (Sassen, Hall) Others researchers contend that local government policies can make Rajendra P Sharma, 13 Others researchers contend that local government policies can make a difference through a range of measures: institutional development, accountability, representation, reducing corruption (Cavill, Devas, Hasan et al.; Douglass) Local governments cannot go it alone: they have to work with other levels of government and international agencies to be effective – metropolitan governance (A. Scott)
  13. 13. Institutional developmentInstitutional development Local governments need to make their policies transparent and available to citizens (using e-governance and ‘right to information’ measures) Local governments need to put their financial house in order: collecting taxes and other revenues effectively Building staff capacity Rajendra P Sharma, 14 Building staff capacity Using accountancy methods that show capital investment as well as cash flows Local governments need to streamline their regulations and enforce them effectively (illegal building not confined to slums) Local governments need to provide services effectively Local governments need financing for investment in infrastructure
  14. 14. Accountability and Participatory governanceAccountability and Participatory governance Local governments work with ward-level representatives within cities Local governments have privatized basic services, but often lose effective control over them in doing so; they need to be able to make private providers accountable to themselves and to citizens Local governments work more in ‘partnerships’ with citizen groups; Rajendra P Sharma, 15 Local governments work more in ‘partnerships’ with citizen groups; ranging from participatory budgeting, implementation of services, monitoring activities; context is influential in determining which ‘citizens’ voices’ are heard middle-class citizens organize themselves strongly for their own agendas and confront government directly Poor households have little voice, and work through political ‘leaders’ to gain more voice; leaders may have their own agendas
  15. 15. Governance models .Governance models . Network governance Market governance Hierarchical governance Basic principle Reciprocity Commercial Exchange Political and Administrative Power Rajendra P Sharma, 16 Coordination principle Collaboration Price Rules Roles of government Govt. as partner Govt. as enabler, Setting standard and contracting out Central ruler (different levels) Key values Collaborative decisions on distribution issues consumer choice Public goods
  16. 16. E-governanceE-governance Assumptions: increase of • Efficiency • Revenues • Accountability • Transparency Rajendra P Sharma, 17 • Transparency • Reduce corruptions • Learning But Exclusionary or participatory?
  17. 17. Untapped potentialUntapped potential Geographical information systems Matching thematic information to localities Visualization of spatial patterns and trends Rajendra P Sharma, 18 Visualization of spatial patterns and trends Overlay of different sources of information => Knowledge integration and monitoring
  18. 18. Lessons learnedLessons learned political context – tensions between executive and legislative wings of local bodies? Private sector influences in the background Municipal finance and participatory budgeting; strong differences in budget allocated Effects – less tax avoidance, avoided costs through contributions in kind by citizens method of participation – 2-7% of total population in direct participation; Rajendra P Sharma, 19 method of participation – 2-7% of total population in direct participation; representative participation through CBOs/CSOs ; area-based participation priorities’: investment moves to excluded areas Role of professionals (researchers, NGOs, universities) – from ‘experts’ to ‘resource persons’ Avoiding political bureacratization?
  19. 19. ConclusionsConclusions Cities and their governments more important as ‘new state space’ Urban poverty needs to be recognized as multi-dimensional deprivations City governments need to strengthen their own capacity and link up with other scale levels of government – metropolitan governance Rajendra P Sharma, 20 with other scale levels of government – metropolitan governance and city-to-city networks, and trans-national urban governance networks Diversity of citizens’ identities and interests made explicit, so that inequalities do not grow further Participatory models can support redistributive urban policies Urban research is necessary to analyze government – private links