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Urban planning presentation 01

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Urban planning, Smart city, living environment

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Urban planning presentation 01

  1. 1. URBAN PLANNING Sustainable development Halima A Othman , Architect Engineer , Urban Planner , Assistant lecturer, University of Zakho , Petroleum Department
  2. 2. Definition History Theory Aspects Practice Impacts Halima A Othman , Architect Engineer , Urban Planner , Assistant lecturer, University of Zakho , Petroleum Department
  3. 3. By whom ?????? For whom ?????? Where ????? When ????? What for ????? Halima A Othman , Architect Engineer , Urban Planner , Assistant lecturer, University of Zakho , Petroleum Department
  4. 4. Which process ????? Which scale ?????? How long duration?????? Halima A Othman , Architect Engineer , Urban Planner , Assistant lecturer, University of Zakho , Petroleum Department
  5. 5. Urban Planning:- design and regulation of the uses of space that focus on the physical form, economic functions, and social impacts of the urban environment and on the location of different activities within it. involving goal setting, data collection and analysis, forecasting, design, strategic thinking, and public consultation. Three actors have main role in urban planning • The decision-makers • The technicians • The users DEFINITION Halima A Othman , Architect Engineer , Urban Planner , Assistant lecturer, University of Zakho , Petroleum Department
  6. 6. The first recorded description of urban planning is described in the Epic of Gilgamesh, Designed cities were characteristic of the Minoan, Mesopotamian, Harrapan, and Egyptian civilizations of the third millennium BC. HISTORY Halima A Othman , Architect Engineer , Urban Planner , Assistant lecturer, University of Zakho , Petroleum Department
  7. 7. “Hippodamus invented the vision of cities" Aristotle. therefore he was called the father of Urban planning 5th century BC. ideal cities centrally planned in the 15th century, in 1876 the term urbanization posed by Ildefons Cerdà due to re construction processes Classical and Medieval Europe followed by Renaissance&Enlightenment Halima A Othman , Architect Engineer , Urban Planner , Assistant lecturer, University of Zakho , Petroleum Department
  8. 8. Planning and architecture went through a paradigm shift at the turn of the 20th century. The industrialized cities of the 19th century had grown at a tremendous rate, with the pace and style of building largely dictated by private business concerns. The evils of urban life for the working poor were becoming increasingly evident as a matter for public concern Modern urban planning Halima A Othman , Architect Engineer , Urban Planner , Assistant lecturer, University of Zakho , Petroleum Department
  9. 9. Howard wanted to design an alternative to the overcrowded and polluted industrial cities of the turn of the century, and his solution centered on creating smaller “garden cities” (with 32,000 people each) in the country linked by canals and transit and set in a permanent greenbelt. The Garden City by Ebenezer Howard Halima A Othman , Architect Engineer , Urban Planner , Assistant lecturer, University of Zakho , Petroleum Department
  10. 10. Le Corbusier’s envisioned building up, not out. His plan, also known as “Towers in the Park,” proposed exactly that: numerous high-rise buildings each surrounded by green space.”) Modernism, Le Corbusier’s Radiant City Halima A Othman , Architect Engineer , Urban Planner , Assistant lecturer, University of Zakho , Petroleum Department
  11. 11. The Street Grid, By Frank Lloyd Wright The simple, rational street grid has been a default choice of planners for industrial centuries, By Frank Lloyd Wright in 1950s Halima A Othman , Architect Engineer , Urban Planner , Assistant lecturer, University of Zakho , Petroleum Department
  12. 12. Planners increasingly talk today about issues involving transportation, the economy and the environment not at the scale of communities or cities, but within whole regions where multiple metros link together. Principles enforced like:- • Setback principle so that daylight would still reach the streets below. • Transect used by planners as a visual tool to divide landscapes into multiple uses The Megaregion Halima A Othman , Architect Engineer , Urban Planner , Assistant lecturer, University of Zakho , Petroleum Department
  13. 13. Reaction , New Urbanism By the late 1960s and early 1970s, many planners felt that modernism's clean lines and lack of human scale sapped vitality from the community, blaming them for high crime rates and social problem. Various current movements in urban design seek to create sustainable urban environments with long-lasting structures, buildings and a great livability for its inhabitants. The most clearly defined form of walkable urbanism is known as the Charter of New Urbanism. reducing sprawl and supporting sustainable transport. Mixing instead of separating uses Creating Sustainable Places of lasting economic, social, cultural, and environmental value and The public participation Halima A Othman , Architect Engineer , Urban Planner , Assistant lecturer, University of Zakho , Petroleum Department
  14. 14. Urban Sprawl Halima A Othman , Architect Engineer , Urban Planner , Assistant lecturer, University of Zakho , Petroleum Department
  15. 15. Slum, Informal settlements Halima A Othman , Architect Engineer , Urban Planner , Assistant lecturer, University of Zakho , Petroleum Department
  16. 16. Climate change , The Hockey Stick “The idea that there’s a connection between the shape of cities and the patterns of settlement and their climate impact is so powerful.” by climate scientist Michael Mann Halima A Othman , Architect Engineer , Urban Planner , Assistant lecturer, University of Zakho , Petroleum Department
  17. 17. Planners argue that modern lifestyles use too many natural resources, polluting or destroying ecosystems, increasing social inequality, creating urban heat islands, and causing climate change. Many urban planners, therefore, advocate sustainable cities The term sustainable development came to represent an ideal outcome in the sum of urban planning goals. Sustainability refers to “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” Halima A Othman , Architect Engineer , Urban Planner , Assistant lecturer, University of Zakho , Petroleum Department SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
  18. 18. 1. Compact 2. Efficient land use and recourses 3. Less automobile use, Better access 4. Less pollution & Less waste 5. Restoration of Ecosystem 6. Good housing and living environments 7. Healthy social ecology 8. Sustainable economy 9. Community participation, Involvement 10. Preservation of local culture & Wisdom Halima A Othman , Architect Engineer , Urban Planner , Assistant lecturer, University of Zakho , Petroleum Department
  19. 19. Planning theory is generally called procedural because it generally concerns itself with the process through which planning occurs and whether or not that process is valid, they relate to public participation. 1. Rational planning 2. Synoptic planning 3. Participatory Planning 4. Mixed scanning model 5. Advocacy planning 6. Bargaining model 7. Communicative approach URBAN PLANNING THEORIES Halima A Othman , Architect Engineer , Urban Planner , Assistant lecturer, University of Zakho , Petroleum Department
  20. 20. URBAN PLANNING PROCCESSES BOTTOMUP??? TOPDOWN????? Sustainable Urban Planning Halima A Othman , Architect Engineer , Urban Planner , Assistant lecturer, University of Zakho , Petroleum Department
  21. 21. URBAN PLANNING PROCCESSES Halima A Othman , Architect Engineer , Urban Planner , Assistant lecturer, University of Zakho , Petroleum Department
  22. 22. Rational planning The rational planning movement emphasized the improvement of the built environment based on key spatial factors. Examples of these factors include:- • Exposure to direct sunlight • Movement of vehicular traffic • Standardized housing units • Proximity to green-space Public participation was first introduced it focused in four elements:- • goals and targets • Quantitative analysis for env. • Identify alternative policy options • the evaluation of means ends Synoptic Planning Halima A Othman , Architect Engineer , Urban Planner , Assistant lecturer, University of Zakho , Petroleum Department
  23. 23. Advocacy planning Public participation is a central tenet of this model. A plurality of public interests is assumed, and the role of planner is essentially the one who either advocates directly for underrepresented groups directly or encourages them to become part of the process. The most interesting part of this theory of planning is that makes public participation the central dynamic in the decision- making process. Decisions are made first and foremost by the public, and the planner plays a more minor role. Bargaining Planning Halima A Othman , Architect Engineer , Urban Planner , Assistant lecturer, University of Zakho , Petroleum Department
  24. 24. Communicative approach Participation plays a central role under this model. The model seeks to include as a broad range of voice to enhance the debate and negotiation that is supposed to form the core of actual plan making. In this model, participation is actually fundamental to the planning process happening. Without the involvement of concerned interests there is no planning.
  25. 25. • Aesthetics • Safety and security • Infrastructure • Environmental factors • Green spaces • Transport • Slums • Decay • Reconstruction and renewal • New master-planned cities • Scope of zoning act URBAN PLANNING ASPECTS Halima A Othman , Architect Engineer , Urban Planner , Assistant lecturer, University of Zakho , Petroleum Department
  26. 26. Aesthetics The most beautiful are the result of dense, long lasting systems of prohibitions and guidance about building sizes, uses and features. These allowed substantial freedoms, yet enforce styles, safety, and often materials in practical ways. Many conventional planning techniques are being repackaged using the contemporary term SMART GROWTH. Cities have often grown onto coastal and flood plains at risk of floods and storm surges. Urban planners must consider these threats. Extreme weather, flood, secure emergency evacuation routes and emergency operations centers. Many cities will also have planned, built safety features, such as levees, retaining walls, and shelters. Some city planners try to control criminality with designed structures. Safety and Security Halima A Othman , Architect Engineer , Urban Planner , Assistant lecturer, University of Zakho , Petroleum Department
  27. 27. Infrastructure Mainly represented by access:- • clean drinking water • Swage system • Disposal system • Electricity The Smart Growth seeks to:- • Improve quality • Reduce the cost • Reduce the co2 Environmental protection and conservation are of utmost importance to many planning systems across the world. Not only are the specific effects of development to be mitigated, but attempts are made to minimize the overall effect of development on the local and global environment. This is commonly done through the assessment of Sustainable urban infrastructure and microclimate. Environmental factors Halima A Othman , Architect Engineer , Urban Planner , Assistant lecturer, University of Zakho , Petroleum Department
  28. 28. Green spaces Urban open space is often appreciated for the recreational opportunities it provides. Recreation in urban open space may include active recreation (such as organized sports and individual exercise) or passive recreation, which may simply entail being in the open space. Time spent in an urban open space for recreation offers a reprieve from the urban environment. Transport within urbanized areas presents unique problems. The density of an urban environment increases traffic, which can harm businesses and increase pollution unless properly managed. Parking space for private vehicles requires the construction of large parking garages in high density areas. This space could often be more valuable for other development. Transportation Halima A Othman , Architect Engineer , Urban Planner , Assistant lecturer, University of Zakho , Petroleum Department
  29. 29. PRACTICE OF URBAN PLANNING New master-planned cities In the 21st Century, countries in Asia and the Middle-East have embarked on plans to build brand new large cities. Masdar City, a new city in UAE, cost $18 billion. Many of these new cities are built to use new technologies such as District cooling and automatic waste collection in GIFT City or Personal Rapid Transit in Masdar City. Saudi Arabia is building 5 new cities to control congestion and sprawl in existing cities. While India is building 7 new cities to provide space and facilities that are missing in existing cities, such as cycling paths, parks and public transport within a 10 minute walk to every office and home Halima A Othman , Architect Engineer , Urban Planner , Assistant lecturer, University of Zakho , Petroleum Department
  30. 30. AL Masder City Halima A Othman , Architect Engineer , Urban Planner , Assistant lecturer, University of Zakho , Petroleum Department
  31. 31. Gujarat International Finance Tec‐City, GIFT City Halima A Othman , Architect Engineer , Urban Planner , Assistant lecturer, University of Zakho , Petroleum Department
  32. 32. • National level 1. Policy making 2. Strategic objectives • Regional level 1. Land act 2. Regional plans, Transportation • Municipal level 1. Land development plan 2. Land use plan 3. Master plan URBAN PLANNING LEVELS Halima A Othman , Architect Engineer , Urban Planner , Assistant lecturer, University of Zakho , Petroleum Department
  33. 33. This International Standard defines and establishes definitions and methodologies for a set of indicators to steer and measure the performance of city services and quality of life. Quantitative, qualitative or descriptive sets of measurements and metrics that provide a globally standardized set of definitions and methodologies. This International Standard is applicable to any city, municipality or local government that undertakes to measure its performance in a comparable and verifiable manner, irrespective of size and location or level of development THE ISO INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ON CITY INDICATOR Halima A Othman , Architect Engineer , Urban Planner , Assistant lecturer, University of Zakho , Petroleum Department
  34. 34. Person’s happiness needs to be more important than achieving efficient and convenient smart city. An essential issue for achieving human centered smart city. Urban planning Impacts Dose Smart cities make people happier ? Halima A Othman , Architect Engineer , Urban Planner , Assistant lecturer, University of Zakho , Petroleum Department
  35. 35. kids who cycled or walked to school, rather than traveling by car or public transportation, performed measurably better on tasks demanding concentration, such as solving puzzles, and that the effects lasted for up to four hours after they got to school. According to the results of a Danish study Dose Smart cities make children smarter? Urban planning Impacts Halima A Othman , Architect Engineer , Urban Planner , Assistant lecturer, University of Zakho , Petroleum Department
  36. 36. Criminality control, theories say that an urban environment can influence individuals' obedience to social rules and level of power. Dose Smart cities control criminality? Urban planning Impacts Halima A Othman , Architect Engineer , Urban Planner , Assistant lecturer, University of Zakho , Petroleum Department
  37. 37. 1. HELSINKI — ASPECTS OF URBAN DEVELOPMENT AND PLANNING, Bernhard BUTZIN, GeoJournal, Vol. 2, No. 1, Urban Development (1978), pp. 11-26 2. 3. Hippodamus and the Planned City, Alfred Burns, Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte, Published by: Franz Steiner Verlag, Article Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4435519 4. 5. Traditions and Transitions in Israel Studies: Books on Israel, Volume VI, Laura Zittrain Eisenberg, Neil Caplan?, Naomi B. Sokoloff?, Mohammed Abu-Nimer 6. 7. AEA11 2013. Envisioning Architecture: Design, Evaluation, Communication, Eugenio Morello, Barbara E.A. Piga, National-level Planning in Democratic Countries: An International Comparison, R. Alterman? 8. Spatial Development and Spatial Planning in Germany , Federal Office for Building and Regional Planning Deichmannsaue 31-37 D-53179 Bon. 9. WCCD and ISO 37120 Indicators for city services and quality of life, Professor Patricia McCarney President & CEO, World Council on City Data Director, Global Cities Institute, University of Toronto 10. urban planning -- Encyclopedia Britannica.htm 11. Planning - Sepro Technologies.htm 12. Resources on Urban Planning and Management.htm 13. Urban planning - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.htm
  38. 38. THANK YOU Halima A Othman , Architect Engineer , Urban Planner , Assistant lecturer, University of Zakho , Petroleum Department

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