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group climate, listening

group climate, listening

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  • 1. What’s the weather like? Look out the window! • How do you feel looking out this window? • Is it inviting? • Do you want to go out and enjoy the weather?
  • 2. What’s the weather like? Look out the window! • How do you feel looking out this window? • Is it inviting? • Do want to go out and enjoy the weather?
  • 3. Chapter 5 – Managing Group/ Team Communication Ch. 5 - Improving Group Climate Climate – Each group, class, team has a climate…like weather. (Many factors such as temperature, air pressure, latitude, bodies of water affect what the day is like. ) •Climate affects your desire to engage in certain activities. •Group Climate consists of a variety of factors interact to create a group feeling or atmosphere. It involves: •Behaviors that foster defensive and supportive climates, which you examined in your take home questions. •The way in which group members respond to each each other (It is it disconfirming or confirming, which you examined in your take home questions.)
  • 4. How would you describe your group Climate? • Clear, warm, and breezy • Humid, hot, and uncomfortable • Cold and rainy • Party cloudy and cool • Rainy • Snowy • Thunderstorms • Sunny, no clouds, • Other?
  • 5. Chapter 5 – Managing Group/ Team Communication Ch. 5 - Improving Group Climate
  • 6. Chapter 5 – Managing Group/ Team Communication The more group members equally talk to each other, as opposed to singling a particular person, the more productive, more accurate, better goal attainment and task performance.
  • 7. Chapter 5 – Managing Group/ Team Communication Ch. 5 – Other patterns Leader centered – person centered. These patterns are more efficient – creating more cohesion. Less satisfaction, if members want more involvement Circular – people talk to people to their sides, across from them, or go around the circle
  • 8. Chapter 5 – Managing Group/ Team Communication The more group members equally talk to each other, as opposed to singling a particular person, the more productive, more accurate, better goal attainment and task performance.
  • 9. Chapter 5 – Managing Group/ Team Communication Ch. 5 - Improving Group Climate • Group Size – Three or more makes a group, but groups of 5 to 7 make the best groups. The Right size: • More involvement • Small enough to encourage involvement, but large enough for flow of ideas • More satisfaction with involvement and decisions
  • 10. Chapter 5 – Managing Group/ Team Communication Ch. 5 - Improving Group Climate The wrong size: •Less satisfaction when groups are too big •Less involvement when groups are too big •Group members efforts decrease when groups are too big
  • 11. Principles of Verbal Messages Messages can confirm and disconfirm  Disconfirmation – ignores the other person’s presence and communication; leads to lowered self-esteem  Rejection – disagree or reject the person’s ideas or behaviors but still recognize the person  Confirmation – acknowledges and accepts the other person; leads to increased self-esteem Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  • 12. Principles of Verbal Messages Offensive communication is disconfirming     Language reflects and creates attitudes Intentional or unintentional Individual -isms Institutional -isms Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  • 13. What are your barriers to Effective Listening? Q: Have you ever experienced or done any of the following? • Made fun of clothes, food, or physical appearance of people from other cultures • Told jokes directed against people from a particular culture • Said something or someone was ‘retarded.’ • Used insulting language about particular cultural groups • Made fun of a person’s accents or names • Favored students form some backgrounds more than others • Expected students from some cultures or linguistic groups to do better or worse than others • Not respected people’s different religious beliefs • Said ‘that is so gay.”
  • 14. Principles of Verbal Messages Offensive language is disconfirming  Ableism – against people with disabilities  Racism – assumption of inferiority  Heterosexism – includes assuming that everyone is heterosexual Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  • 15. Principles of Verbal Messages Offensive language is disconfirming (cont.)  Ageism – toward elderly but includes other ages  Sexism – gender-biased language includes such as “generic he” “you guys” “mankind”  Biased listening – listening to support your point of view Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  • 16. Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  • 17. “We have two ears and one mouth so that we can listen twice as much as we speak.”
  • 18. “Listening Habits That Irritate Me.” 1. The other person interrupts me when I talk. 2. The other person doesn't’t look at me when I talk, so I am not sure if he or she is listening. 3. The other person talks down to me. 4. The other person does distracting things when talking to me (texting, picking fingernails, cleaning glasses, fidgeting with pencils, looking at watch, etc.) Other:?
  • 19. How we communicate
  • 20. Consider your day! You listen: •At home •At work •At school •With friends •With family Q: How much do you really hear? Professionals listen: •Doctors •Lawyers •Contractors •Management Q: How much do they really hear?
  • 21. Listening to Succeed We are a nation of poor listeners! Sperry Rand Corporation estimates that every year (if) 100 million workers in the United States – made a $100 error because of a listening mistake, The cost to United States = $1 billion. Immediately after hearing a message, most people retain 50% of content. Two months later most people remember 25% of content. Interesting research, Nichols (University of Minnesota) found 95% out of 100% males better listeners than females.
  • 22. The Importance of Listening Listening can change lives: According to researcher Phyllis Kemp in an article “Are you Listening?” •Sensitive listening can change your life and those around you. •You will be respected by teachers, co-workers, and your parents, bosses, and more! People who are listened to are: •Less likely to get upset when there is a problem or conflict. •Can become more mature, more democratic, more open to personal experience and less defensive. Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  • 23. Types of Listening: Hearing Most of us are all born with the ability to hear • People who have hearing challenges receive messages visually through writing, lip reading, and American Sign Language (ASL). Before ASL there was Helen Keller Sign Language.
  • 24. The Process of Listening (cont.) Stage 1: Receiving or Attending – the physiological, passive process of hearing vibrations around you. (External and internal stimuli compete for our attention. ) • • Hearing is being aware of sound generated by the environment. Listening is understanding - a skill which allows us to interpret those sounds that create meaning. Scenarios: • A baby crying. • Breaks squealing from a car. • A police siren. • Or a crash in the kitchen. Listening: Based on the type of cry from the baby, or the length of the siren, or sound of the crash in the kitchen – all might mean there is trouble, which has meaning to us. Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  • 25. The Process of Listening (cont.) Stage 1: Receiving Determining factors: 1)The immediate importance of the stimulus – Do we attend or filter it out (baby crying, police siren, someone chocking) 2)Our related experiences (we hear what we expect to hear and filter out most of the rest.) 3)Emotional state (can adversely effective selection of stimuli ) fill in. Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  • 26. The Process of Listening (cont.) Stage 2: Hearing (listening) Understanding - you learn what the speaker’s thoughts and emotions mean •Listening involves thinking – molding ideas we hear into language symbols. Four kinds of thinking when putting together aural messages. •Concept formation – integrating many concepts in the listening process. •Problem solving - manipulate symbols of thought and feeling to reach a certain goal (such as listening in economics) •Creative thinking – Unconsciously rearrange language and thought into symbols and use imagery to achieve goals •Reasoning – Directing thought to according to set of well defined logic (Replace careless listening habits with productive techniques.) Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  • 27. Listening (cont.) Stage 3: Remembering – Retaining (Effective communication depends on this.) Important: You remember not what was said, but what you remember was said. Memory is reconstructive, not reproductive – You construct message that makes sense to your. Short term memory - is the storage of data for a few seconds Long term memory – stores the data for hours, days, years or even a lifetime. (this is not part of the listening process, but the result of perceptive listening.) Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  • 28. The Process of Listening (cont.) Stage 4: Evaluating – consciously or unconsciously judging the speakers message or motives. •Often we impose our meanings onto others (correcting, arguing or telling them how they feel.) “Good listeners stay out of the other’s way” so they can learn what others think and feel.” ~ Listening expert, Robert Bolton Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  • 29. The Process of Listening (cont.) Stage 5: Responding – giving immediate or delayed feedback to the speaker on what you think and how you feel about the message •Transitional process in which we simultaneously listen and speak. Signs of responses include: •Eye contact •Nodding •Attentive posture, •Smiling, •Asking questions to invite more interaction. Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  • 30. 6 Forms of Nonlistening 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Pseudo listening Monopolizing Selective listening Defensive listening Ambushing
  • 31. Forms of Nonlistening 1. Pseudolistening • Pretending to listen • Happens when we are bored, but want to appear interested Indicators: • Responses that don’t make sense • Confusion, when called upon in class • Asking to have some repeat what they said, or asking questions about informaiton that was given.
  • 32. Forms of Nonlistening 2. Monopolizing •Focusing on ourselves Instead of listening to others. Tactics: •Conversation rerouting – Bringing conversation back to ourselves. •Interrupting – questions and challenges to speaker to divert conversation in another direction
  • 33. Forms of Nonlistening 3) Selective listening Focusing on particular parts of a conversation. Examples: •If a professor says “this will be on the exam” •Things we aren’t interested in. •Ideas or information we don’t agree with or make us uneasy. •Information that is critical to us or our loved ones.
  • 34. Forms of Nonlistening 4) Defensive listening Perceiving information as personal attacks, Criticism, or hostility in communication that is not. •We read motives into whatever a person says •We perceive negative judgment in innocent comments •Other instances are over specific topics, vulnerable times, or having low self esteem Tip: We can miss important information and can turn people off from being honest with us.
  • 35. Forms of Nonlistening 5) Ambushing •Literal listening carefully for purpose of attacking a speaker. •This involves careful listening, unlike the other forms of communication. •Intent to gather information to attack.
  • 36. Auding - Mindfulness BE HERE NOW •We don’t let our thoughts drift. •We do not focus on our feelings and responses. •We put away electronic devices and or stop any activities that can get in the way. “The present moment is filled with joy and happiness. If you are attentive, you will see it” •We fully tune in (without imposing our ideas, judgments, biases, ― Thich Nhat Hanh, Peace Is Every Step: stereotypes, prejudices, values, The Path of Mindfulness in Everyday Life and feelings) •It’s a choice to be mindful
  • 37. Barriers to Effective Listening 1. External obstacles – Message overload – Too much information! (Class information, emails, text message, voice mail, work) We have to screen or prioritize – Message complexity – Complex messages, topics (science, economics, math classes. Technical words, complex sentences with idioms or slang expressions.)
  • 38. Barriers to Effective Listening 2. Internal obstacles - Preoccupation – with our own thoughts, feelings, and concerns. 3. Prejudging communicator or the communication: • You dislike or disagree with speaker • You anticipate what the person will say and then you tune them out.(Especially politicians who hold different views from our own) • You prejudge others based on culture, religion, age, sex or race.
  • 39. Barriers to Effective Listening 2. Internal obstacles - Preoccupation – with our own thoughts, feelings, and concerns. 3. Prejudging communicator or the communication: • You dislike or disagree with speaker • You anticipate what the person will say and then you tune them out.(Especially politicians who hold different views from our own) • You prejudge others based on culture, religion, age, sex or race.
  • 40. Barriers to Effective Listening 3. Reacting to emotionally loaded language – Words and phrases that evoke a strong response, positive or negative. We often attack the other person or tune out. “You should,” “Liberal,” “Far Right,” “Family Values,” “Everyone or Everybody” What are your triggers? – Lack of effort – It is hard to listen (especially when noise and physiological conditions.) When this happens tell person you are tired, or want to discuss difficult topics later. 4. Failure to adapt listening styles – Different skills for different people, situations, settings, etc.
  • 41. Barriers to Effective Listening 5. Rehearsing a Response - This barrier is perhaps the most difficult to overcome. • We spend time rehearsing what we will say before the other person is finished speaking. • One of the reasons is the Speech-rate-ratio: The difference between speech rate and thought rate.
  • 42. Steps for being a more Effective Listener • • • • • • Stop Look Listen Ask questions Paraphrase content Paraphrase feelings
  • 43. Steps for Being a more Effective Listener • • Eliminate distractions so you can concentrate and give speaker full attention. Be present - (eliminate self talk/intrapersonal communication) Look: • Listen to what isn’t being said as an additional component. • Look for nonverbal clues that will help you understand what the speaker is feeling. • The face provides the most important information about how the person is feeling. Body also communicates feelings and emotions. • The person’s voice quality, pitch, rate, volume, and use of silence also give information on how the person is feeling.
  • 44. Steps to Being a More Effective Listener Listen: • Listen for what another person is telling you • You may not always agree with what the person is saying, but try to give them a chance to be heard • Match verbal with the nonverbal to decipher both the content and emotion of the person’s message (Incongruence – When nonverbal and verbal don’t match – past experience helps.) If a person you are talking with says “Im OK” but nonverbal doesn’t match… take an opportunity to learn more.
  • 45. Steps to Being a More Effective Listener Ask Questions: • Help others to focus by using questions that clarify perceptions. Four purposes of questions: 1. To obtain additional information 2. To find out how a person feels 3. To ask for clarification of a word or phrase 4. To verify your conclusion about the person’s meaning are feeling. Tip: Ask “How” not “Why” questions. “How do you feel about that?” vs. “Why do you feel that way?”Or “How did that happen?” vs. “Why did that happen.”
  • 46. Steps to Being a More Effective Listener Paraphrase Content: • After the person is done talking (Don’t interrupt) Restate in your own words what you think the other person is saying. (Different from parroting) • The goal of active listening is understand both the feelings and the content of another person’s feelings. Paraphrase Feelings: • You could follow your paraphrase with a comment on feeling, such as “ I imagine you must be feeling ______(frustrated, confused, happy, sad, perplexed, etc.) Followed with “Is that true.” • Give the person a chance to respond to your paraphrase. • Slow down responses to match the speaker’s pace and processing of information. (Best way to connect with people is to match their use of words, and communication style)
  • 47. Practice Paraphrasing • I think we’re seeing too much of each other • (Do I hear you saying that you want some more space or time for yourself?) • I really like communication, but what could I do with the major? • (I get the sense that you are struggling with career choices now, is that right?” • I don’t know if Pat and I are getting too serious too fast. • (I hear some hesitancy about your relationship with Pat, yes?) • You can borrow my car, if you really need to, but please be careful with it. I can afford any repairs and if you have an accident, I won’t be able to drive home this weekend. (It seems like your car is very important to you right now.)
  • 48. Listening – The “D” formula • DDOT – Don’t do other tasks (cleaning glasses, shuffling papers, doodling – one brain process – can really only focus on one task at a time. • DMP – Don’t make plans – Extra listening time gives people the illusion the can make plans, shopping lists, etc. – doing this directs the brain to stop listening. • DD – Don’t daydream – More powerful than DMP – As soon as we start daydreaming the brain stops listening. (It is enjoyable and beneficial – but not when listening.)