Published on

Conflict slides for Speech 151 Final.

1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • The officers' acquittal in April 1992 triggered riots in South Central, Los Angeles. More than 50 people were killed, more than 2,000 were injured and 9,500 were arrested for rioting, looting and arson, resulting in $1 billion in property damage.
    On the third day of the riots, King made a public appearance, making his now famous plea: "People, I just want to say, can't we all get along? Can't we all get along?"
    The United States Department of Justice filed federal civil rights charges against the four officers, and in August of 1992, two of them were found guilty while the other two were acquitted. King was eventually awarded $3.8 million in a civil trial for the injuries he sustained.
  • Speech151conflictlecture2013fall1123

    1. 1. People, I just want to say, can we all get along? Can we get along? ~ Rodney King Can we?
    2. 2. Competition/Conflict is everywhere – TV Food Network: •Chopped •Restaurant Divided •Cupcake wars Other: •All sports (Riots break out often when teams lose) •Dancing with the Stars •Survivor •The Biggest Loser
    3. 3. The nuclear option! • The Senate goes more contentious • The "nuclear option" is about Senate rules to enable judicial and executive nominees to be confirmed with just 51 votes instead of 60. • The idea is that it would "blow up" the Senate. • The symbolism of "going nuclear" also portends a sort of mutually assured destruction in the future, to borrow another Cold War term. Interestingly: We are currently in negotiations with Iran on making sure a nuclear bomb is not created.
    4. 4. Conflict and Nature • All nature is in conflict (predator/prey) • Pearls are formed when an irritating microscopic object becomes trapped
    5. 5. “Fear not those who argue, but those who dodge.” ~ Dale Carnegie
    6. 6. Conflict Self Reflection 1) When I think of conflict, the first that comes to mind is…… 2) How would you define conflict? 3) What is your first response when you are involved in conflict? 4) Do you know your conflict style?
    7. 7. What is conflict? • An expressed struggle – Disagreement becomes verbal and nonverbal facial/gestures show aggression. • Between at least two independent people – Conflict between members affects group members. • Incompatible goals, scarce resources and interference – Conflict often happens because two people want the same thing. • Achieving a goal- Understanding what people want helps to manage the conflict.
    8. 8. Myths or not about conflict? Conflict is best avoided Conflict is a sign of a troubled relationship Conflict damages a relationship Conflict is destructive because it reveals our bad sides  In conflict, there has to be a winner and a loser     Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
    9. 9. Conflict – Deborah Tannen An American academic and professor of linguistics at Georgetown University in Washington, D.C. We live in an Argument culture where: •Opposition •Debate •Polarization •Competition •Litigation •Attacks •And, criticism are perceived as “The Best Way to Get Things Done.” •War or sports metaphors are used
    10. 10. Metaphors about conflict •Two rams butting heads •She was so angry she was like a tornado •Talking to a brick wall •Tied up in chains •Don’t rock the boat •Stabbed in the back •Life is a Rocky Road •Other ???
    11. 11. Principles of Conflict 1. Conflict is inevitable 2. Conflict can have negative and positive effects  Negative effects    Leads to bad feelings You close yourself off Increases costs Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
    12. 12. Principles of Conflict (cont.) 3. Negative and positive effects (cont.)  Positive effects    Resolves problems Improves relationships Demonstrates commitment to relationship 4. Conflict can focus on content and/or relationship issues  Relationship conflicts – equity and power  Relationship conflicts hide as content conflicts Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
    13. 13. Principles of Conflict 5. Conflict can be open, explicit, overt, or covert (cont.)  Convert  Passive aggression, a common use. People act aggressively, buy deny the behavior.  Happens through games in which real conflicts are hidden or denied  Demonstrates commitment to relationship 6. Social influences(cultural background, gender, race/ethnicity, and sexual orientation) affect our orientation toward and responses to conflict.
    14. 14. Conflict overview • • • • A conflict is more than just a disagreement. It is a situation in which one or both parties perceive a threat (whether or not the threat is real). Conflicts continue to fester when ignored. Because conflicts involve perceived threats to our well-being and survival, they stay with us until we face and resolve them. We respond to conflicts based on our perceptions of the situation, not necessarily to an objective review of the facts. Our perceptions are influenced by our life experiences, culture, values, and beliefs. Conflicts are an opportunity for growth. When you’re able to resolve conflict in a relationship, it builds trust. You can feel secure knowing your relationship can survive challenges and disagreements.
    15. 15. Emotions and Conflict Conflicts trigger strong emotions. •If you aren’t comfortable with your emotions or able to manage them in times of stress •You won’t be able to resolve conflict successfully
    16. 16. Basic Emotions by • Robert Plutchik's wheel of emotions which identifies eight basic emotions: joy, sadness, trust, disgust, fear, anger, surprise, and anticipation. • The wheel of emotion is likened to the color wheel in which the primary colors combine to form the secondary and complementary colors. • These basic emotions then mix and combine to form a variety of feelings. For example, anticipation plus joy might combine to form optimism.
    17. 17. Wheel of Emotion
    18. 18. Emotion Spectrum
    19. 19. Emotions • Universal emotions have evolved and aid humans and animals in survival and building relationships. • For example, spite seems to work against the individual but it can establish an individual's reputation as someone to be feared. • Shame and pride can motivate behaviors that help one maintain one's standing in a community, and self-esteem is one's estimate of one's status.
    20. 20. Emotional Competence 1. Emotional understanding or self-awareness of your feelings and their effects  “What am I feeling and what made me feel this way?”  “What exactly do I want to communicate?”  “What are my communication choices?” Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
    21. 21. Emotional Competence (cont.) 2. Emotional expression Be specific Describe the reasons for your feelings Address mixed feelings Try to anchor your emotions in the present Own your feelings, take personal responsibility for them with I-statements  Ask for what you want  Respect emotional boundaries      Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
    22. 22. Emotional Competence (cont.) 3. Emotional responding  Look at nonverbal cues to understand feelings  Look for cues about what the person wants you to do  Use active listening  Empathize  Focus on the other person  Remember communication is irreversible Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
    23. 23. Common roots of conflict 1) Ineffective communication 2) Values clashes 3) Culture clashes 4) Work policies and practices 5) Adversarial management 6) Noncompliance 7) Competition for scarce resources 8) Personality clashes 9) World conflict 10) Neighbor conflict Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 13 - 23
    24. 24. 1) Ineffective Communication • Major source of personal conflict Reasons: • Diversity in the workforce • Poor listening skills • Use of disconfirming comments • Lack if disclosure • Conflicting reasons for joining groups • Not adhering to group norms Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 13 - 24
    25. 25. 2) Value Clashes Conflict over value differences: – Religion – Culture – National values – Needs not being met Tip: Biggest cause of conflict People with different value priorities: – – – – More government vs. less government Pro Life vs. Pro Choice Death penalty vs. Life time internment Strong work/academic ethic vs. taking advantage of the system, Copyright © Houghton or cheating Mifflin Company. All rights 13 - 25 reserved. – Gay marriage/rights vs. non support of Gay marriage/rights
    26. 26. 3) Culture Clashes • Occurs between people – from other countries – between people from different parts of the U.S. • Work force reflects cultural diversity • Different cultural traditions can easily come into conflict in the workplace – religion, food, holidays, clothing, etc. • Issues range from simple to complex Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 13 - 26
    27. 27. 4) Work Policies and Practices • Conflict may happen when organizations maintain confusing or arbitrary – Rules – Regulations – Performance standards • Often surface when managers don’t understand that employees view policies as unfair • Conflict occurs when inequality among members is seen and felt Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 13 - 27
    28. 28. 5) Adversarial Management Conflict can occur when: •Managers view employees and other managers with distrust and suspicion •Employees don’t provide enough information to make decisions •Employees don’t have enough authority to resolve problems •Management has unrealistic expectations •Management view others as “the enemy” What happens: •Makes teamwork and cooperation difficult •Employees may do things to undermine the company Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 13 - 28
    29. 29. 6) Noncompliance Conflict happens when: •Workers refuse to comply with rules •Crossing picket lines – when union walk outs •Unfair share of workload •Producing more than others - assembly lines Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 13 - 29
    30. 30. 7) Competition for Scarce Resources • Downsizing and cost cutting can lead to destructive competition for scarce resources • Outside money given in unequal distribution • Lack of basic needs (food, shelter, water) • Major economies occupying or invading countries (oil, military bases, natural gas, gold, etc.) Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 13 - 30
    31. 31. 8) Personality Clashes People have differing – Communication styles – Political parties – Temperaments – Attitudes – Likes and dislikes – Values – Behaviors (Smoking vs. non smoking, meat eaters vs. vegetarians or vegans) – Beliefs – right and wrong Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 13 - 31
    32. 32. 9. Conflict around the world - 2012 Burgundy color - Major wars and civil unrest, 1,000+ deaths per year Gold color - Minor skirmishes and conflicts, fewer than 1000 deaths per year
    33. 33. War is not the answer…or is it? C21st Century Wars http://www.historyguy.com/21st_century_wars .html#.UpDhlyOxOUY •Afghan War, Algerian civil war, Burma civil war, Columbian civil war, Congo regional war, Chechnya war, No-fly zone Syrian war, Northern Ireland conflict, Rwandan civil war, etc.
    34. 34. Conflict provides opportunity for for bad deeds • • • • • • Gun sales Military equipment Territory and resource grabbing Power grabs Ethnic cleansing Dividing countries lets others do what they want. Q: Is there time military action is necessary?
    35. 35. 10. Neighborhood conflict There is a saying "tall fences make good neighbors. •One of the top reasons Police are called Includes: •Dogs •Community associations •Trees •Noise •Eyesores •Property boundaries 1 •Property boundaries 2 •Other
    36. 36. Three basic types of Conflict 1) Pseudo-conflict – People misunderstand one another (tone of voice, word usage, preoccupied.) 2) Simple conflict – People disagree about issues 2) Ego-conflict – Personalities or value clash Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
    37. 37. Managing Simple Conflict • • • • • • • Clarify perceptions of message Clarify issues Use structured problem solving approach Use facts versus opinions Compromise Prioritize conflict resolution Postpone decision Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
    38. 38. Managing Ego-Conflict • • • • • • • • Don’t permit personal attacks Employ active listening Call for a “cooling off” period Focus on key issues Avoid judgment Use problem solving approach Speak slowly and calmly Agree to disagree Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
    39. 39. Group Phases - Tension Groups and Conflict  Primary tension: Groups form Uneasiness and comfortableness in getting acquainted and managing initial group uncertainty about the group task and individual ’s role or responsibility.  Secondary tension: The tension which occurs as the members of the group develop roles, norms and express differences of opinions for reaching the group goal. Can also be the result of power struggles.
    40. 40. Group Phases of Forming/Conflict • • • • Phase 1 – Orientation- Forming Phase 2 – Conflict - Storming Phase 3 – Emergence- Norming Phase 4 – Reinforcement – Performing Groups will be goes through these very predictable phases. You might experience these 4 stages, 2 or 3 times depending on if you are working on different tasks.
    41. 41. Phase 1 – Orientation/Forming • The orientation phase, develops trust and group cohesiveness, which is important for group survival in the second phase -- conflict. • Members attempt to “break the ice.” Establish task and social structure to solve group goals. • Communication is focused on getting to know each others; skills, strengths/weaknesses, patterns in behavior. • Communication is vague; and people dont press issues, or say things that might prompt the rest of the group to reject them.
    42. 42. Phase 2 – Conflict/ Storming • Group members start forming opinions, asking questions about task, and/or personal conflicts etc. create conflict. • Through conflict, groups identify task issues that confront group/Clarify your own and other’s roles. • Communication during conflict stage is characterized by persuasive attempts at changing others’ opinions and reinforcing one’s own position. • Clarification leads toward greater predictability, less uncertainty, and the establishment of group norms.
    43. 43. Phase 3 – Emergence/Norming • • • • • During this stage a group settles on norms and moves away from ambiguous statements. “We” instead of “I.” Conflict is still exists -- new patterns of communication show group’s movingconflict stage into one of consensus. • The group continues to develop cohesion, a willingness to make the task work, and creating norms-standards of behavior that will guide the group members interaction for dealing with the task.
    44. 44. Phase 4 – Reinforcement/Performing A spirit of unity or “Esprit de Corp” characterizes the final phase of the group interaction. • In the preceding three phrases, group members struggle through getting acquainted, building cohesiveness, expressing individuality, competing for status, and arguing over issues. • The group eventually emerges from those struggles with a sense of direction, consensus, and a feel of group identity. • Once your project is done and you see how successful it was, you will feel a real sense of accomplishment.
    45. 45. How to Deal with Difficult Group Members - Handout
    46. 46. The End
    47. 47. What is your conflict style? (In resource packet pgs. 26 to 28)
    48. 48. Five Conflict Management Styles • Dysfunctional families – Many of us grew up in families where we didn’t learn to effectively communicate in relationships, especially when it involves conflict – being assertive helps heal and reduces our stress and conflict with others. There are five basic styles of communication: - Avoidance - Accommodation - Competition - Compromise - Collaboration
    49. 49. Conflict styles have consequences      Competing – I win, you lose Avoiding – I lose, you lose Accommodating – I lose, you win Collaborating – I win, you win Compromising – I win and lose; you win and lose Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
    50. 50. Five Conflict Management Styles 1) Avoidance - Individuals have developed a pattern of avoiding conflict. AS will: •not express their opinions or feelings, protecting their right •Not Identifying and meeting their needs. •Avoid conflict •Fail to assert themselves •Allows others to infringe on their rights •Tend to speak softy and apologetically Issues: •Avoidance can make conflict worse •Avoidance demonstrates lack of care or concern When is this style appropriate? •Can be positive, especially if the conflict is too big or emotional to resolve without help •Can give a group time to cool off – or allows group to avoid ‘hot' issues to get in the way
    51. 51. Five Conflict Management Styles 2) Accommodation – Individuals give in avoid a major blow up or controversy. ACS will: •Another approach makes the conflict go away •This style is considered a “lose-win” approach. •Give in too quickly, don’t allow discussion which is often healthy for a group making decisions When is this style appropriate? •Accommodating others may cause the group to make a bad decision, if more discussion isn’t allowed to happen •Not a bad approach, especially when conflict is pseudo or simple.
    52. 52. Five Conflict Management Styles 3) Competition – People who have power or want more power often seek to compete with others. Often referred to as aggressive. CS will: •Group climate may result in greater defensiveness, blaming instead of finding solutions •Use humiliation to control others •Blame others, instead of owning the issues When is style appropriate? •Not always wrong to compete, if you know you aren’t wrong •Also, if group members are suggesting something illegal or inappropriate •Or, member keeps others in the group from destructive or inappropriate behavior
    53. 53. Five Conflict Management Styles 4) Compromise ‘the big C’ - attempts to find a middle ground – a solution that meets all needs. Issues: •You win…I wn, is the best case, however at times nobody gets what they want. •Or, some lose and some win, which is expected…like a democracy. The majority win. •Set up with extremes can help create a middle ground.
    54. 54. Compromise Effect - Consumers
    55. 55. Can I help you Ms.?
    56. 56. Five Conflict Management Styles 5) Collaboration – Group members work side-by-side, rather than going after power, control, or winner takes all. •View conflict has something that needs to be resolved, rather than a game where people win or lose. •To collaborate is take the time, so both parties win. Works best: •With a culturally diverse group. •When group has the time to take to work through discussion and hearing each group member out.
    57. 57. Dealing with Difficult People Crazy - Makers Passive Aggressive – is a style where individuals appear passive on the surface but are actually acting out anger in a subtle, indirect, or behind the scenes way. PA are: •Weak and resentful, so they sabotage, frustrate and disrupt. •They will appear cooperative but are not. •Like to be the center of attention. •Like to see people suffer, as it makes them feel better.
    58. 58. Dealing with Difficult Members - Recognizing Crazy maker Behavior • PA – will surprise you with requests • PA – will pressure to do something when you’re unsure • PA – will use relationships as leverage • PA – will isolate you from support • PA – will shift expectations and moods
    59. 59. Manage the Crazy makers 1. Don’t expect them to respond to feelings – Use statements that are factual, not emotional. 2. Don’t let them spoil you day – Emotionally separate their identity and self-esteem from their negative behavior – Don’t take it personally! 3. Manage yourself in their presence • Monitor your physical and nonverbal responses. • Stay neutral – don’t show emotions show in your tone of voice, facial expressions or gestures. • Don’t give them the “power.”
    60. 60. Managing Crazy makers cont. 4. Manage and communicate expectations • Don’t expect them to behave as you do. • Be clear with them about your expectations. 5. Slow them Down – Tell them “You will get back to them,” or “You don’t have all the information you need to make a decisions.” 6. Ask lots of questions – This will help you sort out their demands and determine what they want.
    61. 61. What do you see?
    62. 62. What do you see?
    63. 63. What do you see?
    64. 64. If you are blind?
    65. 65. Internal Conflict Left-Right Brain
    66. 66. It is a matter of perspective Questions: •Is there a right way to see the images? •How did you feel about those who saw it differently? The same? •Was there ever a time when you saw something one way and some else saw it differently?
    67. 67. Words can contribute to conflict – A Cow “Everyone knows what a cow is!” WRONG….
    68. 68. A Cow • A child on an Iowa farm, a cow is a friend to be care for when its weaned, a means of economic livelihood, and source of sex education; and 4-H show • An inner city child a cow is a wild animal kept in the zoo. • Milk comes from cartons and meat comes from plastic wrapped containers • A Hindu child of India – a cow is considered scared • Farmers – Cows are used for milk to make cheese – Have special names, bells, etc. • Cowboys raise and herd cattle
    69. 69. Conflict Management Supportive communication is key! Different types of communication create supportive and defensive climates in personal relationships.  Interpersonal climates occur on a continuum confirming to disconfirming. (It, you, thou)  Confirming messages recognize that another person exists, acknowledge that another matters to us, and endorse what we believe is true.  Disconfirming messages deny the person’s existence, indicate the other person does not matter to us, and reject another person’s feelings or thoughts.
    70. 70. Conflict Management • • • • • • Make the relationship your priority. Maintain and strengthen the relationship, rather than “winning” the argument – is the first priority. Be respectful of differing viewpoints. Never criticize your partner Focus on the present. If you’re holding on to old hurts and resentments, your ability to see the reality of the current situation will be impaired. Rather than looking to the past and assigning blame, focus on what you can do in the here-and-now to solve the problem. Pick your battles. Conflicts can be draining, so it’s important to consider whether the issue is really worthy of your time and energy. Maybe you don't want to surrender a parking space if you’ve been circling for 15 minutes. But if there are dozens of spots, arguing over a single space isn’t worth it. Be willing to forgive. Resolving conflict is impossible if you’re unwilling or unable to forgive. Resolution lies in releasing the urge to punish, which can never compensate for our losses and only adds to our injury by further depleting and draining our lives. Know when to let something go. If you can’t come to an agreement, agree to disagree. It takes two people to keep an argument going. If a conflict is going nowhere, you can choose to disengage and move on.
    71. 71. Conflict Management Unproductive Communication Patterns During Conflict The early stages – Failing to confirm individuals – Cross-complaining – complaint met by complaint – Negative climate and mind reading The middle stages – Kitchen sinking - involves throwing all kinds of events, or misdeeds of another person, at them all at once. Example: A conversation about who's supposed to take out the garbage today might turn into a discussion of what someone did ten years ago. – Frequent interruptions The later stages – Pressure to resolve conflict - Usually on own terms
    72. 72. Conflict Management Constructive Communication Patterns During Conflict The early stages – Communicators confirm each other by recognizing and acknowledging each other’s concerns and feelings The middle stages – Stay focused on main issues (agenda building) – Bracketing – Individuals confirm others by getting back to them later – Don’t interrupt except for clarification – Recognize each other’s point of view The later stages – Contracting – Take each proposal and agree upon a solution
    73. 73. Conflict Management Respond Constructively to Criticism Refusing to accept criticism is likely to erect barriers or affect job performance reviews. 1) Seek more information - asking questions, paraphrasing what you have heard to reduce tension. 2) Consider the criticism thoughtfully – Is it valid? If you decide the criticism is valid, consider whether you want to change how you act. Thank the person who offered the criticism – sometimes is disarming and keeps the door open for communication in the future. Sometimes people are just difficult to deal with. They can be: rude, inconsiderate, or just crazymakers. This calls for you to protect yourself.
    74. 74. Conflict Management • • • • • Do not change mind too quickly Avoid easy conflict reducing techniques Seek different opinions Involve everyone in discussion Use variety of methods to reach agreement • Expand the number of ideas using various techniques Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
    75. 75. Be Other Oriented • Give your idea to • Avoid opinionated group statements that indicate a closed • Do not assume mind someone must win • Clarify or lose misunderstandings • Use group oriented • Emphasize areas rather than self oriented pronouns of agreement Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
    76. 76. 10 Approaches to NOT use in Conflict- Handout 1. Avoiding Conflict 2. Being Defensive 3. Overgeneralizing 4. Being Right 5. Mind-Reading 6. Not Listening 7. Blame Game 8. Winning 9. Character attacks 10. Stonewalling
    77. 77. Sometimes - It’s all in how you ask?
    78. 78. Advice from Grade School Children
    79. 79. Advise from the dog! BARK LESS! WAG MORE!
    80. 80. The End
    81. 81. GROUPTHINK A: John F. Kennedy’s response to his and his advisers decision to invade the Bay of Pigs. The decision making process of this event and others, such as: • Watergate, the crash of flight 173, and the Monica scandal have been studied and identified as Groupthink Q: Why did JFK think their actions were stupid. He and his advisors were competent and intelligent?
    82. 82. GROUPTHINK Q: How many of you avoid situations that might involve conflict?  Most people do not like conflict  Groupthink is the absence of conflict  Group members go along with the other group members (because they are afraid of authority or of making waves) Conflict provides different ideas and points of view that if shared and discussed can led to greater ideas and ultimately a better end.  Group members close themselves off to input from those outside the group  Group members become paralyzed and unable to see the errors of their ways  To avoid Groupthink allow some conflict…you’ll feel better in the end
    83. 83. Groupthink: Conflict Avoidance • Is the illusion of agreement • Type of thinking when group tries to reach consensus without critical testing, analyzing and evaluating ideas • Results in ineffective consensus • Too little conflict lowers quality of group decision • Group does not take time to examine positive and negative consequences of its decision Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
    84. 84. Symptoms of Groupthink • Critical thinking not encouraged • Members think group can do no wrong • Members concerned about justifying actions • Members apply pressure to those who do not support group • Members believe they have reached true consensus • Members too concerned with reinforcing leader’s beliefs Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
    85. 85. Suggestions to Reduce Groupthink • Encourage critical thinking • Be sensitive to status • Invite someone from outside group • Assign devil’s advocate role • Subdivide to consider potential problems & solutions • Use technology to gather information & evaluate ideas Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
    86. 86. Symptoms of Groupthink • Critical thinking not encouraged • Members think group can do no wrong • Members concerned about justifying actions • Members apply pressure to those who do not support group • Members believe they have reached true consensus • Members too concerned with reinforcing leader’s beliefs Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
    87. 87. Consensus: Reaching Agreement Through Communication • Consensus should not come too quickly • Consensus does not come easily • Consensus involves emphasizing areas of agreement • Groups that achieve consensus are likely to maintain agreement • To achieve consensus, some personal preferences must be surrendered • Postpone decision if consensus can not be reached Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
    88. 88. Suggestions for Reaching Consensus: • Keep group oriented to goal • Be sensitive to ideas and feelings of others • Promote honest interaction and dialogue Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
    89. 89. Chapter 9 – Leadership 5 point exercise 1) When you think of leadership what comes to mind? 2) Who do you think is a (past/recent) good leader? Why? 3) Do you consider yourself a leader? Why? 4) Leadership style – Do after answering the above questions.
    90. 90. Leadership – Chapter 11 Q: What do they have in common?
    91. 91. Industry/Media Leaders The Billionaire Club • Two-thirds of the wealthiest people in the U.S. added to their fortunes, boosting their average net worth by $400 million to a record $4.2 billion. ~ Forbes Magazine
    92. 92. Chapter 9 - Leaders Definition: Behavior or communication that influences, guides, directs, or controls a group. Dennis Gouran – suggests leadership constitutes that behavior when groups experience difficulty establishing the conditions necessary for making the best possible choices.
    93. 93. Chapter 9 - Leadership Studies • Trait perspective – Historical reference only Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Intelligence Good looking Tall Enthusiasm Dominance Self confidence Social participation Egalitarianism
    94. 94. “The first responsibility of a leader is to define reality. The last is to say thank you. In between, the leader is servant.” Max De Pree – American Business person and writer Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
    95. 95. Eastern Philosophy of Leadership (Lao Tsu) “The wicked leader is he who the people despise The good leader is he who the people revere The great leader is he who the people say ‘We did it ourselves’.” Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
    96. 96. What is a strong leader ~ Forbes Magazine • • • • • • • • • • Strong leaders are great communicators not talkers How do they communicate? Communicate using social networks They write blogs, articles and use the media to discuss financial information, corporate vision and strategy They review values and culture They note accomplishments and celebrate progress They also teach, encourage, inspire and motivate They express appreciation and gratitude They reassure and calm those around them They are articulate and never condescending
    97. 97. Forbes - Great Leaders Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President of the United States, serving from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. • Two minute speech in 1863 at Gettysburg in the middle of the most bloody war • He stood where many had died to encourage Americans to fight on for the survival of representative democracy • “Government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.” • He ended slavery in the US by signing the Emancipation Proclamation. Greatest strengths: Determination, persistence, beliefs, and courage. • Lincoln the movie – Reviewers say it is greatest political movie.
    98. 98. Forbes - Great Leaders John Wooden, ULCA •Taught his team how to win •How to be great men •He was soft spoken, humble, but led by example •Has written many books on leadership
    99. 99. Forbes - Great Leaders • George Washington, the founding father of the United States. • Leader of the American Revolution and the first president of the U.S. • His vision has endured more than 200 years Greatest strengths: • Foresight • Vision • Strategic planning • His ability to lead people to success.
    100. 100. Forbes - Great Leaders • • • • Prime Minister of Britain from 1940 to 1945. Churchill led Great Britain against the Nazi Germany during the World War II. He had seen the potential problem with the Germans after WWI and wanted to Brits to engage in WWII early on, but the Brits wouldn’t. When Britain became desperate they called him after retirement. Greatest traits: • Fearlessness • Determination • Unyielding perseverance • Undying devotion to his goal
    101. 101. Forbes - Great Leaders Nelson Mandela was the first S. African president elected in fully democratic elections. • Mandela was the main players in the antiapartheid movements in the country and served a 30 year prison sentence because of being an apartheid. Greatest traits: • Determination to change apartheid • Persistence • Focus • And, will • No fear of being jailed. •
    102. 102. Forbes - Great Leaders • Steve Jobs co-founded Apple Computers with Stephen Wozniak. Under his guidance • The company pioneered a series of revolutionary technologies, including the iPhone and iPad. Greatest Traits: 1) The consummate salesman • The most visible element of Jobs’s success was his ability to convince people that they absolutely had to have whatever it was that he had to offer. 2) The incredible judge of consumer behavior • Other companies do focus groups to ask what customers want. That never worked for Steve Jobs, because he knew what people wanted long before they themselves knew. 3) The perfectionist • Attention to detail has long been a hallmark of Apple’s products and much of that can be attributed to the relentless focus of Steve Jobs. Jobs pushed himself hard and everyone around him hard. • The result was that workers were pushed to deliver things that they themselves didn’t think possible.
    103. 103. Functional Perspective Task leadership – accomplishing group goals Process leadership – Group building and maintenance • • • • • Initiating – Getting the group to begin the task. Coordinating – One of the more important leadership roles is coordinating activities and goals. Summarizing – Groups need someone to periodically summarize the activities. Elaborating – Sometimes good ideas are ignored. A good leader will focus on elaborating and focusing on a good idea. Releasing tension – Knowing when to add humor, breaks, etc. to remove group from conflict, stress. • Gatekeeping – Guiding discussion. Encouraging – Improve the morale of group can increase cohesiveness. Mediating – Leadership aims at resolving conflict between group members. • • Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
    104. 104. Situational Perspective – Table 12.1 • Authoritarian – Leader makes all policy decisions. – Dictate all activity, steps, and vision. – Work one on one with praise and criticism. – Aloof from group. Democratic – Policies are a matter of group discussion. – Leader checks in at all times with group and follows up. – Leader leaves decision of task to your group. • • Laissez-Faire -- Leader participates at minimum. -- Complete freedom for group. -- Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
    105. 105. Authoritian Leadership • Adolf Hitler was extremely authoritarian. He required the population of the Third Reich to accept everything that he said as absolute law, and was able to impose a death sentence on anyone who failed to do so. Hitler was obsessed with being in control, and with being the alpha male in a rigid male dominance hierarchy.[12] • Martha Stewart constructed her empire through her own special attention to every detail. She was meticulous, demanding, thorough and scrupulous. She flourished in her ventures and in using her authoritarian leadership style. [13]
    106. 106. Democratic Leadership Consensus Takers - Leader gets input from everyone – Bill Clinton an example – Polled all and then made a decision. Other example - Dwight D. Eisenhower •Eisenhower was one of America's greatest military commanders and the thirty-fourth President of the United States.
    107. 107. Autocratic Leadership • • • • Autocratic leadership style works well if the leader is competent and knowledgeable enough to decide about each and everything. Authoritative is considered one of the most effective leadership styles in case there is some emergency and quick decisions need to be taken. Bill Gates adopted this style and has steered Microsoft toward great success. According to Bill Gates, he had a vision when he took reins of the company and then used all the resources available to make that vision a reality. In the personal computer workplace, many operating conditions call for urgent action, making this style of leadership effective. While Gates does not exhibit this style consistently, his success can be judged by his decision making process and the growth of the computer industry in the world.[1
    108. 108. Leadership Patterns • Communication that influences, guides, directs or controls group Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
    109. 109. Transformational Leadership Four defining characteristics •Individualized Consideration – the degree to which the leader attends to each follower's needs, acts as a mentor or coach to the follower and listens to the follower's concerns and needs. The leader gives empathy and support, keeps communication open and places challenges before the followers. •Intellectual Stimulation – the degree to which the leader challenges assumptions, takes risks and solicits followers' ideas. Leaders with this style stimulate and encourage creativity in their followers. They nurture and develop people who think independently. For such a leader, learning is a value and unexpected situations are seen as opportunities to learn. •Inspirational Motivation – the degree to which the leader articulates a vision that is appealing and inspiring to followers. Leaders with inspirational motivation challenge followers with high standards, communicate optimism about future goals, and provide meaning for the task at hand. Followers need to have a strong sense of purpose if they are to be motivated to act. Purpose and meaning provide the energy that drives a group forward. •The visionary aspects of leadership are supported by communication skills that make the vision understandable, precise, powerful and engaging. The followers are willing to invest more effort in their tasks, they are encouraged and optimistic about the future and believe in their abilities. •Idealized Influence – Provides a role model for high ethical behavior, instills pride, gains respect and trust. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
    110. 110. Emergent Leadership in Small Groups Minnesota Studies • Leaders emerge through a “method of residues” • Members reject dictatorial candidates • Accepted the contender with the optimum blend of task efficiency and personal consideration Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
    111. 111. Leadership and Self-deception in Organizations • Leaders ignore upward communication from non-managerial members • Leaders must solicit communication from lower-status members Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved