To Do
• Listening Quiz
“We have two ears and one mouth so that we
can listen twice as much as we speak.”
~ Greek philosopher, Epictetus
“Good lis...
Top 4 Things that Irritate People about Listening.
Researchers from University of Denver found:
1. The other person interr...
How we communicate
The Importance of Listening
Listening can change lives
Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson
Education, Inc. All Rights Res...
Ways of Hearing
Most of us are all born with the ability to hear.
• People who have hearing challenges receive messages vi...
Definition for Hearing
It is the active, complex process that consists of:
Being mindful; physically receiving messages,
s...
Listening is the key to success!
The Process of Listening
Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson
Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Stage 1: Receiving – the...
The Process of Listening (cont.)
Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson
Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Stage 1: Receivi...
The Process of Listening (cont.)
Stage 2: Selecting and Receiving Material - We selectively attend to some
messages and no...
The Process of Listening (cont.)
Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson
Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
3rd Step – Inter...
3nd Step – Interpreting/
Judging
As we listen, we interpret/judge what we
hear.
1) What prototype (Does the person represe...
The Process of Listening (cont.)
Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson
Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Stage 5: Respond...
The Process of Listening (cont.)
Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson
Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Stage 6: Remembe...
The Process of Listening (cont.)
Stage 6: Remembering
Short Term or Active Memory
• Information we are currently aware of ...
The Process of Listening (cont.)
Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson
Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Long-Term Memory...
The Process of Listening (cont.)
Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson
Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Stage 6: Remembe...
Chunking Tips
1) Form an acronym
•Write the facts you need to remember.
•Underline the first letter of each fact.
•Arrange...
MAPIT
5 Forms of Nonlistening
1) Pseudo listening
2) Monopolizing
3) Selective listening
4) Defensive listening
5) Ambushing
Forms of Nonlistening
1. Pseudo listening
• Pretending to listen.
• Happens when we are
bored, but want
to appear interest...
Forms of Nonlistening
2. Monopolizing
Focusing on ourselves
Instead of listening to others.
Tactics:
•Conversation rerouti...
Forms of Nonlistening
3) Selective listening
Focusing on particular parts
of a conversation.
Examples:
•If a professor say...
Forms of Nonlistening
4) Defensive listening
Perceiving information as personal attacks,
Criticism, or hostility in commun...
Forms of Nonlistening
5) Ambushing
• Literal listening carefully for
purpose of attacking a speaker.
• Involves careful li...
Auding - Mindfulness
BE HERE NOW
•We don’t let our thoughts drift.
•We do not focus on our
feelings and responses.
•We put...
6 Barriers to Effective Listening
1. External obstacles
– Message overload – Too much information!(Class
information, emai...
6 Barriers to Effective Listening
2. Internal obstacles - Preoccupation – with our
own thoughts, feelings, and concerns.
3...
6 Barriers to Effective Listening
4. Reacting to emotionally loaded language – Words and
phrases that evoke a strong respo...
6 Barriers to Effective Listening
5. Rehearsing a response - This barrier is perhaps the most
difficult to overcome.
• We ...
Steps for being a more effective listener
Steps for Being a More Effective Listener
Step 1 -
•Eliminate distractions so you can concentrate and give speaker
full at...
Steps to Being a
More Effective Listener
Step 3. Active listening
(Different from hearing)
• Listen for what another perso...
Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson
Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Steps to Being a More Effective
Listener
Step 4 - Ask Questions: Help others to focus by using questions that clarify
perc...
Steps to Being a More
Effective Listener
Active Listening
The goal of active listening is understand both the feelings and...
Practice Paraphrasing
• I think we’re seeing too much of each other
• (Do I hear you saying that you want some more space ...
How we learn and retain information
How to listen better!
The “3D” Formula
• DDOT – Don’t do other tasks (cleaning
glasses, shuffling papers, doodling – one b...
Speech121listening2014
Speech121listening2014
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Speech121listening2014

611 views

Published on

Speech 121 Listening

Published in: Education, Business, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
611
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
15
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Speech121listening2014

  1. 1. To Do • Listening Quiz
  2. 2. “We have two ears and one mouth so that we can listen twice as much as we speak.” ~ Greek philosopher, Epictetus “Good listeners stay out of the other’s way” so they can learn what others think and feel.” ~ Listening expert, Robert Bolton
  3. 3. Top 4 Things that Irritate People about Listening. Researchers from University of Denver found: 1. The other person interrupts me when I talk. 2. The other person doesn't’t look at me when I talk, so I am not sure if he or she is listening. 3. The other person talks down to me. 4. The other person does distracting things when talking to me (texting, picking fingernails, cleaning glasses, fidgeting with pencils, looking at watch, etc.) Other:?
  4. 4. How we communicate
  5. 5. The Importance of Listening Listening can change lives Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved According to researcher Phyllis Kemp in an article “Are you Listening?” People who are listened to are: •Less likely to get upset when there is a problem or conflict. •Can become more mature, more democratic, more open to personal experience and less defensive. People who listen well: •Are respected more in the workplace. •More likely to be promoted.
  6. 6. Ways of Hearing Most of us are all born with the ability to hear. • People who have hearing challenges receive messages visually through writing, lip reading, captions, American Sign Language (ASL), and use of different types of hearing aids. • Before ASL there was Helen Keller Sign Language.
  7. 7. Definition for Hearing It is the active, complex process that consists of: Being mindful; physically receiving messages, selecting and organizing messages; interpreting messages; responding; and remembering.
  8. 8. Listening is the key to success!
  9. 9. The Process of Listening Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Stage 1: Receiving – the physiological, passive process of hearing vibrations around you. (External and internal stimuli compete for our attention. ) • Hearing is being aware of sound generated by the environment. • Listening is understanding - a skill which allows us to interpret those sounds that create meaning. Hearing/Listening Scenarios: • A baby crying. (Type of cry) • Breaks squealing from a car (How close) • A police siren (Length of siren) • Or, a crash in the kitchen (Do you hear glass breaking etc.)
  10. 10. The Process of Listening (cont.) Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Stage 1: Receiving continued Determining factors: 1)The immediate importance of the stimulus – Do we attend or filter it out (baby crying, police siren, someone chocking) 2)Our related experiences (we hear what we expect to hear and filter out most of the rest.) 3)Emotional state (can adversely effective selection of stimuli )
  11. 11. The Process of Listening (cont.) Stage 2: Selecting and Receiving Material - We selectively attend to some messages and not others. 1. Physical elements - What information your eye or ear takes in. Stimuli that intense, loud, or unusual or stand out gets our attention. 2. Environmental elements – The major nongenetic causes of environment elements can be exposure to noise, aging, ototoxic drugs (certain medications can damage the ear, resulting in hearing loss, ringing in the ear, or balance disorders.) viral and bacterial infections, and interactions between these factors. 3. Learned elements - Our interests, expectations, culture, personality, habit: what filters we use to select what we take in and how we react to it.
  12. 12. The Process of Listening (cont.) Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 3rd Step – Interpreting/Evaluating – consciously or unconsciously judging the speakers message or motives. •Often we impose our meanings onto others (Correcting, arguing or telling them how they feel)
  13. 13. 3nd Step – Interpreting/ Judging As we listen, we interpret/judge what we hear. 1) What prototype (Does the person represent are ideal of a good friend, person in trouble, student, teacher do the closely resemble.) 2) The personal constructs to define more detail (Is the person upset or calm, open to advice or closed to it.) 3) Based on the construct of others, we apply stereotypes (how has this person reacted in the past? How this situation similar to others?) that predict what they will do. 4) We then apply the script (how the interaction should proceed, including how we should act.)
  14. 14. The Process of Listening (cont.) Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Stage 5: Responding – giving immediate or delayed feedback to the speaker on what you think and how you feel about the message •Transitional process in which we simultaneously listen and speak. Signs of responses include: •Eye contact •Nodding •Attentive posture •Smiling •Asking questions to invite more interaction.
  15. 15. The Process of Listening (cont.) Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Stage 6: Remembering – Retaining information (Effective communication depends on this.) •Important: You remember not what was said, but what you remember was said. •Memory is reconstructive, not reproductive You construct message(s) that makes sense to your.
  16. 16. The Process of Listening (cont.) Stage 6: Remembering Short Term or Active Memory • Information we are currently aware of or thinking about. • In Freudian psychology, this memory would be referred to as the conscious mind. The duration of short-term memory • Most information will be stored for approximately 20 to 30 seconds. • It can be just seconds if rehearsal or active maintenance is not done. The amount of information that can be stored in short-term memory can vary. • In an influential paper titled "The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two," from psychologist George Miller suggested that people can store between five and nine items in short-term memory. • More recent research suggests that people are capable of storing approximately four chunks or pieces of information in short-term memory.
  17. 17. The Process of Listening (cont.) Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Long-Term Memory • Long-term memory refers to the continuing storage of information. • This information is largely outside of our awareness, but can be called into working memory to be used when needed. • Some information is fairly easy to recall/other memories are more difficult to access. The Duration of Long-Term Memory • Through the process of association and rehearsal short-term memory can become long-term memory. • While long-term memory is also susceptible to the forgetting process, long-term memories can last for a matter of days to as long as many decades.
  18. 18. The Process of Listening (cont.) Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Stage 6: Remembering Chunking: A term referring to the process of taking individual units of information (chunks) and grouping them into larger units. • The most common example of chunking occurs in phone numbers. • For example, a phone number sequence of 4-7-1-1-3-2-4 would be chunked into 471-1324.
  19. 19. Chunking Tips 1) Form an acronym •Write the facts you need to remember. •Underline the first letter of each fact. •Arrange the underlined letters to form an acronym that is a real word word you can pronounce. Examples: HOMES -The five Great Lakes: Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, and Superior Order of Operations in Math
  20. 20. MAPIT
  21. 21. 5 Forms of Nonlistening 1) Pseudo listening 2) Monopolizing 3) Selective listening 4) Defensive listening 5) Ambushing
  22. 22. Forms of Nonlistening 1. Pseudo listening • Pretending to listen. • Happens when we are bored, but want to appear interested. Indicators: • Responses that don’t make sense. • Confusion, when called upon in class. • Asking to have message repeated, or asking questions about information already given.
  23. 23. Forms of Nonlistening 2. Monopolizing Focusing on ourselves Instead of listening to others. Tactics: •Conversation rerouting – Bringing conversation back to ourselves. •Interrupting – questions and challenges to speaker to divert conversation in another direction
  24. 24. Forms of Nonlistening 3) Selective listening Focusing on particular parts of a conversation. Examples: •If a professor says “this will be on the exam.” •Things we aren’t interested in. •Ideas or information we don’t agree with or make us uneasy. •Information that is critical to us or our loved ones.
  25. 25. Forms of Nonlistening 4) Defensive listening Perceiving information as personal attacks, Criticism, or hostility in communication that is not. • We read motives into whatever a person says. • We perceive negative judgment in innocent comments. • Other instances are over specific topics, vulnerable times, or having low self esteem. Tip: We can miss important information and can turn people off from being honest with us.
  26. 26. Forms of Nonlistening 5) Ambushing • Literal listening carefully for purpose of attacking a speaker. • Involves careful listening, unlike the other forms of communication. • Intent to gather information to attack.
  27. 27. Auding - Mindfulness BE HERE NOW •We don’t let our thoughts drift. •We do not focus on our feelings and responses. •We put away electronic devices and or stop any activities that can get in the way. •We fully tune in (without imposing our ideas, judgments, biases, stereotyp es, prejudices, values, and feelings) •It’s a choice to be mindful “The present moment is filled with joy and happiness. If you are attentive, you will see it” ― Thich Nhat Hanh, Peace Is Every Step: The Path of Mindfulness in Everyday Life
  28. 28. 6 Barriers to Effective Listening 1. External obstacles – Message overload – Too much information!(Class information, emails, text message, voice mail, work) We have to screen or prioritize. – Message complexity – Complex messages/topics (Science, economics, math classes. Technical words, complex sentences with idioms or slang expressions.) – Noise – Physical noise can be a distraction (phone conversations, phone ringing, arrival of
  29. 29. 6 Barriers to Effective Listening 2. Internal obstacles - Preoccupation – with our own thoughts, feelings, and concerns. 3. Prejudging communicator or the communication: • You dislike or disagree with speaker • You anticipate what the person will say and then you tune them out.(Especially people who hold different views from our own) • You prejudge others based on culture, religion, age, gender, sexual orientation, race, etc.
  30. 30. 6 Barriers to Effective Listening 4. Reacting to emotionally loaded language – Words and phrases that evoke a strong response, positive or negative. We often attack the other person or tune out. “You should,” “Liberal,” “Far Right,” “Family Values,” “Everyone or Everybody” What are your triggers? – Lack of effort – It is hard to listen (especially when noise and physiological conditions.) When this happens tell person you are tired, or want to discuss difficult topics later.
  31. 31. 6 Barriers to Effective Listening 5. Rehearsing a response - This barrier is perhaps the most difficult to overcome. • We spend time rehearsing what we will say before the other person is finished speaking. • One of the reasons is the Speech-rate-ratio: The difference between speech rate and thought rate. 6. Failure to adapt to listening styles - Different skills for different people, situations, settings, etc.
  32. 32. Steps for being a more effective listener
  33. 33. Steps for Being a More Effective Listener Step 1 - •Eliminate distractions so you can concentrate and give speaker full attention. •Be present (eliminate self talk) Step 2 - Look: •Listen to what isn’t being said as an additional component. •Look for nonverbal clues (especially the face and tone of voice) to help understand what the speaker is feeling.
  34. 34. Steps to Being a More Effective Listener Step 3. Active listening (Different from hearing) • Listen for what another person is “really” telling you. • You may not always agree, but try to give them a chance to be heard. • Match verbal with the nonverbal to decipher both the content and emotion of the person’s message (Incongruence – Nonverbal and verbal don’t match – past experience helps.) • Practice confirming responses, not disconfirming responses.
  35. 35. Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  36. 36. Steps to Being a More Effective Listener Step 4 - Ask Questions: Help others to focus by using questions that clarify perceptions. Four purposes of questions: 1. To obtain additional information 2. To find out how a person feels 3. To ask for clarification of a word or phrase 4. To verify your conclusion about the person’s meaning are feeling. Tip: Ask “How” not “Why” questions. “How do you feel about that?” vs. “Why do you feel that way?”Or “How did that happen?” vs. “Why did that happen.”
  37. 37. Steps to Being a More Effective Listener Active Listening The goal of active listening is understand both the feelings and the content of another person’s feelings.. 1) Paraphrase Content: • After the person is done talking (Don’t interrupt) • Restate in your own words what you think the other person is saying. (Different from parroting) 2) Paraphrase Feelings: • You could follow your paraphrase with a comment on feeling, such as: • “I imagine you must be feeling ______”(frustrated, confused, happy, sad, perplexed, etc.) • Followed with “Is that true?” Give the person a chance to respond to your paraphrase.
  38. 38. Practice Paraphrasing • I think we’re seeing too much of each other • (Do I hear you saying that you want some more space or time for yourself?) • I really like communication, but what can I do with the major? • (I get the sense that you are struggling with career choices now, is that right?”) • I don’t know if Pat and I are getting too serious too fast. • (I hear some hesitancy about your relationship with Pat, yes?) • You can borrow my car, if you really need to, but please be careful with it. I can afford any repairs and if you have an accident, I won’t be able to drive home this weekend. (It seems like your car is very important to you right now.)
  39. 39. How we learn and retain information
  40. 40. How to listen better! The “3D” Formula • DDOT – Don’t do other tasks (cleaning glasses, shuffling papers, doodling – one brain process – can really only focus on one task at a time. • DMP – Don’t make plans – Extra listening time gives people the illusion the can make plans, shopping lists, etc. – doing this directs the brain to stop listening. • DD – Don’t daydream – More powerful than DMP – As soon as we start daydreaming the brain stops listening. (It is enjoyable and beneficial – but not when listening.)

×