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  • 1. OSTEOARTHRITIS By, Pranav khawale, BNYS(2nd year)
  • 2. CONTENTS• Definition• Classification• Etiology• Risk Factors• Signs and Symptoms• Differential Diagnosis• Diagnosis• Treatment Options• Magneto therapy• References
  • 3. DEFINITION• Osteoarthritis is characterized by degenerative joint changes that cause – Pain – Tenderness – limited range of motion – Crepitus – Inflammation
  • 4. CLASSIFICATION• Primary OA : – The common joints affected are the weight bearing joints – It commonly affects knees, hips, lumbar or cervical spine• Secondary OA : – It occurs in any joint that might have sustained injury due to trauma or gout or inflammation, some years ago, which goes on produce wear & tear changes
  • 5. ETIOLOGY• Primary osteoarthritis appears to be caused by the cumulative effects of repetitive occupational or recreational joint use (with professions such as baseball pitchers, ballet dancers, dock workers)• which leads to a destruction of the cartilage when individuals are in their 50s and 60s• Degenerative changes are usually age- related, but may also occur as a result of fractures and other mechanical abnormalities
  • 6. ETIOLOGY cont…• There may also be a genetic predisposition• Secondary osteoarthritis is associated with an underlying medical condition (e.g., Wilsons disease, acromegaly, hemochromatosis, hypop arathyroidism)• which can often be treated, resulting in a resolution of the osteoarthritis
  • 7. ETIOLOGY cont…• Bony hypertrophy causing gross deformities• Limited range of motion• Subluxation (incomplete or partial dislocation)
  • 8. Risk Factors• Increasing age• Genetic predisposition• Obesity• Major trauma• History of inflammatory joint disease• Metabolic disorders (e.g., hemochromatosis, acromegaly, calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease [CPPD])• Congenital bone and joint disorders• Certain occupations (e.g., baseball players, ballet dancers, dock workers)
  • 9. Signs and Symptoms• Morning stiffness or stiffness after inactivity for less than 15 minutes• Joint pain, worsened by movement and improved with rest (in severe cases, constant pain)• Soft tissue swelling• Bony crepitus (crackling noise with movement)
  • 10. DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS• Rheumatoid arthritis• Septic arthritis• Bursitis• Neuropathy• Osteoporosis• Metastatic bone disease• Gout
  • 11. DIAGNOSIS• Laboratory Tests- – Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) – Urinalysis – Synovial fluid analysis to rule out CPPD, gout, septic arthritis – Serum analysis to rule out RA factor.
  • 12. DIAGNOSIS cont…• Pathology/Pathophysiology – Irregular loss of cartilage, especially in weight-bearing joints – Joint space narrowing – Synovial inflammation (synovitis) – Bony sclerosis (eburnation) – Bone cysts – Increased number of osteophytes (spurs) at joint margins, the radiologic hallmark of osteoarthritis – Periarticular muscle wasting – Areas of cartilagenous repair, but inferior repair tissue – Gross deformity, loose bodies, and subluxation
  • 13. DIAGNOSIS cont…• Imaging – X rays—to detect joint space narrowing as cartilage is lost, bony sclerosis, bony cysts, osteophytosis – Arthroscopy—to diagnose osteoarthritis – Myelography—to evaluate patients preoperatively
  • 14. TREATMENT OPTIONS• Drug Therapies• Nutrition• Herbs• Homeopathy• Physical Medicine• Acupuncture• Massage• Magneto Therapy
  • 15. MAGNETO THERAPY• Magnetic belt• Magnet application on joint• Magnetized water• Magnetic charged oil massage
  • 16. MAGNETO THERAPY cont…• Magnetic belt
  • 17. MAGNET APPLICATION ON JOINT
  • 18. MAGNETIZED WATER
  • 19. MAGNETIC CHARGED OIL MASSAGE
  • 20. REFERENCES• Fauci AS, Braunwald E, Isselbacher KJ, et al., eds. Harrisons Principles of Internal Medicine. 14th ed. New York, NY: McGraw- Hill, 1998:1935-1941• Kelly WN. Textbook of Internal Medicine. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott-Raven; 1997:1121-1124• Harsh Mohan – pathology book; 5 th Edition• Magneto therapy book

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