Arthritis is inflammation of
•Symptoms of arthritis;
(worsen with age).
Types of arthritis are;
Treatment and drugs
Prevalence of OA
Difference between Osteoarthritis &
Degeneration of joint cartilage and the
Often called wear-and-tear arthritis.
Occurs when the protective cartilage on
the ends of our bones wears down over
It is most common form of arthritis.
Covers the ends of bones, which allows them to glide
over each other.
It also helps in absorbing the shock of movement.
Top layer of cartilage break down and wears away
consequently and the bones under the cartilage rub
together. That causes; pain, swelling, and loss of
motion of the joint.
Over time, the joint may lose its normal shape
Bone spur extra bone growth that is not needed.
• Sometimes, bits of bone or cartilage can
break off and float inside the joint space, which causes
more pain and damage.
• Osteoarthritis gradually worsens with time, and no
“wear and tear” osteoarthritis, more
No specific causes.
Tend to develop around age 55 or 60.
Associate with aging.
Include joint pain, stiffness, and limitation of
Specific cause such as
An effect of obesity.
Tends to strike at an earlier age, around 45
Symptoms often develop slowly and worsen
Signs and symptoms;
Loss of flexibility
Joint may hurt during or after movement
Loss of flexibility;
patient may not be able to move their joint
through its full range of motion
Joint stiffness may be most noticeable when you
wake up in the morning or after a period of
These extra bits of bone, which feel like hard
lumps, may form around the affected joint.
Patient may hear or feel a grating sensation when
he use the joint.
Joint may feel tender when you apply light
pressure to it.
OA occur when cartilage that cushions the end of
bones in the joint detoriates over time.
smooth surface of cartilage become rough ,causing
Eventully,if the cartilage wear down competly,patient
may be left with bone rubbing on bone causing ends
of bone to become damage and joint become painful
causes of OA are not clear in some cases researches
suspect that it’s combination of factors.
Factors that increase risk include;
The risk of OA increases with age.
Women are more likely to develop osteoarthritis,
though it isn't clear why.
Some people are born with malformed joints or
defective cartilage, which can increase the risk of
Explanation of RF..
Injuries, such as those that occur when playing
sports or from an accident, may increase the risk of
Carrying more body weight puts added stress on
your weight-bearing joints, such as your knees.
If your job includes tasks that place repetitive stress
on a particular joint, that joint may eventually develop
Having diabetes, underactive thyroid, gout or Paget's
disease of bone can increase risk of developing
OA is higher in women than men
In women it
Osteoarthritis is a degenerative disease
that worsens over time. Joint pain and
stiffness may become severe enough to
make daily tasks difficult. Some people are
no longer able to work. When joint pain is
this severe, doctors may suggest joint
X-rays. Cartilage doesn't show up on X-ray
images, but the loss of cartilage is revealed by a
narrowing of the space between the bones in your
joint. An X-ray may also show bone spurs around a
joint. Many people have X-ray evidence of
osteoarthritis before they experience any
Lab tests:Analyzing blood or joint fluid can
help pinpoint the diagnosis.
Imaging tests:Pictures of the affected joint
can be obtained during imaging tests.
Blood tests. Blood tests may help rule out
other causes of joint pain, such as rheumatoid
Magnetic resonance imaging
(MRI). MRI uses radio waves and a strong
magnetic field to produce detailed images of bone
and soft tissues, including cartilage.
Joint fluid analysis. Doctor may use a
needle to draw fluid out of the affected joint.
Examining and testing the fluid from joint can
determine if there's inflammation and if pain is
caused by gout or an infection
Arthroscopy: Arthroscopy to see inside the
joint in order to determine the case of pain.
During this small pain incision is made and small
camera is inserted to see inside the joint.
There are 4 stages of OA
Sub acute Osteoarthritis.
Word acute in medical jargon means short-term
One might have acute pain (severe) for a short period
When it comes to osteoarthritis, the acute stage is
characterized by occasional joint pain. Short periods
of time where joints—knees, hips, elbows, hands,
fingers—are stiff and painful to move.
People in the acute state of osteoarthritis don’t
think of themselves as having arthritis.
Ignore minor aches and pains.
But this is a big mistake.
Osteoarthritis is a progressive disease. Without
taking some action to arrest it in the acute stage
Some people think the weather may play a role,
and that’s partly true.
Cold weather does cause stiffness and loss of
flexibility in people with acute osteoarthritis. It
can take a while for joints to warm up and allow
flexibility to return.
Treatment; one of the very best natural
treatments is Devil’s Claw extract
People who are in the sub acute stage of
osteoarthritis are very much aware they have a
problem with their joints.
This stage is characterized by localized joint pain.
People may feel extreme pain and stiffness in
their fingers and hands, but their other joints
function properly and painlessly.
Sub acute OA
The thing to remember about subacute
osteoarthritis is that “it’s not too late”.
At this stage, localized pain and stiffness can not
only be relieved, but it can also be reversed. Like
Treatment. Devil’s Claw extract, glucosamine,
boswellia, and curcumin can be useful in this stage.
If osteoarthritis has progressed to the chronic
stage, you are probably in quite a bit of pain.
Movement in the chronic stage can be severely
limited, and patient take prescription
drugs (nonsteriodal anti-inflammatory drugs)
designed to relieve the symptoms, but do nothing
to address the cause of the disease.
These drugs often have unpleasant side effects.
In chronic osteoarthritis, there is still hope.
Treatment; Nature’s pharmacy contains some
amazing treatments that can bring relief to those
who are in the chronic stage.
Again, Devil’s Claw extract,glucosamine,
chondroitin, betaine, and ginger extract.
Degenerative stage of osteoarthritis is truly
Characterized by a complete loss of cartilage
surrounding the joint and the terrible pain of
bone rubbing on bone.
People in the DS are often immobile, and
wheelchair bound. They are also prescribed
powerful narcotic pain killers to relieve the
There's no known cure for osteoarthritis,
but treatments can help to reduce pain and
maintain joint movement
No steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs .
Treatment & Drugs.
A combination approach to treatment
often works best. Doctor may suggest:
Physical therapy.A physical therapist can
work with patient to create an individualized
exercise regimen that will strengthen the muscles
around joint, increase the range of motion in joint
and reduce pain.
Occupational therapy.An occupational
therapist can help you discover ways to do
everyday tasks or do your job without putting
extra stress on your already painful joint. For
instance, a toothbrush with a large grip could
make brushing your teeth easier if you have finger
osteoarthritis. A bench in your shower could help
relieve the pain of standing if you have knee
Braces or shoe inserts. Consider trying
splints, braces, shoe inserts or other medical
devices that can help reduce pain. These devices
can immobilize or support joint to help you keep
pressure off it.
A chronic pain class.
These classes teach skills that help to manage
your osteoarthritis pain. And you'll meet other
people with osteoarthritis and learn their tips and
tricks for reducing and coping with joint pain.
Flexibility and stretching exercises: can
expand or preserve the range of motion and
elasticity in affected joints and thus relieve the
stiffness that leads to pain
low impact aerobic exercise
program :can aid in controlling weight, which in
turn lessens impact and stress on the joints
• Repeated motion of the joint is necessary to
maintain normal joint health
The variety of options available to control pain is
Heat therapy prior to exercise to warm up stiff
muscles and joints and make them more easy to
Ice therapy or cold packs after exercise to cool
Elastic supports sometimes worn for several
hours, are often effective.
Tai Chi. This Eastern exercise approach is
especially beneficial for building strength and
flexibility and balance, and provides moderate for
aerobic benefits. For elderly individuals, Tai Chi is
considered a relatively save form of exercise
because the movements are slow and fluid.
It provides balance of body It is sometimes called
"moving meditation," because the focus is on
breathing and creating inner stillness - quieting
the mind, relaxing the body
Yoga. Another Eastern exercise
approach, yoga is especially beneficial for building
strength, balance and flexibility,
control osteoarthritis pain.
provides mental benefits, such as peace of mind
reduce the feelings of stress and anxiety
Pilates. strengthening program that slightly
elevates the heart rate and incorporates
stretching the limbs and joints to increase
While this form of exercise is typically more
demanding than many forms of Tai Chi and yoga,
pilates exercise is effective for building
strength, especially the in the core body muscles,
and is gentle on the joints.
Exercise walking or using a treadmill,
stationary biking: exercise provide a good
aerobic workout with relatively little stress on the
joints. Stationary biking and the elliptical trainer
cause less stress on the spine than walking or using
Water therapy. When doing exercises in a
pool, the water provides enough resistance to help
build strength but it also stabilizes the body in a way
that open-air exercise cannot
Assistive devises : Different devices are used
like canes, electric-powered eat lift, raised toilet
seats,& shower bars can reduce the stress on
Trance cutaneous nerve stimulation
(TENS): unit delivers mild electric current to
skin stimulating nerve fibers in the skin that may
interfere with the transmission of pain signals
from the arthritic joint.
Magnet application on joint
Magnetic charged oil massage.
Treatment through surgery
The diagnosis of osteoarthritis begins
with a medical history, or information
about health background
Important part of the diagnostic process
is the physical exam to find out how
arthritis is affecting your body.
It’s important to see doctor if you
Sudden swelling, warmth, redness along
with pain in any joint(s)
Joint pain accompanied by a fever and/or
Severe pain that prevents you from using
Apply over the counter pain cream
Use heat and cold to mange pain
Use assistive devices
Osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis is the
cause behind the joint symptoms.
Osteoarthritis is caused by mechanical wear and
tear on joints
Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease in
which the body's own immune system attacks the
Difference Btw Osteo & Rheumatoid Arthritis
racteristic Rheumatoid arthritis Osteoarthritis
e at which the condition
It may begin any time in life. It usually begins later in life.
ed of onset Relatively rapid, over weeks to
Slow, over years
ntsymptoms Joints are painful, swollen, and
Joints ache and may be tende
but have little or no swelling.
ern of joints that are
It often affects small and large
joints on both sides of the body
(symmetrical), such as both
hands, both wrists or elbows, or
the balls of both feet.
Symptoms often begin on
oneside of the body and may
spread to the other side.
Symptoms begin gradually
usually large weigh bearing
joint (knee, hip) or spine.
ration of morning
Morning stiffness lasts longer
than 1 hour.
Morning stiffness lasts less
than 1 hour. Stiffness returns
at the end of the day or after
periods of activity.
sence of symptoms
cting the whole body
Frequent fatigue and a general
feeling of being ill are present.
Whole-body symptoms are