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  1. 1. Osteoarthritis
  2. 2. Arthritis is inflammation of joints.. •Symptoms of arthritis; joint pain. Stiffness ( (worsen with age).
  3. 3.  Types of arthritis are; osteoarthritis. rheumatoid arthritis. Continued..
  4. 4.  Definition Explanation Types Symptoms Causes  Diagnose Tests Stages Treatment and drugs Contents Of Osteoarthritis.
  5. 5.  Surgery Prevalence of OA Physical Therapy Risk Factors Preventions Difference between Osteoarthritis & Rheumatoid Arthritis Contents
  6. 6.   Degeneration of joint cartilage and the underlying bone.  Often called wear-and-tear arthritis.  Occurs when the protective cartilage on the ends of our bones wears down over time.  It is most common form of arthritis. Definition of Osteoarthritis.
  7. 7.  Cartilage;  Covers the ends of bones, which allows them to glide over each other.  It also helps in absorbing the shock of movement.  Top layer of cartilage break down and wears away consequently and the bones under the cartilage rub together. That causes; pain, swelling, and loss of motion of the joint.  Over time, the joint may lose its normal shape Explanation.
  8. 8.  Osteoarthritis in knee joint
  9. 9.   Bone spur extra bone growth that is not needed. • Sometimes, bits of bone or cartilage can break off and float inside the joint space, which causes more pain and damage. • Osteoarthritis gradually worsens with time, and no cure exists. Continue…..
  10. 10.   Primary Osteoarthritis.  Secondary Osteoarthritis. Types of Osteoarthritis.
  11. 11.   “wear and tear” osteoarthritis, more commonly diagnosed.  Spontaneous.  No specific causes.  Tend to develop around age 55 or 60.  Associate with aging.  Include joint pain, stiffness, and limitation of movement. Primary Osteoarthritis.
  12. 12.   Specific cause such as  Injury.  An effect of obesity.  Genetics.  Inactivity  other diseases.  Tends to strike at an earlier age, around 45 or 50. Secondary Osteoarthritis.
  13. 13.   Symptoms often develop slowly and worsen over time.  Signs and symptoms;  Pain  Tenderness  Stiffness  Loss of flexibility  Grating sensation  Bone spurs Symptoms.
  14. 14.   Pain; Joint may hurt during or after movement  Loss of flexibility; patient may not be able to move their joint through its full range of motion  Stiffness; Joint stiffness may be most noticeable when you wake up in the morning or after a period of inactivity. Symptom’s Explanation.
  15. 15.  Bone spurs; These extra bits of bone, which feel like hard lumps, may form around the affected joint. Grating sensation; Patient may hear or feel a grating sensation when he use the joint.  Tenderness; Joint may feel tender when you apply light pressure to it. Continue…..
  16. 16.   OA occur when cartilage that cushions the end of bones in the joint detoriates over time.  smooth surface of cartilage become rough ,causing irritation.  Eventully,if the cartilage wear down competly,patient may be left with bone rubbing on bone causing ends of bone to become damage and joint become painful  causes of OA are not clear in some cases researches suspect that it’s combination of factors. Causes.
  17. 17.   Factors that increase risk include;  Older age  Sex  Bone deformities  Joint injuries  Obesity  Certain Occupations  Other diseases Risk Factors
  18. 18.  Older age. The risk of OA increases with age. Sex.  Women are more likely to develop osteoarthritis, though it isn't clear why. Bonedeformities. Some people are born with malformed joints or defective cartilage, which can increase the risk of OA. Explanation of RF..
  19. 19.  Joint injuries. Injuries, such as those that occur when playing sports or from an accident, may increase the risk of osteoarthritis. Obesity. Carrying more body weight puts added stress on your weight-bearing joints, such as your knees. Continue..
  20. 20.   Certain occupations. If your job includes tasks that place repetitive stress on a particular joint, that joint may eventually develop osteoarthritis.  Other diseases. Having diabetes, underactive thyroid, gout or Paget's disease of bone can increase risk of developing osteoarthritis. Continue….
  21. 21.   OA is higher in women than men  In women it increases dramatically around the time of menopause. Prevalence of Osteoarthritis
  22. 22.   Osteoarthritis is a degenerative disease that worsens over time. Joint pain and stiffness may become severe enough to make daily tasks difficult. Some people are no longer able to work. When joint pain is this severe, doctors may suggest joint replacement surgery. Complications
  23. 23.  X-rays. Cartilage doesn't show up on X-ray images, but the loss of cartilage is revealed by a narrowing of the space between the bones in your joint. An X-ray may also show bone spurs around a joint. Many people have X-ray evidence of osteoarthritis before they experience any symptoms.  Lab tests:Analyzing blood or joint fluid can help pinpoint the diagnosis. Test
  24. 24.  Imaging tests:Pictures of the affected joint can be obtained during imaging tests.  Blood tests. Blood tests may help rule out other causes of joint pain, such as rheumatoid arthritis.  Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI uses radio waves and a strong magnetic field to produce detailed images of bone and soft tissues, including cartilage. Continue..
  25. 25.   Joint fluid analysis. Doctor may use a needle to draw fluid out of the affected joint. Examining and testing the fluid from joint can determine if there's inflammation and if pain is caused by gout or an infection  Arthroscopy: Arthroscopy to see inside the joint in order to determine the case of pain. During this small pain incision is made and small camera is inserted to see inside the joint. Continue.
  26. 26.  There are 4 stages of OA Acute Osteoarthritis. Sub acute Osteoarthritis. Chronic Osteoarthritis. Degenerative Osteoarthritis. Stages..
  27. 27.   Word acute in medical jargon means short-term and/or severe.  One might have acute pain (severe) for a short period of time.  When it comes to osteoarthritis, the acute stage is characterized by occasional joint pain. Short periods of time where joints—knees, hips, elbows, hands, fingers—are stiff and painful to move.  People in the acute state of osteoarthritis don’t think of themselves as having arthritis.  Ignore minor aches and pains.  But this is a big mistake. Acute OA
  28. 28.   Osteoarthritis is a progressive disease. Without taking some action to arrest it in the acute stage  Some people think the weather may play a role, and that’s partly true.  Cold weather does cause stiffness and loss of flexibility in people with acute osteoarthritis. It can take a while for joints to warm up and allow flexibility to return.  Treatment; one of the very best natural treatments is Devil’s Claw extract
  29. 29.   People who are in the sub acute stage of osteoarthritis are very much aware they have a problem with their joints.  This stage is characterized by localized joint pain.  People may feel extreme pain and stiffness in their fingers and hands, but their other joints function properly and painlessly. Sub acute OA
  30. 30.   The thing to remember about subacute osteoarthritis is that “it’s not too late”.  At this stage, localized pain and stiffness can not only be relieved, but it can also be reversed. Like acute osteoarthritis Treatment. Devil’s Claw extract, glucosamine, boswellia, and curcumin can be useful in this stage.
  31. 31.   If osteoarthritis has progressed to the chronic stage, you are probably in quite a bit of pain.  Movement in the chronic stage can be severely limited, and patient take prescription drugs (nonsteriodal anti-inflammatory drugs) designed to relieve the symptoms, but do nothing to address the cause of the disease.  These drugs often have unpleasant side effects. Chorionic OA
  32. 32.   In chronic osteoarthritis, there is still hope. Treatment; Nature’s pharmacy contains some amazing treatments that can bring relief to those who are in the chronic stage.  Again, Devil’s Claw extract,glucosamine, chondroitin, betaine, and ginger extract.
  33. 33.   Degenerative stage of osteoarthritis is truly unfortunate.  Characterized by a complete loss of cartilage surrounding the joint and the terrible pain of bone rubbing on bone.  People in the DS are often immobile, and wheelchair bound. They are also prescribed powerful narcotic pain killers to relieve the condition Degenerative OA
  34. 34.   There's no known cure for osteoarthritis, but treatments can help to reduce pain and maintain joint movement Medications. Acetaminophen. No steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs . Narcotics. Treatment & Drugs.
  35. 35.  A combination approach to treatment often works best. Doctor may suggest: Physical therapy.A physical therapist can work with patient to create an individualized exercise regimen that will strengthen the muscles around joint, increase the range of motion in joint and reduce pain. Physical Therapy
  36. 36.  Occupational therapy.An occupational therapist can help you discover ways to do everyday tasks or do your job without putting extra stress on your already painful joint. For instance, a toothbrush with a large grip could make brushing your teeth easier if you have finger osteoarthritis. A bench in your shower could help relieve the pain of standing if you have knee osteoarthritis.
  37. 37.  Braces or shoe inserts. Consider trying splints, braces, shoe inserts or other medical devices that can help reduce pain. These devices can immobilize or support joint to help you keep pressure off it.  A chronic pain class.  These classes teach skills that help to manage your osteoarthritis pain. And you'll meet other people with osteoarthritis and learn their tips and tricks for reducing and coping with joint pain.
  38. 38.  Flexibility and stretching exercises: can expand or preserve the range of motion and elasticity in affected joints and thus relieve the stiffness that leads to pain low impact aerobic exercise program :can aid in controlling weight, which in turn lessens impact and stress on the joints • Repeated motion of the joint is necessary to maintain normal joint health
  39. 39.   The variety of options available to control pain is extensive, including Heat therapy prior to exercise to warm up stiff muscles and joints and make them more easy to stretch Ice therapy or cold packs after exercise to cool swollen joints Elastic supports sometimes worn for several hours, are often effective.
  40. 40.   Tai Chi. This Eastern exercise approach is especially beneficial for building strength and flexibility and balance, and provides moderate for aerobic benefits. For elderly individuals, Tai Chi is considered a relatively save form of exercise because the movements are slow and fluid.  It provides balance of body It is sometimes called "moving meditation," because the focus is on breathing and creating inner stillness - quieting the mind, relaxing the body
  41. 41.   Yoga. Another Eastern exercise approach, yoga is especially beneficial for building  strength, balance and flexibility,  control osteoarthritis pain.  provides mental benefits, such as peace of mind  reduce the feelings of stress and anxiety
  42. 42.   Pilates. strengthening program that slightly elevates the heart rate and incorporates stretching the limbs and joints to increase flexibility.  While this form of exercise is typically more demanding than many forms of Tai Chi and yoga,  pilates exercise is effective for building strength, especially the in the core body muscles, and is gentle on the joints.
  43. 43.   Exercise walking or using a treadmill, stationary biking: exercise provide a good aerobic workout with relatively little stress on the joints. Stationary biking and the elliptical trainer cause less stress on the spine than walking or using a treadmill.  Water therapy. When doing exercises in a pool, the water provides enough resistance to help build strength but it also stabilizes the body in a way that open-air exercise cannot
  44. 44.  Assistive devises : Different devices are used like canes, electric-powered eat lift, raised toilet seats,& shower bars can reduce the stress on joint.  Trance cutaneous nerve stimulation (TENS): unit delivers mild electric current to skin stimulating nerve fibers in the skin that may interfere with the transmission of pain signals from the arthritic joint.
  45. 45.   Magnetic belt  Magnet application on joint  Magnetized water  Magnetic charged oil massage. Magneto Therapy
  46. 46.  Cortisone shots. Lubrication injections. Realigning bones Joint replacement. Treatment through surgery
  47. 47.   The diagnosis of osteoarthritis begins with a medical history, or information about health background Important part of the diagnostic process is the physical exam to find out how arthritis is affecting your body. Diagnosis
  48. 48.   It’s important to see doctor if you experience symptoms  Sudden swelling, warmth, redness along with pain in any joint(s)  Joint pain accompanied by a fever and/or rash  Severe pain that prevents you from using the joint Continue.
  49. 49.   Rest  Exercise  lose Weight  Apply over the counter pain cream  Use heat and cold to mange pain  Use assistive devices Preventions
  50. 50.   Osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis is the cause behind the joint symptoms.  Osteoarthritis is caused by mechanical wear and tear on joints  Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease in which the body's own immune system attacks the body's joints. Difference Btw Osteo & Rheumatoid Arthritis
  51. 51. racteristic Rheumatoid arthritis Osteoarthritis e at which the condition ts It may begin any time in life. It usually begins later in life. ed of onset Relatively rapid, over weeks to months Slow, over years ntsymptoms Joints are painful, swollen, and stiff. Joints ache and may be tende but have little or no swelling. ern of joints that are cted It often affects small and large joints on both sides of the body (symmetrical), such as both hands, both wrists or elbows, or the balls of both feet. Symptoms often begin on oneside of the body and may spread to the other side. Symptoms begin gradually usually large weigh bearing joint (knee, hip) or spine. ration of morning fness Morning stiffness lasts longer than 1 hour. Morning stiffness lasts less than 1 hour. Stiffness returns at the end of the day or after periods of activity. sence of symptoms cting the whole body temic) Frequent fatigue and a general feeling of being ill are present. Whole-body symptoms are not present.