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Project mgt
Project mgt
Project mgt
Project mgt
Project mgt
Project mgt
Project mgt
Project mgt
Project mgt
Project mgt
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Project mgt

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  • 1. PROJECT MANAGEMENT An ExampleBuilding construction © 1995 Corel Corp. Project Organization Works Best WhenWork can be defined with a specific goal and deadlineThe job is unique or somewhat unfamiliar to the existingorganizationThe work contains complex interrelated tasks requiringspecialized skillsThe project is temporary but critical to the organization 1
  • 2. Project Planning, Scheduling, and Controlling Project Planning Time/cost estimates 1. Setting goals Budgets 2. Defining the project Engineering diagrams 3. Tying needs into timed project Cash flow charts activities Material availability details 4. Organizing the team Project Scheduling 1. Tying resources to specific CPM/PERT activities Gantt charts 2. Relating activities to each other Milestone charts 3. Updating and revising on a Cash flow schedules regular basis Project Controlling Reports 1. Monitoring resources, costs, quality, • budgets and budgets • delayed activities 2. Revising and changing plans • slack activities 3. Shifting resources to meet demandsBefore Project During Project Project Planning Establishing objectives Defining project Creating work breakdown structure Determining resources Forming organization © 1995 Corel Corp. Work Breakdown Structure 1. Project 2. Major tasks in the project 3. Subtasks in the major tasks 4. Activities (or work packages) to be completed 2
  • 3. Project SchedulingIdentifying precedence relationshipsSequencing activitiesDetermining activity times & costsEstimating material & worker © 1995 Corel Corp.requirementsDetermining critical activities PERT Tes J t J M Bui A ld Mo M De nth F sign J Ac tivi ty Project Management Techniques Gantt chart Critical Path Method (CPM) Program Evaluation & Review Technique (PERT) © 1984-1994 T/Maker Co. Gantt Chart Time Period Activity J F M A M J J Design Build Test 3
  • 4. Service Activities for A Delta Jet During a 60 Minute Layover PERT and CPM Network techniques Developed in 1950’s CPM by DuPont for chemical plants (1957) PERT by Booz, Allen & Hamilton with the U.S. Navy, for Polaris missile (1958) Consider precedence relationships and interdependencies Each uses a different estimate of activity times Milwaukee General Hospital’s Activities and Predecessors Activity Description Immediate Predecessors A Build internal components - B Modify roof and floor - C Construct collection stack A D Pour concrete and install frame A, B E Build high-temperature burner C F Install pollution control system C G Install air pollution device D, E H Inspect and test F, G 4
  • 5. F A CStart E H B D G Activity Description Immediate Predecessors A Build internal components - B Modify roof and floor - C Construct collection stack A D Pour concrete and install frame A, B E Build high-temperature burner C F Install pollution control system C G Install air pollution device D, E H Inspect and test F, G Latest Start and Finish Steps Name Activity Earliest Earliest Start ES EF Finish Latest LS LF Duration Activity Start Latest Finish Critical Path Analysis Provides activity information Earliest (ES) & latest (LS) start Earliest (EF) & latest (LF) finish Slack (S): Allowable delay Identifies critical path Longest path in network Shortest time project can be completed Any delay on critical path activities delays project Critical path activities have 0 slack 5
  • 6. Earliest Start and Finish Steps Begin at starting event and work forward ES = 0 for starting activities ES is earliest start EF = ES + Activity time EF is earliest finish ES = Maximum EF of all predecessors for non-starting activities Latest Start and Finish Steps Begin at ending event and work backward LF = Maximum EF for ending activities LF is latest finish; EF is earliest finish LS = LF - Activity time LS is latest start LF = Minimum LS of all successors for non-ending activities Latest Start and Finish Steps Name ActivityEarliest EarliestStart ES EF FinishLatest LS LF Duration ActivityStart Latest Finish 6
  • 7. We have 13 days for this project Earliest LatestEarliest Finish StartStart A B CF 7 0 2 2 4 4 H H H 6 A 8 8 C10 10 13 2 2 3 Latest FinishWe can begin the project as early as day 0 ---immediatelyTask A costs 2 days, so the earliest day we can finish it is day 2We must finish the project in day 13, so the latest finish day for task C isday 13Task C takes 3 days, so the latest time that we should begin it is day10 Critical Path for Milwaukee General Hospital F A C F Start H B D G w s sho Arrow dence prece ships n relatio Earliest Latest Finish StartEarliestStart A C F 0 2 2 4 4 F 7 H H H 0 A 2 2 C4 10 13 2 2 3 E H Slack=0 Slack=0 4 H 8 Slack=6 13 H 15 0 0 F H Start 4 8 15 0 0 4 13 0 2 B D Slack=0 G Start 0 B 3 3 D7 8 G 13 Slack=0 H H H 1 4 4 8 8 13 3 4 5 Latest Slack=1 Slack=1 Slack=0 Finish 7
  • 8. Gantt Chart Earliest Start and Finish Milwaukee General Hospital 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1112 13 1415 16A Build internal componentsB Modify roof and floorC Construct collection stackD Pour concrete and installframeE Build high-temperatureburnerF Install pollution controlsystemG Install air pollution deviceH Inspect and test Gantt Chart Latest Start and Finish Milwaukee General Hospital 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1112 13 1415 16A Build internal componentsB Modify roof and floorC Construct collection stackD Pour concrete and installframeE Build high-temperatureburnerF Install pollution controlsystemG Install air pollution deviceH Inspect and test PERT Activity Times 3 time estimates Optimistic times (a) Most-likely time (m) Pessimistic time (b) Follow beta distribution Expected time: t = (a + 4m + b)/6 Variance of times: v = (b - a)2/6 8
  • 9. Project Times Expected project time (T) Used to obtain Sum of critical path activity probability of project times, t completion! Project variance (V) Sum of critical path activity variances, v PERT Probability ExampleYou’re a project planner for GeneralDynamics. A submarine project has anexpected completion time of 40 weeks,with a standard deviation of 5 weeks.What is the probability of finishing the sub © 1995 Corel Corp.in 50 weeks or less? Converting to Standardized Variable Due date Expected date of finish X - T 50 - 40 Z = = = 2 .0 s 5 Normal Standardized Normal Distribution Standard deviation Distribution s =5 sZ = 1 T = 40 50 X mz = 0 2.0 Z 9
  • 10. Obtaining the ProbabilityStandardized Normal ProbabilityTable (Portion) Z .00 .01 .020.0 .50000 .50399 .50798 sZ =1 : : : :2.0 .97725 .97784 .97831 .977252.1 .98214 .98257 .98300 mz = 0 2.0 Z Probabilities in body Variability of Completion Time for Noncritical Paths Variability of times for activities on noncritical paths must be considered when finding the probability of finishing in a specified time. Variation in noncritical activity may cause change in critical path. Steps in Project Crashing Compute the crash cost per time period. For crash costs assumed linear over time: (Crash cost − Normal cost Crash cost per period = (Normal time − Crash time ) Using current activity times, find the critical path If there is only one critical path, then select the activity on this critical path that (a) can still be crashed, and (b) has the smallest crash cost per period. Note that a single activity may be common to more than one critical path Update all activity times. 10

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