In most societies throughout most of thesecond millennium, women weredeprived of property, education, andlegal status. They were made to theresponsibility of their husbands or fathers.The ChangeAs a woman writer, Pisan is an example ofan exceptional woman who challengedpatriarchal structures in defending womenand defeating the authority of men.ImpactAnd still in our times feministic writers arecontinuing to demand improvements inwomens social and personal rights.
Impact The invention of the printing press represents the very beginning of the possibility to provide the available knowledge and the recent religious and scientific theories to the public.Johannes Gutenberg, a German printer andpioneer in the use of movable type, inventedhis printing press around 1450. In this way Gutenbergs Bible was the first mass product!ChangeInstead of writing the books by hand like informer days , the printing process consistingof making a lot of identical reproductions ofan original was the big change.
Change Leonardo designed many inventions that were so modern that it should last until our time before they could be realized. For example the helicopter and the war tank. Impact In his paintings he used a “vanishing point”. This method gives the paintings a three-dimensional space.Leonardo has been described as the typical “Renaissance Man”. He was aartist, scientist and inventor. He painted some of the most famous paintingsin the history, like Mona Lisa and The Last Supper, and had ideas of manyvery modern inventions.
ChangeColumbus was a navigational genius andcame to believe that he could reach EastAsia—what he called “the Indies”—bysailing west from Europe. By his courageand skills he reshaped the humanitys viewof the earth.ImpactColumbus’s explorations had an largeimpact on our modern world. They leddirectly to the opening of the westernhemisphere to European colonization towide exchanges of plants, animals, culturesand ideas between the two worlds. And alsotoday the Europeans are still orientingthemselves on America.
The Humanist and TheologianGiovanni Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494) writes in his book Oration of thedignity of man that unlike othercreatures, mankind has not beenassigned a fixed place in the universe.ChangeOur destiny is not determined by Impactanything outside us. God gave us the His ideas about the right of man toliberty to determine the form and value decide himself about his destinyour lives shall acquire. In other words, have been carried on until theman is the master of his own destiny. modern time. Many people tries to live their lives after this idea.
In the Renaissancetimes whenRenaissance Womanwas supposed to marrywell and give birth toboys, Isabelle d’Estedid not fit this mold.At the age of sixteen,Isabella dEste was ableto speak Greek andLatin, was very well-educated, understoodarts and sciences andwas able to debate with Impactpeople much older than While she was governing Mantua,her. she showed great leadership skills and a huge political talent. By commenting on politics in moreChange over two thousands letters she sat anAfter her husband’s, - example for women to break awayFrancesco Gonzagas’s from the traditional role.death, - she took overhis job and ruled asMarchioness of Also in our times, Isabelle d’EsteMantua Mantua on her inspires young women to takeown (1509). actively part in politics.
Change On October 31, 1517, Luther nailed his 95 Theses against the selling of indulgences at the door of the All Saints Castle Church in Wittenberg , marking the beginning of the Protestant Reformation. Impact Historians consider his revolutionary ideas the single most important contribution to the Reformation, a movement that ultimately broke Catholicisms 1,200-year dominance in Europe andMartin Luther, a professor of theology gave rise to Protestantism.at the University of Wittenberg, Lutheranism is one of manyattacked the corruption of the papacy Protestant denominations and has today about 316 millions adherents.and the Catholic church sellingindulgences by monetary payment .
Apart from her political role, Catherine ofMedici was a patron of the Arts. Herinterest in architecture led to theconstruction of a new wing of the Louvreand of the landscaping of the gardens of theTuileries.ChangeShe founded a great library, containinglots of rare manuscripts, which was veryfamous in Renaissance France.ImpactThe incredible amount of knowledgecollected in her library is still useful and ofinterest for scientists in our times.Some of the architecture encouraged by hermay have inspired lots of architects in the20th century.
The political philosopher, ImpactNiccolo di Bernardo dei Machiavelli is regardedMachiavelli, wrote the The as the father of modernPrince, a short guide to political theory.political power in 1505, He introduced a secular concept of the state - apublished in 1532. state divorced from its theological implications.Change In our days in most of the modern states theHe turned away from power of the state ismorality, religion and the separated from thepapacy believing that the power of the church, like in France, Swedenstate was a creation of men, and Austria.not of God . The state and theprince were considered to be Unfortunately,one and the same thing. The Machiavelli’s thoughtsEssence of any state is power . about the maintenance of power have often been misused by authoritarian regimes.
Change Bacon remained extremely influential through his works, especially as during the scientific practitioner of the scientific method evolution.Bacon was an English philosopher, His demand for a plannedscientist and pioneer of the scientific procedure of investigating all thingsmethod. He is called the father of natural marked a new turn in the rhetorical and theoreticalEmpiricism, a theory of knowledge, framework for science.highlighting that knowledge comesprimarily via sensory experience. Impact It is still an important part of theHis works established inductive scientific methodology of today that all hypotheses and theoriesmethodologies for scientific inquiry, must be tested against observationsoften called the Baconian or scientific of the natural world by experiments.method.
William Shakespeare was an Englishplaywright and poet who recognized inmuch of the world as the greatest of alldramatists. He remains our greatestentertainer and perhaps our mostprofound thinker.ChangeShakespeare helped to create much ofthe modern English language. His playsare still played.ImpactHis impact on the world were his skillsof writing drama pieces like Juliet andRomeo.He has inspired many modern writersand poets and other artists. He has anenormous impact on theater, movie andother kind of culture. Shakespeare hascreated figures in his plays, who arefamiliar until today.
Impact Galileo played an important role in the so called “Scientific Revolution”. After the discoveries of Galileo, it was common knowledge that the Earth was not the centre of theGalileo Galilei was an Italian astronomer, but also a Universe and that the Earthphysicist, philosopher and mathematician. moved around the sun. This was contradicting theChange teachings of the Church and Galileo was sent to houseGalileo made many inventions. His most famous arrest in his house.one was the telescope in 1609. With the telescopehe could look to the moon and also discovered thesatellites of Jupiter. When he discovered that the In year 1992, the churchsatellites moved around Jupiter, he later officially declared thatunderstood and proved that the earth moved Galileo was right.around the sun (like another astronomer,Copernicus, had written before him).
Impact What is remarkable about the Rudolphine Tables that is that they proved to be accurate over decades.Calculating tables, the normal business And also today the continuedfor an astronomer, always involved accuracy of the tables is naturallyheavy arithmetic. seen as an argument for the correctness of Keplers laws, and thus for the correctness of theChange heliocentric astronomy.Kepler published a proof of howlogarithms worked, based on Euclid’s“Elements” Book. These tables werepublished with the Rudolphine Tables.The astronomical tables used alsoKeplers laws of planetary motion.
ImpactDescartes tried to apply the rational As scientist and mathematicianmethods of science, and particularly Descartes was one of the mostof mathematics, to philosophy. influential thinkers in WesternBefore his time, philosophy was philosophy in applying the method ofbased on comparing and discussing deductive reasoning in thethe theses of other known philosophy (Cogito, ergo sum...I think,philosophers. therefore I am!) He had a big influence on otherChange modern and rational thinkers likeDescartes pointed out the Henry More and Spinoza.importance of scepticism of thoughtin holding nothing for true until His "Cognito argument" rejects thehaving established grounds for authority of texts and teachers andbelieving that it is true. encourage everyone of us to think independently.
Christine de Pisan Christopher ColumbusSource: Encarta kids Source: christopher-columbus.euImage: newworldencyclopedia.org Image: christopher-columbus.euGutenberg Giovanni Pico della MirandolaSource: Source: http://www.historyguide.org/http://h.whyville.net/smmk/whytim intellect/pico.htmles/article?id=63 Image: http://www.elec-Image: Encarta kids intro.com/oration-picoMartin Luther Isabella dEsteSource: Encarta kids Source:Image: http://www.yesnet.yk.ca/schools/projhttp://thegospelcoalition.org/blogs/j ects/renaissance/renaissancewomen.htustintaylor/2010/10/25/95-theses/ ml Image: artchive.comLeonardo da VinciSource: http://www.davincilife.com/Image: http://www.davincilife.com/
Martin Luther Niccolo di Bernardo dei MachiavelliSource: Encarta kids Source:Image: http://www.historyguide.org/earlymohttp://thegospelcoalition.org/blogs d/lecture1c.html/justintaylor/2010/10/25/95- Image:theses/ http://www.entreprenant.us/2011/01/ 26/book-review-the-prince-by-niccolo-Catherine de Medici machiavelli/Source: Encarta kidsImage: Francis Baconhttp://www.mystudios.com/artgall Source:ery/S/Santi-Di-Tito/Musical-angels- http://www.iep.utm.edu/bacon/with-a-trompe-loeil-cloister,-detail- Image:of-cherub-playing-a-flute,-from-the- http://www.iep.utm.edu/bacon/interior-west-facade.html
William Shakespeare Johannes KeplerSource: http://www.shakespeare- Source: http://www-history.mcs.st-online.com and.ac.uk/Biographies/Kepler.htmlhttp://www.online- Image: http://www-history.mcs.st-literature.com/shakespeare/ and.ac.uk/Biographies/Kepler.htmlImage:http://www.cosmosmagazine.com/ Rene Descartesnews/945/shakespeare-good-brain Source: Encarta kids Image:Galileo Galilei http://www.quia.com/pages/epistemoSource: http://galileo.rice.edu/ logy.htmlhttp://inventors.about.com/od/gstartinventors/a/Galileo_GalileiImage:http://coolwallpaper786.blogspot.com/2011/06/galileo-galilei-telescope.html