31 3 fascism-rises_in_europe

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31 3 fascism-rises_in_europe

  1. 1. Fascism Rises in EuropeFascism Rises in Europe Chapter 31, Section 3Chapter 31, Section 3
  2. 2. IntroductionIntroduction  After World War I, millions of people lost faith inAfter World War I, millions of people lost faith in democratic government. In response, theydemocratic government. In response, they turned to an extreme system of governmentturned to an extreme system of government called fascism. Fascists promised to revive thecalled fascism. Fascists promised to revive the economy, punish those responsible for hardeconomy, punish those responsible for hard times, and restore order and national pride.times, and restore order and national pride. Their message attracted many people who feltTheir message attracted many people who felt frustrated and angered by the peace treaties thatfrustrated and angered by the peace treaties that followed World War I and by the Greatfollowed World War I and by the Great Depression.Depression.
  3. 3. Fascism vs. CommunismFascism vs. Communism DifferencesDifferences FascismFascism  Extremely nationalisticExtremely nationalistic (Fascism is for the good of a(Fascism is for the good of a particular country alone.)particular country alone.)  Does not seek aDoes not seek a “classless society”.“classless society”.  Made up of aristocrats,Made up of aristocrats, industrialists, warindustrialists, war veterans, and lowerveterans, and lower middle class.middle class. CommunismCommunism  InternationalisticInternationalistic (Communists believe their(Communists believe their system should spreadsystem should spread throughout the world.)throughout the world.)  Seeks a “classlessSeeks a “classless society”society”  Made up of urbanMade up of urban working lower classesworking lower classes (Russia) and peasants(Russia) and peasants (China).(China).
  4. 4. Fascism AND CommunismFascism AND Communism SimilaritiesSimilarities Both were ruled by dictators.Both were ruled by dictators. Both allowed only one-party rule.Both allowed only one-party rule. Both denied individual rights.Both denied individual rights. In both, the state was supreme.In both, the state was supreme. Neither practiced democracy.Neither practiced democracy. Both replaced religion with some kind ofBoth replaced religion with some kind of competing belief system (atheism—in thecompeting belief system (atheism—in the case of the communists; religion of racialcase of the communists; religion of racial superiority—in the case of the Nazis)superiority—in the case of the Nazis)
  5. 5. Cultural • Censorship • Indoctrination • Secret police Cultural • Censorship • Indoctrination • Secret police Political • nationalist • racist (Nazism) • one-party rule • supreme leader Political • nationalist • racist (Nazism) • one-party rule • supreme leader Economic • economic functions controlled by state corporations or state Economic • economic functions controlled by state corporations or state Basic Principles • authoritarianism • state more important than the individual • charismatic leader • action oriented Basic Principles • authoritarianism • state more important than the individual • charismatic leader • action oriented Chief Examples • Italy • Spain • Germany Chief Examples • Italy • Spain • Germany Social • Supported by middle class, Industrialists, and military Social • Supported by middle class, Industrialists, and military FascismFascism
  6. 6. Mussolini Takes ControlMussolini Takes Control  Fascism fueled by Italy’sFascism fueled by Italy’s failure to win largefailure to win large territorial gains at theterritorial gains at the Paris Peace Conference.Paris Peace Conference.  Inflation andInflation and unemployment fuelunemployment fuel Fascism.Fascism.  Mussolini promised toMussolini promised to rescue Italy’s economyrescue Italy’s economy and rebuild armed forces.and rebuild armed forces.  Mussolini founds theMussolini founds the Fascist party in 1919.Fascist party in 1919.  Economic downturnEconomic downturn makes Fascists popular.makes Fascists popular.
  7. 7. March on RomeMarch on Rome  October 27-29, 1922 Fascist “blackshirts” march onOctober 27-29, 1922 Fascist “blackshirts” march on Rome an demand that King Victor Emmanuel III putRome an demand that King Victor Emmanuel III put Mussolini in charge of the government. He putsMussolini in charge of the government. He puts Mussolini in power “legally.”Mussolini in power “legally.”
  8. 8. Il Duce’s LeadershipIl Duce’s Leadership  Mussolini was now called “Il Duce” translatedMussolini was now called “Il Duce” translated “the leader.“the leader.  Democracy was abolished along with allDemocracy was abolished along with all opposing political parties to the Fascists.opposing political parties to the Fascists.  Secret police jailed political opponents.Secret police jailed political opponents.  Radio and publications were forced to broadcastRadio and publications were forced to broadcast or public Fascist teachings.or public Fascist teachings.  He sought to control the economy by allyingHe sought to control the economy by allying Fascists with industrialist and large landowners.Fascists with industrialist and large landowners.
  9. 9. Fascist FlagFascist Flag  The originalThe original symbol ofsymbol of Fascism, in ItalyFascism, in Italy under Benitounder Benito Mussolini, wasMussolini, was thethe fascesfasces. This. This is an ancientis an ancient Roman symbol ofRoman symbol of power; a bundlepower; a bundle of sticks featuringof sticks featuring an axe, indicatingan axe, indicating the power overthe power over life and death.life and death. through unity.through unity.
  10. 10. Hitler Rises to Power in GermanyHitler Rises to Power in Germany “When Mussolini became dictator of Italy in the mid-1920s, Adolf Hitler was a little-known political leader whose early life had been marked by disappointment. When World War I broke out, Hitler found a new beginning. He volunteered for the German army and was twice awarded the Iron Cross, a medal for bravery.” (p. 911)
  11. 11. The Rise of the NazisThe Rise of the Nazis  Hitler settled in Munich at the end of World WarHitler settled in Munich at the end of World War I. He was appointed “police-spy” to investigate aI. He was appointed “police-spy” to investigate a small political party known as the “Germansmall political party known as the “German Workers Party.”Workers Party.”  Hitler was impressed by the views of this party’sHitler was impressed by the views of this party’s leader and joined the group.leader and joined the group.  The group later changed its name to theThe group later changed its name to the National Socialist German Workers PartyNational Socialist German Workers Party ,, NaziNazi for short. The policies of this party formedfor short. The policies of this party formed the brand of fascism calledthe brand of fascism called NazismNazism..
  12. 12. Symbols of NazismSymbols of Nazism  The Nazi party choseThe Nazi party chose the swastika as itsthe swastika as its symbol.symbol.  The swastika has beenThe swastika has been used for thousands ofused for thousands of years as a symbol ofyears as a symbol of power.power.
  13. 13. The SA or “Brownshirts”The SA or “Brownshirts”  The Nazis set up aThe Nazis set up a private militia called theprivate militia called the SturmabteilungSturmabteilung meaning “stormmeaning “storm detachment” or “stormdetachment” or “storm troopers.” They were alsotroopers.” They were also called “Brownshirts”called “Brownshirts” because of the brownbecause of the brown uniform they wore. Theuniform they wore. The SA was mostly made upSA was mostly made up ofof working classworking class Nazis.Nazis. They were prone to streetThey were prone to street violence.violence.
  14. 14. Beer Hall PutschBeer Hall Putsch  Within a short time Hitler was chosen as theWithin a short time Hitler was chosen as the FFührer (the leader).ührer (the leader).  Hitler followed Mussolini’s example of the MarchHitler followed Mussolini’s example of the March on Rome and plotted to seize power in Munichon Rome and plotted to seize power in Munich on November 8, 1923.on November 8, 1923.  Hitler wanted to use Munich as a base toHitler wanted to use Munich as a base to overthrow the government in Berlin. This wasoverthrow the government in Berlin. This was called thecalled the Beer Hall Putsch.Beer Hall Putsch.  The attempted coup failed and Hitler was triedThe attempted coup failed and Hitler was tried for treason and sentenced to five years in prison.for treason and sentenced to five years in prison. He only served nine months of that sentence.He only served nine months of that sentence.
  15. 15. Mein KampfMein Kampf (My Struggle)(My Struggle)  Written during the nine monthsWritten during the nine months Hitler served in prison.Hitler served in prison.  The book set forth his beliefsThe book set forth his beliefs and goals for Germany.and goals for Germany.  He asserted Germans were aHe asserted Germans were a “master race.”“master race.”  He expressed his outrage overHe expressed his outrage over the Versailles Treaty.the Versailles Treaty.  He declared Germany’s needHe declared Germany’s need for “lebensraum” or “livingfor “lebensraum” or “living space.space.
  16. 16. Hitler Becomes ChancellorHitler Becomes Chancellor The Nazis were the largest political partyThe Nazis were the largest political party in Germany by 1932.in Germany by 1932. Conservative leaders advised PresidentConservative leaders advised President Paul von Hindenburg to name HitlerPaul von Hindenburg to name Hitler chancellor thinking they could control him.chancellor thinking they could control him. Hindenburg appointed Hitler chancellor inHindenburg appointed Hitler chancellor in January 1933.January 1933.
  17. 17. Reichstag FireReichstag Fire Hitler immediately called for new electionsHitler immediately called for new elections hoping to win a parliamentary majority.hoping to win a parliamentary majority. Fire destroyed the Reichstag (parliament)Fire destroyed the Reichstag (parliament) building six days before the election.building six days before the election. The Nazis blamed the Communists for thisThe Nazis blamed the Communists for this fire.fire. The Nazis won a majority of votes in theThe Nazis won a majority of votes in the Reichstag and were able to passReichstag and were able to pass significant legislation increasing Hitler’ssignificant legislation increasing Hitler’s power.power.
  18. 18. The Reichstag Fire DecreeThe Reichstag Fire Decree  TheThe Reichstag Fire DecreeReichstag Fire Decree abolished civilabolished civil rights protections. The text reads:rights protections. The text reads:  § 1. Articles 114, 115, 117, 118, 123, 124 and 153 of§ 1. Articles 114, 115, 117, 118, 123, 124 and 153 of the Constitution of the German Reich are suspendedthe Constitution of the German Reich are suspended until further notice. It is therefore permissible tountil further notice. It is therefore permissible to restrict the rights of personal freedom [habeasrestrict the rights of personal freedom [habeas corpus], freedom of opinion, including the freedom ofcorpus], freedom of opinion, including the freedom of the press, the freedom to organize and assemble, thethe press, the freedom to organize and assemble, the privacy of postal, telegraphic and telephonicprivacy of postal, telegraphic and telephonic communications, and warrants for house searches,communications, and warrants for house searches, orders for confiscations as well as restrictions onorders for confiscations as well as restrictions on property, are also permissible beyond the legal limitsproperty, are also permissible beyond the legal limits otherwise prescribed.otherwise prescribed.
  19. 19. Enabling Act of 1933Enabling Act of 1933 This act gave the Office of the ChancellorThis act gave the Office of the Chancellor plenary powersplenary powers (powers he could(powers he could exercise without the review of theexercise without the review of the legislative branch).legislative branch). The law gave the Chancellor’s cabinet theThe law gave the Chancellor’s cabinet the power to enact their own laws apart frompower to enact their own laws apart from the Reichstag. Therefore, Hitler came tothe Reichstag. Therefore, Hitler came to this absolute power in a “legal” manner.this absolute power in a “legal” manner.
  20. 20. Hitler’s Totalitarian StateHitler’s Totalitarian State Hitler banned other political parties.Hitler banned other political parties. Hitler created the SS (Hitler created the SS (SchutzstaffelSchutzstaffel, or, or protection squad). The SS arrested andprotection squad). The SS arrested and murdered hundreds of Hitler’s enemies.murdered hundreds of Hitler’s enemies. The Gestapo was established as theThe Gestapo was established as the Nazi’s secret police.Nazi’s secret police. Strikes were made illegal.Strikes were made illegal. Millions of people were put to workMillions of people were put to work building up the military.building up the military.
  21. 21. The FThe Füührer Is Supremehrer Is Supreme  Hitler used the press, radio, literature, painting,Hitler used the press, radio, literature, painting, and film as his propaganda tools.and film as his propaganda tools.  Churches were forbidden to criticize the Nazis orChurches were forbidden to criticize the Nazis or the government.the government.  Ministers were required to sign an oath of allegiance.Ministers were required to sign an oath of allegiance. This was opposed in Germany by Deitrich BonhofferThis was opposed in Germany by Deitrich Bonhoffer and the “confessing church.”and the “confessing church.”  The Boy Scouts was abolished in Germany.The Boy Scouts was abolished in Germany. School children had to join Nazi organizationsSchool children had to join Nazi organizations like the Hitler Youth.like the Hitler Youth.
  22. 22. Hitler Makes War on the JewsHitler Makes War on the Jews  Hatred of Jews, anti-Semitism, was a key part ofHatred of Jews, anti-Semitism, was a key part of Nazi ideology.Nazi ideology.  Jews were used as scapegoats for allJews were used as scapegoats for all Germany’s troubles since the end of the war.Germany’s troubles since the end of the war.  Nazis passed the Nuremberg Laws deprivingNazis passed the Nuremberg Laws depriving Jews of most of their rights.Jews of most of their rights.  Violence against Jews grew. On November 9,Violence against Jews grew. On November 9, 1938 mobs attacked thousands of Jewish owned1938 mobs attacked thousands of Jewish owned buildings and businesses. This was calledbuildings and businesses. This was called KristallnachtKristallnacht (Night of Broken Glass).(Night of Broken Glass).
  23. 23. Nuremberg LawsNuremberg Laws  Prohibited marriages between Jews andProhibited marriages between Jews and German citizens.German citizens.  Prohibited sexual relations between Jews andProhibited sexual relations between Jews and German citizens.German citizens.  Jews were not permitted to hire German femalesJews were not permitted to hire German females as domestic servants under the age of 45.as domestic servants under the age of 45.  Jews were forbidden to display the national flagJews were forbidden to display the national flag or national colors, but could display the Jewishor national colors, but could display the Jewish colors identifying them as Jews.colors identifying them as Jews.  Punishment for violating these laws includesPunishment for violating these laws includes hard labor or imprisonment.hard labor or imprisonment.
  24. 24. Other Countries Fall to DictatorsOther Countries Fall to Dictators Poland: Marshal Jozef Pilsudski—seizedPoland: Marshal Jozef Pilsudski—seized power in 1926.power in 1926. Yugoslavia, Albania, Bulgaria, andYugoslavia, Albania, Bulgaria, and Romania—kings turn to strong man rule.Romania—kings turn to strong man rule. Argentina-Juan Peron is a fascist “strong-Argentina-Juan Peron is a fascist “strong- man”man”
  25. 25. Nazism in the United StatesNazism in the United States  German-American BundGerman-American Bund , (earlier called the Friends, (earlier called the Friends of New Germany) headed by the “American Fof New Germany) headed by the “American Füührer”hrer” Fritz Julius KuhnFritz Julius Kuhn ..  Kuhn was appointed because Hitler wanted an AmericanKuhn was appointed because Hitler wanted an American citizen fronting the organization to make it look like therecitizen fronting the organization to make it look like there were Americans truly supportive of Nazi Germany.were Americans truly supportive of Nazi Germany.  Kuhn was eventually convicted of embezzlement fromKuhn was eventually convicted of embezzlement from his own organization when the Mayor La Guardia of Newhis own organization when the Mayor La Guardia of New York ordered an investigation into the organization.York ordered an investigation into the organization.  Kuhn was arrested during World War II as an enemyKuhn was arrested during World War II as an enemy agent and held in a detainment camp in Texas. He wasagent and held in a detainment camp in Texas. He was later deported to Germany and died in Munich in 1951.later deported to Germany and died in Munich in 1951.

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