Parts of plants containing saponins are used as detergents.
Root of Saponaria officinalis
Aglycone may be of two types;
Dried rhizome and root
Root and rhizome is excised from 3-4 years old plant i.e. which have not yet grown fruit. It is done to ensure maximum sweetness. These are dried in shade for 3-4 months.
Chemistry: Glycyrrhiza contains Glycyrrhizic acid. Upon hydrolysis, it produces; Glycyrrhizic acid 2 molecules of glucuronic acid In addition to this, it contains; Flavonoid glycosides Mannitol Glucose 20% starch Uses: Flavoring agent in Pharmaceutical preparation. Demulcent and expectorant. Treatment of peptic ulcer. Treatment of Rheumatoid arthritis and Inflammatory conditions Sweetener Treatment of liver diseases and liver protection
Root collected from 2-3 year old plant and sun dried.
Active ingredient is Sarsaponin
Upon hydrolysis, it produces;
Uses: Flavoring agent Used in skin diseases Used in rheumatism
Cyanophore Glycosides Upon hydrolysis these glycosides produce “Hydrocyanic acid” i.e. HCN
Bark is collected in autumn and sun dried. Drug is almost odorless when dried but attains strong odor of benzaldehyde after moisturizing.
Chemistry: Active principle is Prunasin. It is formed from partial hydrolysis of amygdalin. In addition to this, it contains; Tannins Volatile oil Benzoic acid Uses: Astringent Sedative Flavoring agent Anti-tussive